thumbnail of Contemporary revolution in Latin America; Revolution of rising expectations
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<v Speaker>[Announcer intro] The following program is produced by the University of Florida School <v Speaker>of Journalism and Communications under a grant from the National Educational Television <v Speaker>and Radio Center in cooperation with the National Association of Educational <v Speaker>Broadcasters. <v Speaker>[Clarence Senior clip] Hopeless people are practically always helpless people. <v Speaker>The people in Latin America have begun to hope and they have begun to do something <v Speaker>about the problems that they want to solve. <v Speaker>About the things that they haven't liked all of these years. <v Speaker>People are undertaking [ fades to Dr. Borda] if the problems are not solved, if <v Speaker>the institutions and their leaders do not become realistic, accept <v Speaker>the fact and modify their attitudes, there will be a national <v Speaker>disaster worse than what we have witnessed today <v Speaker>I think. The last year has also [ fades to Camargo speaking] the almost unanimous <v Speaker>desire in the hemisphere is to seek more equitable, <v Speaker>more humane and less anachronistic uh forms
<v Speaker>of national life. <v Speaker>If those efforts are thwarted Latin America may well <v Speaker>become a storm of imminent danger. <v Speaker>[Latin music plays] <v Speaker>[2nd Announcer intro] The University of Florida presents the Revolution of Rising <v Speaker>Expectations, the first in a weekly series of recorded documentary reports <v Speaker>on the contemporary revolution in Latin America. <v Speaker>Your reporter is the distinguished American journalist and editor of the Christian <v Speaker>Science Monitor Erwin D. <v Speaker>Canham. [Music fades to children singing in Spanish] <v Speaker>
<v Speaker>[Canham narrates] The singing you hear is of school children in a small village not far <v Speaker>from Guatemala City. <v Speaker>There, but one segment of the voice of Latin America and they sing <v Speaker>unmindful of grim possibilities. <v Speaker>Yet, if the relentless course of present events is not <v Speaker>altered, the overwhelming majority of these children in this first <v Speaker>grade class will never finish primary school at all, and very <v Speaker>few of them will survive beyond his 44th year. <v Speaker>[end sounds of singing children] <v Speaker>But the people of Latin America are determined to change this relentless <v Speaker>course of events, determined to seek out a better way of life <v Speaker>for themselves and their children. <v Speaker>That is what this series is about. <v Speaker>It will examine the nature of the contemporary revolution in <v Speaker>Latin America. <v Speaker>It has often been pointed out that the importance of Latin America to the United
<v Speaker>States is equaled only by our ignorance <v Speaker>of it. <v Speaker>A respected Latin American leader takes this view. <v Speaker>[Leader speaks] And the United States and its fuh and its uh terrible <v Speaker>problems in other areas of the world has uh overlooked Latin <v Speaker>America not only economically, but in uh <v Speaker>in this terrible attitude of not knowing what is going on. <v Speaker>I'm not making any distinction between a democratic movement [Canham narrates over <v Speaker>leader's speech] Jose Figueras, former president of Costa Rica, <v Speaker> a great champion of democracy in Latin America, [Figueras' speech continues] honest <v Speaker>reform, honest and honest uh and democratic social movement. <v Speaker>And who is what? <v Speaker>It is very easy to use the alibi that the picture is complicated. <v Speaker>It is. It does not mean it is not easy to learn overnight about uh <v Speaker>the different pattern or the different picture that each Latin American republic <v Speaker>presents. But it is not so difficult.
<v Speaker>And uh, uh you'll have in the United States, the Latin <v Speaker>Americanists. They're the school professors who know more about our <v Speaker>countries than we do at which proves that it is not the mysterious uh, uh <v Speaker>science. <v Speaker>[Canham] Great social and economic changes have been sweeping the countries of Central <v Speaker>and South America. These changes began as far back as the Mexican Revolution <v Speaker>in 1910. Yet awareness of these events by the American <v Speaker>public hardly existed before the recent critical <v Speaker>doings in Cuba. <v Speaker>Taking a lead from Jose Figueras, we talk to a Latin American specialist, <v Speaker>the Columbia University sociologist Clarence Senior. <v Speaker>He tells us of the nature of this contemporary revolution. <v Speaker>[Clarence Senior] Latin America is one of the many places in the world in which people <v Speaker>are undertaking uh to bring themselves up <v Speaker>to date. Someone sometime ago started talking
<v Speaker>about the revolution of rising expectations. <v Speaker>That's what is what seems to be going on in Asia and Africa and <v Speaker>Latin America. People have begun to hope, and <v Speaker>when people begin to hope that things that have always existed <v Speaker>can be changed then you have the possibility of what <v Speaker>can be called either a revolution or evolution <v Speaker>toward better conditions. <v Speaker>Hopeless people are practically always helpless people. <v Speaker>The people in Latin America have begun to hope and they have begun to do something <v Speaker>about the problem is that they want to solve about the things that they haven't <v Speaker>liked. <v Speaker>All of these years.[Canham] An American who has lived in Mexico most of her life <v Speaker>believes that attempts to inform the American public of the nature of this <v Speaker>revolution of rising hope have failed.
<v Speaker>Anita Brenner, editor of Mexico This Month, speaks specifically <v Speaker>of the Mexican Revolution that was born in violence nearly 51 years <v Speaker>ago. Today, this once violent uprising has settled <v Speaker>down to a program of peaceful evolution. <v Speaker>But to the Mexican the Revolution is still living, still breathing. <v Speaker>[Anita Brenner] The thing that uh that is um difficult to <v Speaker>explain to the American people, the English speaking American people, is <v Speaker>what is this revolution that people are talking about because they hear the word <v Speaker>revolution and they think ah! <v Speaker>Russians. And they don't realize that this is a revolution that <v Speaker>went on before the Russian revolution and has its own roots and its <v Speaker>own philosophy and its own methods and is um <v Speaker>committed to this philosophy of change to keep <v Speaker>up with a greater amount of democratization of
<v Speaker>justice and better spread of the good things of life <v Speaker>in their own terms. <v Speaker>[Canham] But what of the rest of Latin America? <v Speaker>What conditions have influenced the masses, the peasants, to create this <v Speaker>surge of hope? <v Speaker>We asked a Colombian sociologist of the National University in Bogota to <v Speaker>analyze the sequence of events that have produced tremendous changes <v Speaker>in the social and economic structure of his country. <v Speaker>Dr. Orlando Fals Borda explains that a technical revolution <v Speaker>in transportation and communication was a major factor. <v Speaker>[Dr. Borda] One of the first innovations was the airplane <v Speaker>and uh all communications, innovations <v Speaker>which came later. <v Speaker>This revolution in communication started to break up the <v Speaker>internal isolation of the country so that this country
<v Speaker>was more uh a nation, a united nation <v Speaker>than before. <v Speaker>Then came city growth with all its social and economic implications. <v Speaker>This growth has been mostly industrial course, but in the last <v Speaker>few years it has also reflected the political insecurity of the rural <v Speaker>areas. <v Speaker>[Canham] The phenomenal growth of Colombian cities and industry since 1930 <v Speaker>has resulted in the appearance of a new urban middle class, a group that received <v Speaker>its prestige mainly from financial standing rather than traditional social <v Speaker>rank. Meanwhile, life continued in the rural areas <v Speaker>much as it had in the past. <v Speaker>News of what was happening in the cities, however, began a trickle back over the new, <v Speaker>improved highways and in the automobiles and on the passenger cars of trains that <v Speaker>are being used more and more every day. <v Speaker>The peasants soon began to feel the new forces.
<v Speaker>Dr. Fals Borda describes the effect of modern transportation and communication <v Speaker>on the peasants. <v Speaker>[Dr. Borda] They began to sense that their world was not, after all, the best of all <v Speaker>possible worlds. [Train whistle in background] With more contacts <v Speaker>than these peasants felt, the new impulse to modify the the situation <v Speaker>as it was. <v Speaker>And to seek seek explanations of the things [clears throat] <v Speaker>as they were. <v Speaker>Especially the relationship between the landlord and the agricultural worker <v Speaker>with knowledge of this urban world, then these basins started to <v Speaker>abandon their traditional conservative values. <v Speaker>And their standard of living, of course, rose, too. <v Speaker>They started to make new demands on the traditional institutions such <v Speaker>as the church, the government, the school.
<v Speaker>This was, I think, the beginning of the crisis which we now face. <v Speaker>That the national institutions of major influence <v Speaker>somehow found themselves unable and sometimes unwilling <v Speaker>to accept the change that was taking place, thus <v Speaker>failing to answer to the needs of the people. <v Speaker>And consequently, many aspirations of the people had been worked. <v Speaker>Causing tensions, dissatisfactions and internal warfare, that <v Speaker>means the-the uh lens here, as we call it. <v Speaker>If the problems are not solved, if the institutions and their <v Speaker>leaders do not become realistic, accept the facts <v Speaker>and modify their attitudes, there will be a national disaster <v Speaker>worse than what we have witnessed today I think. <v Speaker> [Canham] Foremost among the many aspirations of the masses in
<v Speaker>Latin America is the yearning for land reform. <v Speaker>Statistics fall short of telling the whole story, but they serve to indicate the <v Speaker>immensity of the problem. In Venezuela, 3 percent of all the land owners <v Speaker>own 90 percent of the land. <v Speaker>In Chile, 2 percent of the landowners own 52 percent of the available <v Speaker>farmland. Fidel Castro used land reform as a rallying point <v Speaker>for his revolution in Cuba. Competing with the demagog in their concern with this issue <v Speaker>are responsible leaders all over Latin America. <v Speaker>A leader of the Brazilian Labor Party, Oswaldo Lima, tells of the working <v Speaker>conditions of the agricultural worker. <v Speaker> <v Speaker>[Lima][background hum] In Latin America the conditions under which they walk <v Speaker>in her areas is done. <v Speaker>It's to be considered almost slavery <v Speaker>to be true. We have too much big farms.
<v Speaker>Farms with 10,000 acres, with 5000 acres <v Speaker>in that is not healthy for the country. <v Speaker>[Canham] Too many big farms, says Oswaldo Lima. <v Speaker>The technical term is latifundia. <v Speaker>The system in which landless peasants work this land for little more than their <v Speaker>daily sustenance is called the Hacienda system. <v Speaker>Observers see this system as little less than feudalism right here in <v Speaker>the middle of the 20th century. <v Speaker>Many economists view land reform as a necessary first step in the economic <v Speaker>development of Latin America. <v Speaker>Argentine professor of economics at the University of Mississippi, Pedro Teichert, <v Speaker>puts it this way. [Dr. Teichert] Its absolutely necessary that that land reform <v Speaker>take place in Latin America. uh <v Speaker>The forum specific forum depends on the country. <v Speaker>But if any development has to take place in Latin America, land reform has to <v Speaker>take place, which does not mean that land reform as such uh will
<v Speaker>solve all the economic problems of the country. <v Speaker>But it is a precondition for for further development, for further industrialization, <v Speaker>because the land system now uh also eh determines <v Speaker>the social uh structure of these Latin American countries. <v Speaker>The class society is still, still exist, feudalism still exists. <v Speaker>And industrialization progress in education all depends on this <v Speaker>outdated agricultural system that has to be gotten rid of <v Speaker>one way or another. [Canham] Dr. Teichert links this improper and unjust <v Speaker>land tenure system to the problem of education. <v Speaker>What about education in Latin America? <v Speaker>A large group of experts consider it the key problem. <v Speaker>Luther Evans, when he was director general of UNESCO, inaugurated technical <v Speaker>assistance in the field of primary education as one of the pilot projects in the United <v Speaker>Nations aid to Latin America. <v Speaker>Dr. Evans explains his reasons.
<v Speaker>[Dr. Evans] Now, over half of the kids of primary school age <v Speaker>do not go to school at all in Latin America. <v Speaker>And most of those who enter primary school never finish it. <v Speaker>So that the average schooling of the total population <v Speaker>of Latin America above school age is <v Speaker>only one year of school. <v Speaker>That's the average for Latin America. <v Speaker>[Canham] The handmaiden of inadequate education is illiteracy. <v Speaker>And in Latin America, statistics tell the story of appalling waste of human <v Speaker>resources. Only 3 of the 20 countries of Latin America approximate <v Speaker>the literacy standards of Western nations. <v Speaker>In Brazil in 1950, the number of persons over 10 years old who could neither <v Speaker>read nor write was over 50 percent. <v Speaker>Brazilians, such as the noted journalist and encyclopedia editor Antonio Collado,
<v Speaker>are greatly concerned and hope their new president will do something about it. <v Speaker>[Collado] But I'm confident that the new government is really going to make education <v Speaker>its basic point because all the other problems derive from education. <v Speaker>Its impossible that the country should go on developing as Brazil is now, <v Speaker>especially from an industrial point of view and even a sort of superior <v Speaker>cultural point of view like you can see here in our theater and so on, and having at the <v Speaker>same time at the basis this colossal amount of amorphous <v Speaker>masses of people that can't read or write. <v Speaker>[Canham] By now, we can begin to see the highly interrelated nature of the problems <v Speaker>facing most of Latin America. Perhaps no problem is more interrelated <v Speaker>than that of economic development. To University of Florida political scientist Harry <v Speaker>Cantor, teaching on a leave of absence in Costa Rica,the problem is <v Speaker>circular. <v Speaker>[Cantor] It is a sort of vicious circle.
<v Speaker>Latin America is not economically developed enough to provide <v Speaker>a decent standard of living for its people, and it cannot provide a decent standard of <v Speaker>living for its people because these people are sick and <v Speaker>educated uh-uh with very little energy <v Speaker>and they cannot themselves build up the enterprises which <v Speaker>are needed to provide the kind of living that they need. <v Speaker>[Canham] As in other underdeveloped areas of the world, the communists continue to take <v Speaker>advantage of the desires of the Latin American people for a better life. <v Speaker>This communist threat to the hemisphere has never been more dramatically illustrated <v Speaker>than by recent events in Cuba, which happened, as the saying goes, just 90 miles <v Speaker>from home. What appeal does communism have for Latin America? <v Speaker>Herbert L. Matthews, Latin American specialist on the editorial board of The New York <v Speaker>Times, thinks he has the answer. <v Speaker>[Matthews] There is a communist uh threat in Latin America now, <v Speaker>which is rather more acute than it has ever been.
<v Speaker>But, perhaps for a reason that it is not well understood in the United <v Speaker>States. The great appeal today <v Speaker>of communism, especially in Russian and Chinese, of course, <v Speaker>is that they point to their own successes in <v Speaker>a material way in turning underdeveloped <v Speaker>agrarian nations into industrial nations <v Speaker>quickly and without outside investments. <v Speaker>This has a tremendous appeal in Latin America to the intellectuals, <v Speaker>to economists and many ways to a number of politicians and <v Speaker>above all, it is seeping down to the rural areas <v Speaker>where the peasant ,in general, in Latin America lives <v Speaker>very miserably on a subsistence level. <v Speaker>[Canham] Since the end of World War 2, a deep resentment has existed in Latin America
<v Speaker>against the policies of the United States. <v Speaker>The attitude of the Latin American people on the eve of our 1960 presidential elections <v Speaker>is reflected by a student from Peru who was attending the University of Florida <v Speaker>at the time. <v Speaker>[Peruvian student] Well, Latin America basically, once it needs a new deal. <v Speaker>Latin America has heard throughout all this years as the rest of the <v Speaker>world has to. We have heard the advertising made by this country. <v Speaker>That here there is freedom. <v Speaker>There is personal liberties. That here there is democracy. <v Speaker>There is free enterprise. <v Speaker>People believe that they prefer to use that in order to achieve this <v Speaker>political stability, the social justice, the economic progress <v Speaker>that they all want and we don't yet have. <v Speaker>Well, I think that this period of advertising is over. <v Speaker>Now it's the time for action and Latin America is waiting for it. <v Speaker>[Canham] During the election campaign, Senator, then Senator John Kennedy, had pledged <v Speaker>a new Latin American policy.
<v Speaker>On March 13th, 1961 he unveiled his program to the Latin American <v Speaker>diplomatic corps stationed in Washington. <v Speaker>[Kennedy] Therefore, I have called on all people of the hemisphere to join in a new <v Speaker>Alliance for Progress, Alianza Para Progresso, <v Speaker>a vast cooperative effort to satisfy the basic needs <v Speaker>of the American people. The homes, work and land, <v Speaker>health and schools. <v Speaker>Techo, trabajo y tierra, salud y escuela. <v Speaker>First, I propose that the American republics <v Speaker>began on a vast new 10 year plan for the Americas. <v Speaker>A plan to transform the 1960s. <v Speaker>And if we are successful, every American republic <v Speaker>will be the master of its own revolution and its own hope and <v Speaker>progress. <v Speaker>[Canham] Is Kennedy's Alliance for Progress coming in time?
<v Speaker>And is it enough to stem the tide? <v Speaker>Earlier in the year, before the Kennedy pronouncement, Jose Figueras was pessimistic. <v Speaker>He told a University of Florida audience, <v Speaker>[Figueras] I believe that uh unless <v Speaker>our great effort comes under the leadership of the United <v Speaker>States to develop Latin America rapidly <v Speaker>along the Democratic lines, unless this comes, we <v Speaker>are going uh to lose the Cold War in Latin America. <v Speaker>If uh someone had told me 10 years ago, 5 years ago, <v Speaker>that eh Latin America would align itself itself <v Speaker>with Russia and China in a Cold War, I would have thought it was preposterous. <v Speaker>And yet it is happening. <v Speaker>[Canham] A former Guatemalan ambassador to the United Nations sees a slightly brighter <v Speaker>picture. Jorge García Granados. <v Speaker>[Granados] Well, I am not entirely pessimistic.
<v Speaker>Uh I heard Figueras, for instance, who is very much <v Speaker>worried about it.[inhales] I think that uh if <v Speaker>the United States and the Western ehh European countries <v Speaker>eh come to Latin America, where they would will <v Speaker>show in up helping us to develop our natural resources. <v Speaker>If ah we get err, we get better prices for our raw materials. <v Speaker>And if we could raise the standard of life for our people, this situation <v Speaker>could ah be ameliorated in ah in a certain <v Speaker>period, within a certain period of a few years. <v Speaker>[Canham] A more urgent view from the president of Colombia, Alberto Lleras Camargo, <v Speaker>as he talks of the people of Latin America. <v Speaker>The masses. [Camargo] In their state of backwardness is to be <v Speaker>found the origin, immediate or remote <v Speaker>of the political instability, the dictatorships, the mis
<v Speaker>use of freedom, the violence and all that such <v Speaker>evils that harass our peoples. <v Speaker>Great efforts are being made today, most Latin American countries <v Speaker>to eliminate the conflicts and to do this <v Speaker>without political and social disturbances. <v Speaker>The almost unanimous desire in the hemisphere is to seek <v Speaker>more equitable, more humane and less <v Speaker>anachronistic uh forms of national life. <v Speaker>If those efforts are thwarted, Latin <v Speaker>America may well become a storm of imminent danger. <v Speaker>That danger holds true for the entire hemisphere. <v Speaker>[Canham] To conclude our program, we have invited members of the graduate faculty of the <v Speaker>University of Florida School of Inter-American Studies to summarize what we have heard so
<v Speaker>far. And if they will, to try to come to some definite conclusions about the <v Speaker>revolution of rising expectations. <v Speaker>Here to introduce the panel is the school's director, Dr. A. <v Speaker>Curtis Wilgus. <v Speaker>[Dr. Wilgus] Thank you, Mr. Canham. Everyone who has an interest in Latin America should <v Speaker>keep in mind that these countries have changed a great deal in the past century. <v Speaker>Indeed, in the last a 135 years since independence, many of the problems <v Speaker>of today have been inherited from the past. <v Speaker>Historically speaking, some of these problems go back to the 16th century. <v Speaker>Over the years, the people of Latin America have been concerned largely and trying to <v Speaker>stay alive. But frequently the national economy has failed them <v Speaker>with unfortunate national and international consequences. <v Speaker>Joining me today are Robert W. Bradberry, professor of Latin American economics, <v Speaker>and Larry Nelson, visiting professor of Latin American sociology. <v Speaker>Dr. Bradberry, as an economist, what do you think about these economic problems?
<v Speaker>[Dr. Bradberry] Latin America and again, of course, this is a matter of not realizing <v Speaker>that there are 20 countries involved here so that the rates are different. <v Speaker>But Latin America as a whole is the fastest growing region of the world. <v Speaker>As an economist, I would say that Latin America <v Speaker>wants to increase its standard of living. <v Speaker>Standard of living goes up if its production increases more rapidly than <v Speaker>its population. It goes down if its production increase <v Speaker>is less rapidly than the increase in population. <v Speaker>With this great increase, this very rapid increase, we're a little bit in the way <v Speaker>of Alice in Wonderland. You have to run faster in order to stay at the same place. <v Speaker>This then has given rise to the great movements throughout Latin America <v Speaker>looking toward increased production. <v Speaker>Dr. Nelson, as a sociologist, what do you think is the most important problem in
<v Speaker>Latin America? <v Speaker>[Dr. Nelson] Well, one of the very important one uh is part of this <v Speaker>heritage from uh the earlier period, and I referred <v Speaker>to the dual class system in which there was an elite uh <v Speaker>few and uh a great uh mass of the lower class. <v Speaker>Often in these countries it is related also to the um uh <v Speaker>to the racial composition of the native population <v Speaker>,usually is uh on a lower plane, part of the <v Speaker>lower class. That the elitists almost always a uh a <v Speaker>group that uh descend directly from uh from Spanish blood <v Speaker>or Portuguese, as the case may be. <v Speaker>This uh duel class system in which that one governs <v Speaker>and the other works uh makes it rather difficult, <v Speaker>has made it always very, very difficult to bring about needed reforms.
<v Speaker>So much responsibility rests upon the elite who are reluctant to <v Speaker>make any concessions until they're forced to do so. <v Speaker>So the class system, it seems to me, is one of the one of the big impediments <v Speaker>to bringing about social evolution. Uh but now the thing is <v Speaker>becoming urgent. <v Speaker>[Canham] Yes, absolutely. The um countries of Latin America are looking at both <v Speaker>the United States and Russia as examples of economies that have <v Speaker>developed through industrialization. <v Speaker>And they're going to follow one or the other. <v Speaker>It's a question which one is most attractive uh <v Speaker>as a means of improvement. <v Speaker>And so we are facing a conflict of ideology <v Speaker>throughout Latin America. <v Speaker>Thank you, gentlemen. <v Speaker>For the past half hour, we've been reporting on the revolution of rising <v Speaker>expectations, a product of the contemporary revolution in Latin America.
<v Speaker>[Latin music] <v Speaker>[Announcer] The Revolution of Rising Expectations is the first in a series of weekly <v Speaker>documentary reports on the contemporary revolution in Latin America. <v Speaker>The program was narrated by the distinguished American journalist and editor of the <v Speaker>Christian Science Monitor, Erwin D. <v Speaker>Canham. The series is produced in cooperation with the University of <v Speaker>Florida's School of Inter-American Studies. <v Speaker>[Latin Music ends] You may receive without charge the text of today's program by writing <v Speaker>this station. This program was prepared and recorded by Will Lewis <v Speaker>for Radio Center School of Journalism and Communications, University
<v Speaker>of Florida, Gainesville. <v Speaker>Under a grant from the National Educational Television and Radio Center and is being <v Speaker>distributed by the National Association of Educational Broadcasters. <v Speaker>This is the NAEB radio network.
Contemporary revolution in Latin America
Revolution of rising expectations
Producing Organization
University of Florida
Contributing Organization
University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia (Athens, Georgia)
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Episode Description
This program discusses "The Revolution of Rising Expectations" and how improving conditions in Latin America are spurring its citizens to demand improvements in government, education, and society in general.
Series Description
A documentary series on problems facing Latin America, including panel discussions at program conclusion. The series is hosted by Erwin Canham, editor at the Christian Science Monitor.
Broadcast Date
Global Affairs
Latin America--Social conditions--20th century.
Media type
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Host: Canham, Erwin D. (Erwin Dain), 1904-1982
Interviewee: Bradbury, Robert W.
Interviewee: Senior, Clarence Ollson, 1903-1974
Interviewee: Matthews, Herbert Lionel, 1900-
Interviewee: Lima, Oswaldo, 1912-1973
Interviewee: Brenner, Anita, 1905-1974
Interviewee: Teichert, Pedro C. M.
Producing Organization: University of Florida
Speaker: Figueres Ferrer, Jose_, 1906-1990
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 61-54-1 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:29:06
The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia
Identifier: 61008prr-1-arch (Peabody Object Identifier)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 0:29:15
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Chicago: “Contemporary revolution in Latin America; Revolution of rising expectations,” 1961-08-10, University of Maryland, The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed July 25, 2024,
MLA: “Contemporary revolution in Latin America; Revolution of rising expectations.” 1961-08-10. University of Maryland, The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. July 25, 2024. <>.
APA: Contemporary revolution in Latin America; Revolution of rising expectations. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from