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<v Speaker>[Announcer intro] The following program is produced by the University of Florida's School <v Speaker>of Journalism and Communications under a grant from the National Educational Television <v Speaker>and Radio Center in cooperation with the National Association of Educational <v Speaker>Broadcasters. <v Speaker>[Granados] Small countries have an urgent problem of land reform[inhales], especially <v Speaker>in certain countries like my own, where we have a million and a <v Speaker>half Indians packed in to half of the highlands and who [small noise] have <v Speaker>only about uh three or four hectares, <v Speaker>perhaps less than that per head of family and uh with the trouble <v Speaker>that there are no more lands in the highlands.[fades to Bradbury speaking] <v Speaker>[Bradbury] Speaking of the peasants, we mustn't forget the aspirations of these millions <v Speaker>of them that want to feel that they own something <v Speaker>and land is something which is valuable. <v Speaker>Money isn't so important to them. <v Speaker>But, if they can say this land is mine, they are a much happier man.[Latin music <v Speaker>plays]
<v Speaker>[Announcer 2nd intro] The University of Florida presents the Agrarian Revolution, the <v Speaker>second in a weekly series of recorded documentary reports on the contemporary <v Speaker>revolution in Latin America. <v Speaker>Your reporter is the distinguished American journalist and editor of the Christian <v Speaker>Science Monitor. Erwin D. <v Speaker>Canham. <v Speaker>[Canham] Cry of the world's masses for land reform is not new. <v Speaker>The slogan Land for the Landless dates back at least 30 centuries. <v Speaker>In Roman times Plutarch tells us how the Gracchi attempted a social reform <v Speaker>based on a more equal distribution of land. <v Speaker>Similarly, the desire for agrarian reform in Latin America is no recent <v Speaker>development. Agrarian reform was the rallying point of the Mexican
<v Speaker>Revolution. By expropriating and redistributing the land Mexican economists <v Speaker>point out Mexico was able to achieve economic freedom and social equality <v Speaker>for her people. The Mexican Revolution began in 1910. <v Speaker>Land reform then has been a goal in Latin America for over a half century. <v Speaker>What happens when this yearning for land is thwarted? <v Speaker>Cuba is a case in point. <v Speaker>In 1950, a prominent sociologist delivered a paper at the University of Florida's <v Speaker>first conference on the Caribbean. <v Speaker>Summing up, Dr. Lowery Nelson said, "The grand paradox of Cuba <v Speaker>is the potential fruitfulness of the land and the poverty of people <v Speaker>who work upon it." Yet in 1959, North Americans were astonished <v Speaker>when Fidel Castro and his followers brought about a drastic social revolution. <v Speaker>Now self-described as a "socialist" revolution in the communist <v Speaker>sense. The fact is the cornerstone of Castro's revolution was
<v Speaker>land reform. The most dramatic indicator of the need for land reform in Latin <v Speaker>America is the high concentration of ownership. <v Speaker>Too few people simply own too much of the land. <v Speaker>[Clarence Senior] Venezuela, for example, er has a tremendous concentration of land <v Speaker>ownership. [Canham] A Columbia University sociologist, Clarence Senior supplies <v Speaker>some statistics. [Clarence Senior] 3 percent of all of the land owners <v Speaker>of Venezuela own 90 percent of the land. <v Speaker>In Chile, the situation isn't quite as bad, but it's bad enough. <v Speaker>2 percent of the land owners own 52 percent of all <v Speaker>of the farmland. And the situation is just about the same in <v Speaker>Brazil, where 2 percent of the people own half of <v Speaker>the land of Brazil. <v Speaker>[Canham] Many Latin Americans, as well as North American observers, believe if there is <v Speaker>one step necessary to the continued development of Latin America from a feudal
<v Speaker>society to a community of industrial powers, that step <v Speaker>is successful agrarian reform. <v Speaker>At the nub of the agrarian reform problem is the feudal institution known as <v Speaker>the Hacienda, the large estate or plantation. <v Speaker>The system is very close to the one described in the history of medieval Europe. <v Speaker>The land owner, the feudal lord, is usually an absentee owner <v Speaker>who generally gets his status and prestige from the mere ownership of land. <v Speaker>These estates are worked by peasants who by circumstances are literally bound <v Speaker>to the land. They are born there many times and either cannot or care not <v Speaker>to leave. Before the revolution in Bolivia an advertisement appeared in a prominent <v Speaker>newspaper in La Paz. Ah Hacienda, located on the main highway, a short <v Speaker>drive from the Bolivian capital, was offered for sale. <v Speaker>The hacienda was described as having 500 acres of land, 50 sheep, <v Speaker>much water and 20 peons. <v Speaker>We asked Dr. Raymond Crist, the research professor of geography at the University of
<v Speaker>Florida, to brief us on the historical and geographical background of land <v Speaker>tenure in Latin America. <v Speaker>[Crist] The Spaniards, when they came, found uh Indo <v Speaker>or Indian civilizations that had already evolved <v Speaker>their land tenure systems, and those were based around <v Speaker>village holdings. <v Speaker>The Spaniards themselves, in many cases swept these aside <v Speaker>or superimposed on these groups from <v Speaker>in the in the higher mountain areas between Mexico and northern <v Speaker>Argentina their own manorial or feudal systems <v Speaker>of great landed estates. <v Speaker>These have, in the course of time, exerted a kind of dead hand <v Speaker>influence on the economies of these countries, in <v Speaker>many instances. Furthermore, in relatively recent times,
<v Speaker>there has been a development of the <v Speaker>plantation economy in both in both <v Speaker>cases, the systems of the plantation system and <v Speaker>the Hacienda system have been superimposed <v Speaker>or pushed aside the original Indians <v Speaker>and their holdings. <v Speaker>This has brought about in so many instances, <v Speaker>cases in which the rights of property have been so far extended <v Speaker>that millions of people have been without land, without <v Speaker>enough to live on. <v Speaker>And with the result [high pitched noise] that in the course of time they have demanded <v Speaker>what they think is an inalienable right, namely the right to land, <v Speaker>which they can cultivate and get the food they want to eat. <v Speaker>[Canham] Hand-in-hand with
<v Speaker>the problem of the ownership of too much land is the ownership of too little land. <v Speaker>The urgency for redistribution of land as well as the method of redistribution <v Speaker>depends on the particular country in Latin America that we're talking about at the time. <v Speaker>This is the view of the former ambassador to the United Nations from Guatemala, Jorge <v Speaker>Garcia Granados. <v Speaker>[Granados] For instance, the large countries of South America, even uh <v Speaker>Argentina or Brazil are not in an urgent need of land reform. <v Speaker>They have plenty of land still left that can be occupied by <v Speaker>immigrants. Eh what their problem is more a problem of population <v Speaker>than the land reform. Eh on the other side, small countries have <v Speaker>an urgent problem of land reform,[inhales] especially in certain countries <v Speaker>like ah my own, where we have a million and a half Indians <v Speaker>packed into half in the highlands and who [small noise] have only about uh <v Speaker>three or four hectares, perhaps less than that per head of family
<v Speaker>and uh with the trouble that there are no more lands in the highlands. <v Speaker>There are no large estates. <v Speaker>So we have to open up new lands for them wherever we can do it, <v Speaker>and especially the uh uh difficulties that we <v Speaker>have to give an incentive to the Indians to work to lower lands because <v Speaker>they are accustomed to live in the highlands. <v Speaker>[Canham] So land reform depends upon the country, and it also depends upon the section of <v Speaker>a particular country as well as a particular type of agriculture desired. <v Speaker>Cattle raising by necessity uses much larger tracts of land than, say, raising coffee. <v Speaker>Colombia does both, and Colombia has been writing a land reform law <v Speaker>now before its legislature. When he was minister of agriculture, Orlando Fals <v Speaker>Borda helped to draft recommendations for this law. <v Speaker>We put a question to him. How do you go about writing a good land reform <v Speaker>law that will cover the various regional differences in land and crops? <v Speaker>[Borda] Well, the law should include the most ah, the more general points,
<v Speaker>should include generalities and uh give ample eh <v Speaker>authority to the entity supposed to <v Speaker>implement the law to make these uh regional uh <v Speaker>qualifications or adjustments. <v Speaker>And ah the law now in Congress, in the Colombian Congress, contemplates <v Speaker>such an institute and uh an an freedom to <v Speaker>do perform the law. <v Speaker>[Canham] The problem appears to be not in writing a land reform law, but in getting it <v Speaker>passed in the national legislature, where in most cases the landowners also hold <v Speaker>the political power. Professor Emeritus Frank Tannenbaum of Columbia University <v Speaker>has written that the hacienda has no built in device that will allow for reform <v Speaker>of the system. He points out that in two countries where the hacienda has been <v Speaker>repudiated, Mexico and Bolivia, it was by revolution. <v Speaker>Cuba could be added to this list.
<v Speaker>Professor of economics at the University of Mississippi, Pedro Teichert, puts <v Speaker>it this way. <v Speaker>[Teichert] See that's the problem. Uh it's very difficult because the the ruling class <v Speaker>has been the landholding class in Latin America. <v Speaker>And to and eh to bring about land reform would mean to bring about <v Speaker>a fundamental change, social change. <v Speaker>And the landholding class is not going to give in easily, since that <v Speaker>would mean they would lose political power. <v Speaker>After all, if you pass tax laws to tax the agricultural people, if they <v Speaker>are in the control of the government, they're not going to pass laws to tax themselves. <v Speaker>So it is almost eh, eh required that you have a social upheaval <v Speaker>to dislodge the the landholding class. <v Speaker>Take away the political power from them. Then then you can have a land reform. <v Speaker>But even in a country, even Argentina, with all the power Peron had, he did <v Speaker>not touch the land ports.
<v Speaker>[Canham] Florida's junior senator George Smathers disagrees with Dr. Teichert. <v Speaker>The senator has always had a keen interest in Latin America, has traveled extensively, <v Speaker>particularly in the countries of Central America and the Caribbean. <v Speaker>Here's what he has to say in response to the view that revolution is necessary to bring <v Speaker>about agrarian reform. <v Speaker>[Smathers] I would say that the Fidel Castro revolution <v Speaker>and the communist takeover there in Cuba has <v Speaker>alerted and aroused and awakened most people <v Speaker>of Latin America to the need that is the so-called privileged class who we <v Speaker>all agree up to this point have not done enough for their own countries. <v Speaker>They have taken a lot out of it and given very little back. <v Speaker>I think they are now awakening to the fact that unless they themselves <v Speaker>initiate uh certain governmental reforms, <v Speaker>unless they themselves start paying taxes and contributing to the upgrading <v Speaker>of their schools, their hospitals, their roads, it then
<v Speaker>if they do not do something of this character, they're then going to be thrown out and <v Speaker>not only lose their lives <v Speaker>and their fortunes,uh but their country as well. <v Speaker>[Canham] Guatemala's Garcia Granados is another leader who believes in the chances of <v Speaker>democratic evolution over the prospects of revolution. <v Speaker>[Granados] It all depends on the government that is in power. <v Speaker>If it is a government, a democratic government that has been elected and that in it <v Speaker>in its program it carries a a sound land reform, they can make <v Speaker>it without recurring to the violent measures. <v Speaker>[Canham] Senor Garcia explains what he means by a sound land reform law. <v Speaker>[Granados] I would say that if it is sound I uh and by that paying a <v Speaker>rational price for the property and uh taxing those properties <v Speaker>highly, those properties that are un untilled, there is no social benefit <v Speaker>from that land, that then the government is in the right to buy.
<v Speaker>And that property at this value, that is really value. <v Speaker>I mean by that that land that is not tilled, that is ah worthless, there eh <v Speaker>has can not have the value of land that is cultivated. <v Speaker>So uh I don't think that there would be any difficulty by government to carry <v Speaker>out such a program. [Canham] So far in this program <v Speaker>we have used the terms land reform and agrarian reform interchangeably. <v Speaker>Is there a difference in meaning between them? <v Speaker>We asked a research sociologist at the University of Florida T. <v Speaker>Lynn Smith this question. <v Speaker>[Smith] Yes, I myself uh very definitely prefer the term agrarian reform <v Speaker>because uh whatever measures or endeavors we make <v Speaker>along these lines uh, we are dealing with the relationship <v Speaker>of a of man to land. And in this relationship man <v Speaker>is the ah is the active element and the
<v Speaker>land is the passive uh element. <v Speaker>For this reason, I prefer to refer to it as agrarian reform to stress <v Speaker>the human element rather than land reform which stresses the <v Speaker>passive element [inhales]. <v Speaker>[Canham] Well, under this definition, what is the ultimate objective of agrarian reform? <v Speaker>[Smith] Well, always when I am in uh Latin America, and this now for <v Speaker>decades that I have uh been working in and with Latin <v Speaker>American governments [inhales], I have uh <v Speaker>always accepted and uh and followed a uh a <v Speaker>statement which was made one time by the Brazilian uh Commission on <v Speaker>Agrarian Policy, which [inhales] indicated the fundamental <v Speaker>objective of agrarian reform was the uh the valerization <v Speaker>of the ordinary uh rural man in Brazil.
<v Speaker>Meaning uh to develop the uh human qualities <v Speaker>of the ordinary citizen, rural citizen, to the maximalists uh. <v Speaker>This is the fundamental objective of ah of agrarian reform. <v Speaker>[Canham] Dr. T. Lynn Smith explains the appeal of the demagog to the landless masses <v Speaker>in Latin America. <v Speaker>[Smith] The demagogs are narrowly is inclined to uh to point <v Speaker>to the uh the fact there uh there <v Speaker>are rich uh, productive lands, <v Speaker>frequently uh large amounts of them in the hands of a few proprietors [inhales] <v Speaker>and very large numbers of uh of workers and frequently voters uh <v Speaker>with little or nothing in the way of uh landed property which he can <v Speaker>use, either saying or insinuating uh that <v Speaker>you, the voter, ought to have a a part of ah of <v Speaker>this uh other man's estate.[inahles] A matter
<v Speaker>of fact uh, a great many people this is about the only idea they have of a meaning <v Speaker>of agrarian reform is simply to seize the acreages held <v Speaker>in large estates and to divide them among the uh among the workers. <v Speaker>[Canham] The appeal of a demagog who uses this approach is <v Speaker>irresistible, seems to be, to the landless masses in Latin America. <v Speaker>[Clarence Senior] Actually, one of the bases of the strength of Fidel Castro in Cuba <v Speaker>is the fact that there was a tremendous concentration in a few hands of <v Speaker>land ownership in Cuba. <v Speaker>[Canham] Once again, Clarence Senior. [Senior] And Castro has <v Speaker>been able to get a tremendous following from the landless peasants <v Speaker>of Cuba uh because he has been distributing land. <v Speaker>Now, somebody may say, of course, he's distributing land in such a way that uh the <v Speaker>workers, ah the land workers may not get the land and I would <v Speaker>agree entirely with this criticism.
<v Speaker>On the other hand, nobody else has helped the Cuban peasants <v Speaker>and this man, mad man though he may be, <v Speaker>has offered and is delivering land to the peasants. <v Speaker>[Canham] Castro agents and hundreds of so-called Soviet and Chinese communist technicians <v Speaker>have been stepping up efforts to export Castro style revolutions throughout <v Speaker>the rest of Latin America. <v Speaker>This threat from Cuba has had the positive effect of helping to wake up a few of <v Speaker>the landowners to the urgent need of land reform now. <v Speaker>So in Peru, we see Premier Pedro Beltran, a member of one of the 25 families <v Speaker>who control most of the land, seeking to convince his fellow landowners <v Speaker>that now is the time to act. <v Speaker>The alternatives are to begin minor reforms immediately or face the prospect <v Speaker>of being wiped out as landowners in a Castro type revolution. <v Speaker>But in general, the landowners in Latin America seem reluctant to act.
<v Speaker>[Oswaldo Lima] The great landowners throughout the country are not frightened of this <v Speaker>Castro revolution. <v Speaker>We're in Brasilia now listening to a Labor Party leader who serves in <v Speaker>Brazil's Chamber of Deputies, Oswaldo Lima. <v Speaker>[Lima] There are some areas in Brazil was meant to grow ?inaudible?, ?inaudible?, <v Speaker>live eh two people per square mile. <v Speaker>But in some part of the countries, as that from which I come in <v Speaker>the state of Pernambuco representing in the house, where <v Speaker>these Castro revolution has got a lot of sympathy eh <v Speaker>among the peasants and there, in Pernambuco of course, the <v Speaker>landowners are sometime frighten with their propaganda <v Speaker>of Castro revolution. Cause you know, in that part of country live <v Speaker>a third of the national population of Brazil. <v Speaker>[Canham] Responsible Latin American leaders are worried about what may happen if agrarian
<v Speaker>reform laws are not passed and put into operation soon. <v Speaker>In Bogota, Dr. Orlando Fals Borda wondered aloud what might take place <v Speaker>if the land reform law, which was then before Congress failed to pass. <v Speaker>[Borda] I think it would be a very unfortunate situation because uh <v Speaker>most farmers and uh most Colombians uh have a high expectations <v Speaker>about the passing of this law. <v Speaker>It would be a definite outcome that uh a social revolution could happen. <v Speaker>Perhaps worse. [Canham] On the campus of the University of Florida, the debate goes on <v Speaker>over land reform. Which way? <v Speaker>Evolution or revolution? <v Speaker>With students from 18 Latin American countries in attendance it's not unusual to hear <v Speaker>very frank discussions on this subject. <v Speaker>We listen in on a bull session with 4 Latin American students. <v Speaker>[Student 1] Well the point uh under issue now seems to be whether it is convenient to <v Speaker>go into a radical fast land reform <v Speaker>in Latin American countries or go are a low rate of speed.
<v Speaker>Eh how long have we have to wait to see <v Speaker>some changes crystallize and if they're going to be effective <v Speaker>as a whole? [Student 2] It will be effective. All depends eh the government and they and <v Speaker>their people under education, too. <v Speaker>Well,[Student 3] that's a that's an important point to education. <v Speaker>And you can't educate a man in a period of six or seven months. <v Speaker>You can't change his whole way of looking at the earth and try and change <v Speaker>his psychological relationship between his relationship to the government <v Speaker>and his relationship as a free land owner and his relationship to <v Speaker>the the landlord. [Student 4] Yeah but there is only one way of learning how to play <v Speaker>piano. Start playing it. [Student 3] Yeah. <v Speaker>You have to do it but you...[Student 4] Another radical way.[Student 3] You can't do it <v Speaker>the radical way and I think has proven in Guatemala very, very <v Speaker>effectively. <v Speaker>[Canham] And so the debate continues well on into the night.
<v Speaker>Evolution or revolution? <v Speaker>We've invited Dr. Jose Baquero, professor of economics at the Catholic <v Speaker>University of Quito, Ecuador, to outline what he feels to be an intelligent, <v Speaker>workable program for Latin America. <v Speaker>[Baquero] In my opinion, the time is ripe to take action regarding <v Speaker>a well-planned, well-financed agrarian reform in Latin America. <v Speaker>Land must be redistributed not only because people need <v Speaker>to find a place of their own, but also because the development <v Speaker>of production requires a land distribution to avoid <v Speaker>both lengthy fundio, which leaves large plots of land <v Speaker>uncultivated, as well as many fundio. <v Speaker>Also unadvisable for the reduction of land area to units <v Speaker>too small is economically unsound. <v Speaker>An agrarian reform must be well-planned to cover also
<v Speaker>irrigation, better agricultural methods, diversified production, etc. <v Speaker>and well-financed in order to compensate the legitimate price <v Speaker>of expropriation, not confiscation, without scaring <v Speaker>away either national or international investments, and <v Speaker>to give the new owners a good start to make their enterprises <v Speaker>a success. Good agrarian reform cannot be made <v Speaker>without the wholehearted approval of the great majorities and without good <v Speaker>faith and technical know how. [Canham] To conclude our program <v Speaker>we have invited members of the graduate faculty, the University of Florida's School of <v Speaker>Inter-American Studies to summarize what we have heard so far and if they will try to <v Speaker>come to some definite conclusions about the agrarian revolution. <v Speaker>The panelists are Dr. Robert W. <v Speaker>Bradbury, professor of economics, Dr. Raymond E. <v Speaker>Crist ,research professor of geography, whom we've heard earlier in the program, and A.S. <v Speaker>Muller, professor in the College of Agriculture.
<v Speaker>[Bradbury] Land reform is needed in Latin America because today <v Speaker>we need more agricultural production and the system of <v Speaker>land use in Latin America in the past will not satisfy <v Speaker>the need of today because the Hacienda <v Speaker>system lives, you might say, for itself. <v Speaker>It produced what was needed on that large estate for the people who <v Speaker>live there but, it did not produce food <v Speaker>to be used in the cities which are developing at such a fast rate. <v Speaker>And you cannot have large populations in cities unless <v Speaker>you have large amounts of food to feed them. <v Speaker>[Crist] There's one thing that uh is hopeful in Latin America, and that is that uh <v Speaker>under our point, for we have been giving technical assistance <v Speaker>to try to develop a more modern, market <v Speaker>oriented agriculture.
<v Speaker>This is very important because we know that um since 1945, <v Speaker>in other words the last 15 years, in a good many countries, the <v Speaker>population has grown more rapidly than agricultural production. <v Speaker>In other words, the agricultural production per capita is less today than it was in 1945. <v Speaker>And yet, if we can train these um <v Speaker>Latin Americans in better methods of agriculture, evolution <v Speaker>may bring about a reform rather than revolution. <v Speaker> One of the important things, I can't help thinking in this connection, that one of the <v Speaker>important activities that should be carried out all over <v Speaker>Latin America is a land survey. <v Speaker>There should be a land survey instituted so that people, <v Speaker>the country itself, knew how much uh land, how much national land <v Speaker>it had so that people could figure out how much land <v Speaker>the large landlords had.
<v Speaker>I might say that in many countries this survey has been opposed because <v Speaker>the landlords, who themselves have been the government to a large extent, are not <v Speaker>interested in having it known how much land they have. <v Speaker>I think one of the reforms that uh is taking place but <v Speaker>taking place very, very slowly is an imposition of land <v Speaker>taxes. Historically, the land in Latin America <v Speaker>has been taxed at a very, very low rate. <v Speaker>And this has made it possible to do, as you say, of producing only <v Speaker>on one third or one quarter of your land holding. <v Speaker>The imposition of heavier land taxes would force more of this <v Speaker>idle land into productive use. <v Speaker>[Another voice]Precisely.[Crist] But if those who own the land are the ones in the <v Speaker>government, they are not going to get too energetic <v Speaker>about imposing taxes on their own property. <v Speaker>That's that's one of the difficulties.
<v Speaker> Yes, it is. And that is, of course, one of the hopeful signs of the emergence of a <v Speaker>middle class, because it's when the middle class gets political power, <v Speaker>it is apt to bring about this reform <v Speaker>uh in a peaceful manner through taxation, rather than the violent <v Speaker>overthrow of the whole system by the lower class, the peasants, <v Speaker>demanding they break up all large estates. <v Speaker>[Another voice]Yes. [Crist] And who have nothing to lose and everything to gain. <v Speaker>[Bradbury] And speaking of the peasants, we mustn't forget the aspirations of these <v Speaker>millions of them that want to feel that they own something <v Speaker>and land is something which is valuable. <v Speaker>Money isn't so important to them, but if they can say this land <v Speaker>is mine, they are much happier man. <v Speaker>[Canham]Thank you, gentlemen. For the past half hour, we've been reporting on the <v Speaker>agrarian revolution, part of the contemporary revolution <v Speaker>in Latin America.[Latin music plays]
<v Speaker>[Announcer outro] The Agrarian Revolution is the second in a series of weekly documentary <v Speaker>reports on the contemporary revolution in Latin America. <v Speaker>The program was narrated by the distinguished American journalist and editor <v Speaker>of the Christian Science Monitor, Erwin D. <v Speaker>Canham. This series is produced in cooperation with the University of Florida's <v Speaker>School of Inter- American Studies. <v Speaker>[Latin music ends] [Announcer] You may receive without cost a printed copy of today's <v Speaker>program by writing this station. <v Speaker>Today's report was based in part on material published by the University <v Speaker>of Florida Press. Today's program was prepared and recorded by Wil Lewis
<v Speaker>for Radio Center School of Journalism and Communications, University <v Speaker>of Florida, Gainesville. <v Speaker>Under a grant from the National Educational Television and Radio Center and <v Speaker>is being distributed by the National Association of Educational Broadcasters. <v Speaker>This is the NAEB Radio Network.
Contemporary revolution in Latin America
Agrarian revolution
Producing Organization
University of Florida
Contributing Organization
University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia (Athens, Georgia)
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Episode Description
This program discusses issues of land and agriculture in Latin America.
Series Description
A documentary series on problems facing Latin America, including panel discussions at program conclusion. The series is hosted by Erwin Canham, editor at the Christian Science Monitor.
Broadcast Date
Global Affairs
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Host: Canham, Erwin D. (Erwin Dain), 1904-1982
Interviewee: Senior, Clarence Ollson, 1903-1974
Interviewee: Smith, T. Lynn (Thomas Lynn), 1903-1976
Interviewee: Crist, Raymond E.
Interviewee: Fals-Borda, Orlando
Interviewee: Lima, Oswaldo, 1912-1973
Interviewee: Teichert, Pedro C. M.
Interviewee: Smathers, George A. (George Armistead), 1913-2007
Producing Organization: University of Florida
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 61-54-2 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:29:06
The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia
Identifier: 61008prr-2-arch (Peabody Object Identifier)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 0:29:26
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Chicago: “Contemporary revolution in Latin America; Agrarian revolution,” 1961-08-17, University of Maryland, The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed March 1, 2024,
MLA: “Contemporary revolution in Latin America; Agrarian revolution.” 1961-08-17. University of Maryland, The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. March 1, 2024. <>.
APA: Contemporary revolution in Latin America; Agrarian revolution. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from