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the reaction to all of this is that that's what will lose their political when president in the new law but those who have fallen so we're expecting him to be white portion dealing with the restless people just unprecedented times trees is a crime and freighters doesn't punch they sell music
would be punished in some way so the policy with their with their feelings that are now just finding in city history may at six while many people quite surprised somewhat disappointed some point they just lost my house amazing these sort of white satin the city right right but what he has to say the process
sounds and new governments in the southern states and basically the water park was the wind with what the confederacy with one with one exception important set of activities anyway was exempted from this farm they had to get the social or individual on jobs this basically limits the planter class from leadership of scientology gamble gamble you see is so striking things i think is what is to empower this is mr johnson
right from the reconstruction process he says well you say oh that's me but the idea that the that sort of licensing laws so this is that's right not to repudiate the idea of say well again this environment is to set his parents is that ms salinas they want one because they can't pay back the debt ceiling will
be both in the and it became so all right a complete hogwash they can do anything they want and if so when and what they do of course is they begin this is so black holes voice of the industry the rights privileges thank you the process of the united nation at the civil war is a very complicated and difficult
once before and was joyous the state for staples like the right to vote was certainly has been buying time around the constitution says he's made it easier for loyalist there's a listen to this and we so nice to be here it was the immigration if you
say apparently so it's a very difficult problem and what this is johnson believes reconciliation and reconciliation johnson says african americans are nearly as that was in warsaw president says was this family back to me belinda southern whites for longer than they should basically step aside their rights they're there should not be a barrier to dylan southern whites now that is the united nations we use
african american jobs be easy oh really the problem is african americans they demand jobs one of the reasons that johnson is very clear bicycle one reason says it is
it really was silver ring ting welcome plant as back injuries reconstruction policy you know it's a really close relationship among the rebels in his bones are making a travesty of a freedom there's a lot what it really calls white noises but it also has more freedom
europeans say they are they they are a violation of what the civil war was all about but they only natural for the inevitable arrival of johnson's policies of just getting the white south fried hand in dealing with shane the transition from the engine than what happens with the levels don't really go into effect there and that's how the free europe which has overturned southern wars if they discriminate against blacks the real importance of insurance what white southerners the last few
years this is ridiculous it seems jaw spouses is put back into power the very slave owners very people who live this out into session in the first place and so the republicans face of the letter the president was warned about what what and many universes the fed beginning to johnson's passing means this is npr news and he said the last three years and face that choice for illinois republicans that johnson's thousands and very fundamental orderly
lines was because they put johnson says it was just a big chill on one part of what he believed would be more involved in in the balkans and whistle i'm talking about the whole question of what i was
a kid so i got all of them in a sixty five there are one of the major points based at least among the white population or pass out is will freed slaves were not they are willingly it really lays son was completely convinced that slavery was the only americans were they were lazy nice
but many analysts also strongly anti slavery has safely you what will happen now that there's a three in the free world which is created by congress to sell overseas transition from slippery says if the symptoms that most of the war ends up in louisiana and then you see just to prevent this is that it was true and basically they have this test it says freedom means that work on freedom freedom these hardworking the office or through line this is really so
i read it we're losing jobs that's one of the great ballerinas to the distribution of support the future that it likes to get themselves what would happen to the copper arkansas its final bit like the food crops it's a lot last wednesday to get away with it three men were caught
because this is good you really ought to be lax who were caught rubio lives like the whole mess hall three later say well this is a dispute between me and so i think if they actually i think we he says that he believes that operate as if we live in a society so that there is a
certain boxing movies most northerners want to see the same thing with african americans working in a way more or less equivalent to the way free workers are a little less they'll pay wages the untreated song leave a job that was another job he had a deal with the iranians you create opportunity what were his condition was then and thats really hasn't sort of economic parts of religious people have that sense of the word slavery is the worst is
that it's fear the opportunity to do this is that there is a war i was the ostensible were just laying there isn't working what tradition they recognize date says and you
know as a self definition it would say the radicals on a police the politics of these sphere of abolitionists but these days who was going to pop and malloy and other places like that are the early years of the lessons also under senator from massachusetts ted stevens the congressman from pennsylvania anyway what is that more wealth live with any conceivable little that game when they were doing that
they would start looking for that stevens had walked out of the pennsylvania convention of eighty percent is that right is this during the civil war they will wear on platforms for issuing emancipation proclamation as the house government and now when the war ends there is a thousand last operations at this as an opportunity to recreate an interracial democracy from his satirical view and every chinese john adams about what the practice happen is that they have a house at simon this
chaos and people unsure what to do and a time when republicans think johnson's policies not working the riders circle here because they don't like them they don't agree with the latest surgeries for policy a lot of this is that they don't want to do that republicans don't know the old one in his words in terms of how the idea of security land to the former slaves is fortified songwriter but even they are not really very enthusiastic of that policy the number most associated with is that since
the carter presidency and says this is the way vivian salama the freedom of these events this place and play with our seasons bill says if they settled on this their other radicals like some who say really the key issue is really civil rights lawsuit walkman this episode oh there is that there are a majority in favor of mosul is either yes african americans should get land but they hit it why working hard humility this is moving up slowly just as laura and eventually they'll be able to buy this is what i
believe in the government and we won south whereas if you're in massachusetts that divide up this factory among there that want to work as a president which remained on established that there's no directions ago you didn't tell is that you want to at least was the talk about the government promised last week acres of land in you why don't we it is
we are his muscles well we'll go to south carolina and tell these are false claims that the land is going to do now is to get back to the forest they have the same labor contract workers
these people believe that they are right president johnson promised the government they didn't make it so they are not then they organize the protest at the vacant land a radio station or manifesto which puts a playful and they say they were promised land and they have to go back to work for the owners this is not a condition this be back in and the rules say they really congress' say it is the least the law as well collins says
and that lately whenever and johnson says that congress will provide mac save their own skins or not many white southerners are very few safety of congress the tv on a reformist let's say bastions of slaying the idea governing your own situation and determining race relations in the south without outside of years was sort of a fake among white southerners now see african americans' view of congress for assistance stress field with a lot a lot of white southerners who were afraid that constant contact completely eradicate the steps are they taking to put the black population back under a white supremacist nomination and go to portland oregon
regional wines and so you begin the process of political battle at sixty six as congress as a republican majority in congress becomes more orchestration president johnson they moved to put into the constitution their understanding of what the consequences of the war and as a result investors the civil rights laws there's no guarantee that it will remain a constitutional amendment is a permanent change in the nature of the american system you're on numerous numerous proposals were a menace is numerous ideas of which contains a long debate in congress but in the end what did the man lays out what damage are republicans in congress really is sort of the second civil war at
that weapon at sixty six what is he says what your nationality is fuld says the united states i know jason says he creates is the protection of the law his lawyer says
white now here was that it was this is a fundamental change of the major civil rights actually getting is the argument the concept of civil rights in american society as is passengers now the saints from the wright says pre civil rights at first that it was an airstrike from tripoli on rice's comments justice a laudable now congress feels that it is a jobs jobs jobs we chat about richard wright's boxes and they want the president no say in what discriminate among american citizens so that's across the fourteenth amendment their own laws meant to challenge you and former
confederates this one is he says he has a choice e mail system so this is so this is us then you know it still leaves it up to the states who will americans are very unhappy because it doesn't recognize the
right of states to mystery why yes though is this is the best that at sixty six and they're the best because they're standing while that there's still this vision of a fear of african americans and voter loses is that the hero is the wisest and most republicans at sixty six million say it last it really is so for
people like us for five dollars ohio's lawyers why is that last year so and also here with us it is it's among the white house were
so what is the moderate republicans that is not directly is this legal and you know the beatles he was sixty six who oppose the fourteenth amendment johnson opposes the idea of blacks citizenship he opposes the idea of black civil rights he says any restrictions on the states justices that what they've invented as a radical change in the constitution which is what is this big change it's the
location in their constitutions of the little rhinestones a debate in august and johnson just cannot accept the basic premise of the fourteenth amendment that african americans want to be equal citizens before the law and the debate around this and very intense and very viciously gives a snapshot of rivera but what will be lifelong you this is a very intense world and it suggests people as lazy our state who is a citizen of the united states was prices this is as it no american nationality race is still a very prominent was a lot of democrats will win races aren't
you are writing a line between what i wanted we are not the same sex cannot make a lack of mentors out to republicans or or radical let's say he really is the definition of freedom it's counting the emancipations but if the president is really is that the wall was a race haslett really really good about this is these are the issues that debate on the floor of congress was freedom was the service it was a political figure in the united states it's very rare that the use of such gravity of such importance of the whole country are actually debate in congress that that's what happens as louis suburb of it is the city's decision
allowing well even though or republicans in congress supporting the different factions of boise a very different to the rams this is a step toward the ultimate goal va but it's an important step forward moderate republicans seem to feel that this is a policy civil rights of lives and forced it was lights out that says they can come back into the union in other words they said it was a sporadic at the states in the south they're reluctant to vote on what he meant he says
tests of their appearance has tennessee your muscles a rat possibility i promise the implication is that it also states rabbi and so the moderate speed at sixty six this is the plans the questioning an actor faces what was that rejects authority then the players know what happened before they were going to say to the state's reputation reports the report is in the state's constitution you know what is the success rate republican majority are strolling that no one in the south and johnson's version arizona state of tennessee rejects authority
writes rites johnson and johnson says it so fortunately it does not yet ratified the need because he'd need some southern states support to win ratification but the result of that is that the republicans in congress officially level what we do now so why is it so so you say okay and the violence is real
oh so it's always been rooted in that the rams reconstruction is a job says the president's jobs so this his creative crisis of reconstruction that pushes people toward more creative thinking and why is it really struck an attitude it's just that access is still at sixty six degrees if justice thomas's law that pushes the moderates in the right direction and that pushes them to reset principles that they can use very nervous without it he says
you know thank you yes when the congress we listen to him
and violence is pretty white slaves the war and so eventually get into the reagan eighties basically we want more patients does it actually make the devices justice will say without justice we saw in these villages
but as a military is how many gay activists say is the pork cost of the conventions and also state of tennessee and so this is really passengers is that like some black men who have the right to vote so for the first time into racial democracy will come to the set like you can remain so this case and so in a sense i'm a small number of whites this is richard pryor michael somewhere around ten thousand whites latin music confederacy have the right to vote for the delegates that these conventions taken away from them
ms francis so this is the right way and it's really not let's play this was a missile at a fraction of americans for a job he also mentioned there was also this
American Experience
Reconstruction: The Second Civil War
Raw Footage
Interview with Eric Foner, Historian, Columbia University, part 2 of 5
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WGBH (Boston, Massachusetts)
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In the tumultuous years after the Civil War (1863-77), America grappled with how to rebuild itself, how to successfully bring the South back into the Union and how to bring former slaves into the life of the country. Foner talks about Andrew Johnson and Reconstruction policies, exclusion of blacks and black codes, the radical Republicans, African-Americans appeal to Congress, the Fourteenth Amendment and birthright citizenship, voting rights, Reconstruction Act of 1867 and bringing interracial democracy to the south.
Race and Ethnicity
Politics and Government
American history, African Americans, civil rights, racism, Reconstruction, Confederacy, voting rights, slavery, emancipation
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Duration: 0:46:24

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Chicago: “American Experience; Reconstruction: The Second Civil War; Interview with Eric Foner, Historian, Columbia University, part 2 of 5,” WGBH, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed October 15, 2019,
MLA: “American Experience; Reconstruction: The Second Civil War; Interview with Eric Foner, Historian, Columbia University, part 2 of 5.” WGBH, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. October 15, 2019. <>.
APA: American Experience; Reconstruction: The Second Civil War; Interview with Eric Foner, Historian, Columbia University, part 2 of 5. Boston, MA: WGBH, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from