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This edition of black Journal reason Black Warrior which explains how crap day is being used as a means of combat. A black filmmaker I look at least as a movie maker exclusive reports from Attis Ababa Ethiopia by our African bureau. But first Congress of African people since 1895. In Atlanta the astrological predictions from this black journal until the next day and a brother in Mississippi claims foul play in Jackson State shooting.
Brothers and sisters this is a new season and black Journal has a new look. I'm Tony Brown the new executive producer and the format you will see has been changed from last year. But our commitment to projecting a realistic picture of the black experience is the same last year with Bill Griese at the helm black Journal want an Emmy on the Rush one award. Not a bad season. We don't know if we'll win anything this year but we do know that we will continue to provide our audience with an honest program about ourselves like drama will continue following these black commercials. Next
time I'm out. Right brother right but they're right. Anybody who will take a stand against oppression has to be considered a warrior.
The idea of black men being warriors or distinguished soldiers or fighting men is always play down the line. One more time I'm taking a sweep the names mentioned the blacks were never oblique so called men of peace. But you don't hear of nectarine in Denmark recently Chuck of Malcolm X because people say black man. Back the esteem of your black woman and a man in the back not only esteem of your women but let the people throughout the world a man you have some power and some place like a man in the true sense of the word
defend himself. I feel that every person who comes to cut I think brings a specific part of himself to the art. I've been very seriously injured in 1957 and I was almost going to do approximately 40 percent 30 degree burns over my body I had approximately 12 operations and I was given up for dead four times that was saved from death for a specific purpose. I came to get out because I believe that my major contribution can be the uplift helping of people to find confidence in themselves.
Since slavery. This is the side he has tried to destroy the black family. One of our priorities is to solidify the father child relationship. We must fully reclaim our manhood. One is more than 15 martial arts develops along with physical abilities the qualities of man the martial arts in a source of that resource the psychological balance to one emasculated like me. It gives him a feeling of intrinsic personal power that gives them a feeling that he knows now that he's a man that is not insecurity frustrated and he can direct his energy. Then since he doesn't have to make the fight for men and women every day he can direct as energy to more useful pursuits. Very
fortunate like happened to me is like this to me is like he is probably the finest kind of without a doubt the finest kind of woman united face that I can give you. How mystical kind of want to do it. Cutie
can be anything to you want can be it can be to total experience of your whole life. The people in my daughter are going to be different from any other dojo anywhere except in the black community in the first place. They have come through a youth where my from the age of maybe 6 or 7 years old they are the most sophisticated children I think willing to survive in a savage an almost unbelievable world. Could I have to say when I say survival is a black woman coming home late at night or some idiot happens to grab a jumper or molest it. We can see that she reduces him to some kid who two or three tops in the school year I want to beat up because he may be small in size or stature or apparently weak. This innocence is also survival which is who you
are and say Hamilton say the Japanese word for teacher writes visually with Japan and with African-Americans by displaying the shield of the defeatist down on the right arm and the black liberation flank on the left arm. I am sensing Hamilton views ferocity as a positive force and uses this to underscore the basic purpose I am of self-defense. I am I find it for Russians he is an innate trait of almost every individual under pressure and I. If you don't think there's any for ushered in a black community. The only reason for the for US city among blacks is because black men are so frustrated that you find that the most murders among blacks are against other blacks because the law enforcement agencies in this country don't attach any particular penalty to one black killing another. But the whole mass of retaliatory
mechanisms are the way to establishment comes down on you if you kill one of them. Now isn't it a fact that despite all this ferocity among blacks no white man in this country in the history of this country has ever been executed for killing a black man. But thousands upon thousands upon thousands of blacks have either been lynched. Murder is you legal or illegal according to which way you figure the lawyer for killing. So consequently you see the different city than whites the blacks have has been carefully chronologically challenged into it into a mainstream way of blacks ferocity is directed against other blacks because of the penalties attached by white society to protecting them so massive and overpowering was the way he made
you. To me today for free fighting is the epitome of the physical training of karate. The courage character and personal commitment that I've been achieved I put to the
test during this physical act of self-defense is mandatory. Sensing Hamilton's feelings about black womanhood very strong he insists they wear a shield to protect their vital organs and lost their woman fell over the line. I am I am committed to curing the family of a black eye and we ask him to describe some of the social ills he must help his students to control. Don't put diction in this country. 50 percent of it 50 percent of it is centered in the city of New York police force the police of the city of New
York approximately 30 34000. The next largest police force in the country is Chicago and so New York's police force is almost triple that of any other city in the country number one. Number two despite that fact junkies batiks and related crimes approximate approximately 70 percent of the crime in this country. Four hundred police are on narcotics if 70 percent of the crime is committed in this country by dope addicts and dope related crimes including pushers. Then why in the name of Heaven are 70 50 at least 50 or 60 percent of the police force committed to the eradication of this crime. Now luckily enough the martial arts is one area where kids who have been under the aegis of a good instructor for some reason or other do not gravitate toward don't
think much. I'm a disabled American veteran. I have five battle stars. I have an honorable discharge. I'm not or ever have been a member of the Communist Party or any listed American organization or any foreign organization that advocates the overthrow of this government. The only thing I can say is that my commitment to this country and to my people total in the extreme to the point where I believe that we must x to pay for the pathologies the sickness the polarization that governs this country. And I'm not prepared to
do it in Africa. I'm not going to let anybody send me back to Africa because before I go back to Africa my point of origin you must take a look at the Winnie is back in Lithuania and the Germans back to Germany. The Chinese back to China to jet back to Japan do you 10 years back to Italy and give this country back to the Indians and then you tell me where I have to go. I'm a force generation American My folks have been here for almost three to 400 years. They were brought here on the fourth draft against their will. And somebody whose parents were immigrants and just came here 15 to 20 years ago is going to tell me where I can go. Time to time people who can answer a lot of questions these are questions I want you to remember. Gratitude to you means only one thing you have to survive to survive in this till your people meet in state of life. So if it comes to saving your life
you must be the one I have to take this home with if I don't like your heart. If I don't train you probably think I have the obligation. I cannot sleep at night knowing I might be the person who contributed contributed to getting you killed. This is a jungle right outside the store. Don't push your truck to motorists pulling everything you can think of right outside that door that you go out of every night. Every state of your life if you not topic and stronger than the phrase you will wind up. I want to know that if you went down you went down fighting. If I ever come up on you and I hear that you're a coward I'm going to be very disappointed if I come up on
anything and I find a needle in your my find you selling dope to get right to be disappointed. I want to know that from you. You and everyone in my deal with you that you had every chance in life and you worked very hard to get everything that you got. So if you want to stand me I am not your friend or anybody's friend in here. This is some miserable job psychologically unprepared for a miserable me honoree cantankerous miserable old man. That's exactly what I am. I don't ever intend to change. None of you can change.
Yeah. If you know she's.
This was the scene at the Overseas Press Club in New York. I see Davis and Dick Gregory with the principals on a press conference to protest the treatment of minorities in America black Journal said a camera crew to cover the event. All of the major networks were present but when the conference began the other camera crew was all union members refused to film my journals nonunion crew was permitted to remain at that point. We became a part of the story we had decided to tell about the obstacles that discovery a black filmmaker Dick Gregory
gets briefed. You know I know who I am. So what we do and we write. This is I mean right here you know a separate press conference was held for Black Journalists. Then we were told to leave when the all white union crews returned and actually in 1951 we were forced to watch from outside world petition. We charged genocide the crime of government against the negro people. We are hoping by them after the press conference we asked Ossie Davis to comment. Well the black you know crew is here to film a press conference that I and the Today show and when I got here to my surprise the Russian woman surprise I found that the other camera crews representing the mayor media in our city refused to set up their cameras to cover our press conference as long as like journalists here and the reason they gave was that like. True I was not about union members. Now it so happened to
black you know crude as a black man and the reason they're not union members I know very well is because they are black. Are you familiar with the motion picture unions have a long history of discrimination in virtually maintaining a lily white industry. Now there is some token representation but blacks are hardly present in the major film unions. Last year when I was in Holland filming cotton comes to Holland here I was in my own neighborhood shooting a story about the black people of the black lifestyle and what what did I have to prove. Very few black people in my crew. It was one hell of an embarrassment for me. Working every day in a black community to show up with only white faces behind me. Finally of course some of the young black filmmakers in Harlem and the like for filmmakers it was a shut out production down and I don't blame them I was on the side you know because unless we fight to get black representation behind the camera as directors as cameraman a soundman is produces we're not getting anywhere. That was I am
how I am I HAVE MY GOD I AM GOD I AM. Oh and
there's another thing that makes a different feel usually to insure success. You have to have whites and blacks to each other so the white community who sees the picture will feel comfortable that the white folks the somebody in the black I am nobody gives a damn about the way they take business instead of saying I am. I think I like the second thing was that the actual people themselves which I think is my skills gave me an opportunity to communicate. I mean you know bunch of strangers you know a friend of mine and we got together we talked about what we should really live. So I got some fantastic performances. And what kind of trick are you trying to play on me.
You know trick ma'am I'm just trying to get a card. Yes ma'am there are some nice looking lady like you. I am. Christine that's why I don't take a take a nap you would think that far out trying to steal my money trying to steal your money. Yeah that's what you want every one of you or you won't. Don't you think I got them for nothing no there ain't no such thing as a day off and all of you. As far as my getting to be a director it was very difficult because black was the in thing then the deflector directors didn't because they weren't doing so well with the pictures they needed and black was beautiful it was a market. So why not let some blacks and help eliminate you know it wasn't difficult for me to become a career. Now what will be different for me
is to remain a director you know. When black no longer commercial appeal. On my marriage right now blackness is beautiful for the white controlled film industry and it's the same story everywhere. Eighty six thousand dollars tick tick tick one hundred sixty nine thousand dollars in three weeks. Cotton Comes to Harlem broken bone time theatre record in Chicago earning eighty five thousand dollars its first week although Hollywood is recognized as a profitable market. Only a very few talented directors have been given a chance story of a three day pass it was one of the first films made by a black man and was shot in France and directed by Melvin Van Peebles. Man peoples has just finished his first American made feature called Watermelon Man. What do you do when you go into a new school you find the biggest kid in class and you live in JOHNSON Right. Well the biggest cat around in the film industry is Hollywood so that's why I want to know about a guy who turns into a brother.
The film success for me before you came out because essentially the most important thing that happened maybe to bring the critics say but the fact that six black filmmakers brought on this film to make you know film techniques. And that's why I said that early film produced by William Greig an outstanding filmmaker was made in West Africa. Van Peebles he had to leave this country to get started in film production. We asked him what holds the aspiring black filmmaker back. Well you know I think what's holding you back basically has been the tradition of discrimination and racism operating within the media on the part of producers top executive personnel of the networks in the
motion picture studios. Actually it was pretty clear to me back in nineteen 52 when I was trying to crack into the industry that it was just a wall of racism and discrimination that I could not possibly penetrate. I thought of going to Ethiopia I thought of going to Italy and I also thought of going to Canada I made inquiries in these three countries and developed that Canada was the best solution for my purposes and eventually returned to the States and was the executive producer for two years. Shall we get an Emmy award for the second phase of the eighteen hundred hours of television programming network programming a month. There's only one shower on the air for this kind of ongoing opportunity.
And coming into being of black producers and black directors and writers and technicians means that there will be a surfacing of subject matter which has more relevance and utility for the black community and I think this is very very important. Yes.
I'm glad I came back. Many black Americans are unhappy about the news reporting on our brothers and sisters in Africa. To combat this distortion decided on an African girl it made black Journal the only program with a permanent roving film crew on the continent of Africa. At a reception in Washington attended by government officials and African in basters that announcement was made. I would like you to meet the journal's executive producer to tell you I do not want to make any type of speech to say we're very happy to and we certainly hope that in the rable to report
to you the most important people of our audience if you're all that we're going to establish in Ethiopia had a person who has been very concerned about Africa at a time when many of us during the era of the negro were not. And I would like to at this point produce to force this is speaking black journal from the capital of the Pan African world burial Majesty Haile Selassie from the southern provinces of Ethiopia to address the ministers of African Unity to the people who are very much the symbol of
African strength. In 1963 31 leaders of independent African States signed the charter of the Organization of African Unity and began to waste their battle against racial colonialism. Today seven years later there are 41 member states of the EU. In his opening address to the Council of Ministers of the Organization of African Unity His Majesty said the oppressive regime in South Africa continued to fire late the impunity and human rights in defiance of the decision of the United Nations and accepted international moral principles. In this context we deplore the recently announced intentions of the British government to sell arms to South Africa in flagrant violation of the Security Council resolutions of 1963 1964 imposing an embargo on the sale of
arms to South Africa. The Organization of African Unity s liberation Committee has a meeting here in Abbottabad. For the past few weeks the work of the division of the victim. But then I forget his Congress as you probably know the organization which launched the first positive action cum brain in South Africa. In one can hundred and sixty on March 21 gains the prize who loves this campaign to great significance when a number of combat drugs where massacre by white fascist soldiers and police shot and longer we had to demonstrate very effectively against the pond's laws because the bus in South Africa is the kind of still often bad deeds oppression in the
country. But this was a demonstration which was peaceful in a way. Seems the people were demonstrating without guns or other weapons in their hands. From the time I ever we learned a lesson about the Mahatma Gandhi way and we resolved to take up for the liberation of our fatherland. It was after that time that we formed the goal which is known by whites as we stand alone. But to the people it means simply the genuine thing the authentic thing. That is when in fact after 1960 we started in a very active way to take up whatever weapons we could find at our disposal to wage a violent struggle for the overthrow of our party to
oppression. We're recognized by the Organization of African Unity and that's why we are in that is about far this important 70 in-session of the African liberation Comegys that African liberation come into being sub committee which is concerned with Cardew meeting he liberates the efforts of the various movements that come from South Africa and other parts and colonial domination. The initiative rather is with us. They are defending themselves against Mali as invisible enemy because they do not know whether the next thing from the liberty to force is going to come from their kitchen. Their messenger boy or their god now who has to serve the white oppressors for the mere fact that ragtag is in Mozambique in Angola in Zimbabwe
in Portuguese Guinea have been able to been no less than a hundred thousand Portuguese foreign troops in those countries to wage wars of agression and oppression there. This is a tremendous achievement that the whole of not two has had to mobilize its forces to support projects that South Africa which was spending at the time of Shabab with only 22 million pounds on head defenses is now spending one hundred and sixty million pounds. Multiply it by that by three to get your millions in dollars. Then time Peter list world not least of all the United States of America itself he's greatly concerned over this new developing relationship between black people in the two continents. But there were little that they can do about it because this is a mutual and emotional feeling that transcends any barriers that have been set up between the black people over the centuries of
slavery and colonialism. Just recently in December when our liberation committee meeting started a visit by a number of students led by three professors. Two of them are originally from Southern Africa and one of them the professor coming from Cornell University who took a very intimate interest interest in the struggle of the black people way down in South Africa as well as took a very acute interest in these programs are for independent African States in trying to consolidate there are independent areas in the world will be involved. But what has struck me even more greatly in recent years has been the cultural revolution
among the black people particularly in the United States other Western concepts the European concepts I want done and I see my brothers in a dish they wear their hair in their church and they speak Swahili. This is the beginning of the end of a long struggle from colonialism and and slavery. All of the African people. No no. And the first Congress of African people was held here in Atlanta in 1895 to unite all African people. But I 270 Congress of African people attracted to Atlanta some of the best minds and most liberation conscious blacks in the world an ideological statement calling for the end of rhetoric and the beginning of what is necessary to achieve Black
Power outlined four major areas. One self-determination control your destiny to self-sufficiency. Support yourself three self respect. Respect yourself for self defense defend yourself. What time is it. What am I missing. What time is it. Just a word of background for those of you who are not aware. Several months ago a meeting was called in the city of Washington D.C. in which better than two hundred and fifty black organizations were invited to plan the next steps which we as a people should take for our real power. And it was at that meeting in Washington D.C. that several kinds of decisions were made. We decided to poll what was the National Conference on Black Power and the International Conference on Black Power
together as a reflection of our awareness of the universal and international nature of our struggle. We decided that we wanted to come to Atlanta Georgia nationalism and Pan-Africanism would be our theme Nation time and labor and for our nation would be our specific focus and building institutions would be our direct mission. Nationalism among black people and an African as a young black people has been largely an urban northern phenomenon. And what this gathering means and the diversity of people who come to it from cities from the country from other countries outside of this one means that this philosophy and this ideology is spreading to too
to the mass of black people in this country. And I think this gathering is significant because it is the beginning of furthering that process of spreading the philosophy of pan-Africanism a national ism among the millions and millions and millions of black people all over the world. And just looking at the people who are here who are young people older people some come from positions of affluence and some come from humble circumstances some come from places like New York City and some come from small towns like Four Corners Alabama means I think that the notion of black unity is spreading throughout the masses of black people wherever we find there are several things that the Congress was not. It was not a race hating anti-white trip by some of the white press reported it was not a perfect atmosphere either but fraught with the frustrations of dealing with some very real and difficult problems. We had no great congress of African people to
discuss if you want to deal with white people or an acai. That is not our problem today our problem and greatest problem facing black people today is a unity of WILL MEAN THE WORLD TODAY. The freedom struggle in Africa is directed to our achieving political freedom. But it's meant to trust completely on these from exploitation. You know Angola we will close them down as surely as I stand here to them pity parties
and their allies. And primary people have been here for more than 100 years. We have contributed here and managed me and we have somewhat disproportionately been one of the premises of Pan-Africanism is that African people and people of African descent organized into independent units to be able to share the burden in other words organizing the power in the program. Therefore if everybody just leaves us congress was an appreciation of our economic power and some of the all around there will be in a position to interconnect that power and then to began to specific programs the nationalists must be on a black mission not some kind of projection off the side of
the Nationalists must be the first nation what a nation the nationalists must make him do. If you want to but the minute you think they are standing you live always. We want to know that we remember according
to the coordinating committee of the Congress the creation of a nation would best come about through the building of alternative political social and economic institutions styled to serve the needs of African people and 11 workshops delegates labored toward the development of strategies collaboration as well as laying actual foundations for institution building in various areas. At the end of four days each of the workshops created a council of 25 Representatives which will continue to work with the current body throughout this next year. The result should be a permanent structure that will effectively work to develop and secure the goal of the Congress black Journal. To take a further look at the first Congress of African people in a later edition. Until then it
was the Mississippi system of justice is yet to bring restitution for the murder of two young men to Jackson State University last May. The incident occurred during a confrontation between students and Mississippi state patrolmen outside the JSC women's dam authority in the wake of the killings at Kent State. The Jackson murders caused a national crisis which resulted in President Nick. This special commission to investigate campus on risk has stated that they opened on the story in response to sniper from the Lawrence a white Mississippi lawyer and a member of the Hinds County grand
jury which investigated the shooting has challenged the credibility of the jury exonerated Mississippi patrolmen on the basis of the sniper theory but the jury acted without any evidence that there was a sniper during the killings. I talked to Larry ran a staff operation in Jackson just the day following the Jackson State killings could you explain in force please about the shooting. Number one you shot from the inside. You can also see the street shooting in this direction back here. This end
of the school year and immediately maybe as a warning. Family of around the nation I don't know but I'm sure they have nothing to do with what will go on exactly the way they are. They would kill two brothers in order to make this situation one that people would be afraid to react or something they would probably kill as many brothers as
necessary in order to keep them from messing with our son. Repression and murder are not new to Mississippi. How long they will be tolerated may depend on what happens here this next school year. Because we want to know what you think. Regularly at this time on the program we will read your letters. You should write my journal.
10 Columbus Circle New York. Since this is your program and you might want to promote it bumper stickers and buttons with the new logo are available free. If you send a stamped self-addressed envelope to the same address 10 Columbus Circle in New York. Well I don't mean August has been named director of the Minority Affairs Office of the National Association of educational broadcasters. He will represent the interests of minority people in public television. Speaking of black TV shows Be sure to watch so another national show and the local black shows in your area. Because we tried to have something for everybody. Here are a few astrology tips until the next black Journal. The primary effect on all of us during this period is Venus turning retrograde on the 20th. Venus affects our money and emotional affairs every fast month. But be careful in dealings with older people. Tars interesting period because Apple with new associates Gemini some fame is yours. But be cool romantically.
Cancer You may be too rebellious against authority after the tenth Leo good time for finances let personal desires wait for a go. Finances could continue to be a source of concern. Think of yourself first for a change. Libra take advantage of new opportunities in your career. Romantic adventure could be disappointing later. Scorpio be careful not to alienate a possible friend. Sagittarius avoid risks and sudden changes. Capricorn work steady. Think about new people in your life. Aquarius. Careful of new romance. Consult experts on money matters. Pisces delays may come. Social life can become boring. Tune in next month for more astrological tips. And now the black national anthem. Load.
Eat good good luck. The whole world was was.
Yeah yeah yeah yeah.
Series
Black Journal
Episode Number
26
Contributing Organization
Thirteen WNET (New York, New York)
Library of Congress (Washington, District of Columbia)
AAPB ID
cpb-aacip/62-qf8jd4q486
NOLA Code
BLJL 000025
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Description
This episode of Black Journal contains the following segments: "Black Warrior," a feature about karate and identity at the Harlem Kenkojuku club, "The Black Filmmaker," a look at racism in movie-making, exclusive reports from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, on the Organization of African Unity, the 1970 Congress of African People in Atlanta, and astrological predictions for the months of September and October. The episode also presents a report on Jackson State University shootings in Mississippi, and begins with an introduction by Tony Brown, new Executive Producer, who explains the show's new format.
Black Journal began as a monthly series produced for, about, and - to a large extent - by black Americans, which used the magazine format to report on relevant issues to black Americans. Starting with the October 5, 1071 broadcast, the show switched to a half-hour weekly format that focused on one issue per week, with a brief segment on black news called "Grapevine." Beginning in 1973, the series changed back into a hour long show and experimented with various formats, including a call-in portion. From its initial broadcast on June 12, 1968 through November 7, 1972, Black Journal was produced under the National Educational Television name. Starting on November 14, 1972, the series was produced solely by WNET/13. Only the episodes produced under the NET name are included in the NET Collection. For the first part of Black Journal, episodes are numbered sequential spanning broadcast seasons. After the 1971-72 season, which ended with episode #68, the series started using season specific episode numbers, beginning with #301. The 1972-73 season spans #301 - 332, and then the 1973-74 season starts with #401. This new numbering pattern continues through the end of the series.
Broadcast
1970-09-28
Broadcast
1970-10-26
Asset type
Episode
Topics
Race and Ethnicity
Rights
No copyright statement in content.
Media type
Moving Image
Duration
00:59:05
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Thirteen - New York Public Media (WNET)
Identifier: ARC-DL-3944 (unknown)
Format: Digital Betacam
Generation: Master
Color: Color
Thirteen - New York Public Media (WNET)
Identifier: netnola_bljl_25_doc (WNET Archive)
Format: Video/quicktime
Duration: 00:59:05
Library of Congress
Identifier: 1833098-1 (MAVIS Item ID)
Format: 2 inch videotape
Generation: Master
Color: Color
Duration: 0:59:05
Library of Congress
Identifier: 1833098-1 (MAVIS Item ID)
Format: 2 inch videotape
Generation: Master
Color: Color
Duration: 0:59:05
Library of Congress
Identifier: 1833098-2 (MAVIS Item ID)
Format: Digital Betacam
Generation: Copy: Access
Color: Color
Duration: 0:59:05
Library of Congress
Identifier: 1833098-2 (MAVIS Item ID)
Format: Digital Betacam
Generation: Copy: Access
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Duration: 0:59:05
Library of Congress
Identifier: 1833098-4 (MAVIS Item ID)
Generation: Copy: Access
Color: Color
Library of Congress
Identifier: 1833098-4 (MAVIS Item ID)
Generation: Copy: Access
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Identifier: 1833098-5 (MAVIS Item ID)
Generation: Copy: Access
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Library of Congress
Identifier: 1833098-5 (MAVIS Item ID)
Generation: Copy: Access
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Library of Congress
Identifier: 1833098-3 (MAVIS Item ID)
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Citations
Chicago: “Black Journal; 26,” 1970-09-28, Thirteen WNET, Library of Congress, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed February 22, 2020, http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_62-qf8jd4q486.
MLA: “Black Journal; 26.” 1970-09-28. Thirteen WNET, Library of Congress, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. February 22, 2020. <http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_62-qf8jd4q486>.
APA: Black Journal; 26. Boston, MA: Thirteen WNET, Library of Congress, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_62-qf8jd4q486