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because because it is that's the focus of questions about reconstruction in this one hundred percent of the time when we picked reconstruction is one of the most critical moments in americans understand american society at that point one percent less of that song appreciation of the change in american life
that took place during reconstruction reconstruction is really the margins of modern race relations in america was basically signaling fact saying that really the modern conception of civil rights of the national citizenship available to all americans equally regardless of race that is an idea that comes out of reconstruction period was and a constitution in the reconstruction reconstruction is the origin of the modern black community institutions churches schools universities the family structures again since late reconstruction is is really founded begins to restructure is the period in which the malaysian house back together after the civil war and alien nations creating it's not just it's not the whole union from nineteen sixteen simulations mar america it's the
beginnings of an industrial america and really it sets the country on the porcelain very rapid economic development of the later nineteenth of june second so these voices are those reconstructions really the beginning of so much of what we consider essential about american society even today it was a lot of unresolved issues in the marriage and reconstruction in some ways was america's the tactical terms with two basic issue what was the unresolved promise of the american revolution this is a country that was founded i promise
with slavery at its most important economic institution and that contradiction has ruined room and again we're more pervasive as the nineteen seventy one on reconstruction is a tension that has to go back to the audience while but i found for so articulate but not really had to see if this will be a country in decades as we get set for the rest of that proposition dj royce to citizenship while to americans nationality it even tried to expand the use of was that was this way and that it opens up the question of what is going to happen to these four million african americans who are now no longer slaves again enjoy the same rights as white americans the same political rights and civil rights socialist economic rights
what a lot of different places but it's also tried to solve was settled the unresolved questions that the first new essentially in american and that's why it's the first national publication and march to savannah and in a sense of the word because now with the sense
that a lot of the great or less human emotional leeches urine and just says that georgia at christmas at sixty one day just calming march to the sea so this state they destroyed everything or plantations they haven't been rated tens of thousands of slaves enforcing emancipation proclamation president reagan has that support so we did and i'm
sure this is it he's bringing what to the civilian population and destroys their livelihoods and he regrets his lips and so he's fine reis says it's at the end of this more people see any of them aren't working there were no decision will lead military targets civilian targets will be a reasonable to the economy so this is it
this is maurice so in that way well yeah white places i don't know what it is that they know that their minds in the small thousands maybe even a plantation homes in the address that they notice a few waste and so you know this is devastating
moments when lots of people in your generation set in the nation by word war movie in the moscow white so while george serious this is that the one thing about what's happening in washington and the use of the phone or so what is that he's lying before nineteen sixty four
finally the inside libya toward site politicians leaders the president the congress have to turn their attention to the question of the consequences of the war and the reconstruction has to take place and were so congress this very moment is debating the thirteenth amendment to the constitution it does at sixty five and this is about the states' ratification but then it opens up the question of what is going to happen as a result of the enslaved people are thinking about the post war world what is this how
slavery was a total so he says it was this is the later just as the politics this is the race relations will you read from you know those voices creating a post war society choose well nathan uses the language with no school none charity for all he's thinking about reconciliation is it is a foregone conclusion that there is going to be a reconciliation will lease rates second inaugural address one of the most powerful speeches a president uses a famous line now
support on council nation's he's thinking about what kind of reconciliation after forty years of the most devastating violence devastating war in american history you tell yours why this is so because that's the reconciliation and justice one is reconciliation years one is just as they've you know there's this and it takes the tremendous state initiative to try to counsel justice to the sleigh and reconciliation between the white album that's one of the great promise of reconstruction which they
failed to sell the balance will appeal to claims of reconciliation at justice as is just like kind of response to this is a man who was a human you think about what our response watson but what has happened to speak just so chubby st vincent reconciliation they see it today and here's what's on the rest of it is because this is a great way i think of it in speeches that much is true he's from npr news he's blind and some of the ceiling as a detective i guess what it is a more dangerous
going on but what is supposed to be you know the situation is a series of fixes wires and as it is the law one said principles and not keep reacting to president cheney's been with us for a second you know you just give us a snapshot of what the nation and what happened to the nation until one card summons the result of really really about the norton and
loss of life and disavow trump we need to understand that they have experience overseas americans others many others season would be fine what was your release laura moye but this is a celebration of mechanization
what this bill does is to say when war is that when we get what everybody knows this very traumatic event and it is for nations to be when the republicans were now we're going to see a republican which we were born all nations are at people how to creating one legally socially it's election was a whole audience with his friend knew it is a nation in the north of nationalism patriotism of identification the nation say as opposed to local regional and state this
is so you're welcome so you're all levels this is the richest change america consequences for that sort of action for just the second problem with the russian perceptions you mentioned that comes in savannah you've got thousands of both humans we use basically liberating army simply doesn't necessarily seem so his attitudes in an olive oil she is i see
african americans infection and she has many of the racial views of this afternoon at me that points out one civil war his views are racist sherman did not want african americans in his arm rest when we weren't like rented said ok this is the national policy agenda like karaoke helped recruit last year and did not allow black soldiers of the army of the west he modeled the tens of thousands of liberated slaves who followed your unsolvable over a new state they were dragging down the promise of you know of how civilians you know following their weight and she wanted to figure out what to do so they will he says
so security is very destructive race relations it's because of that this is the last
video i don't oh she shows views about last week where white tresses were not uncommon in one sign said we should not use the civil war as a debate between mahler's soulful now very egalitarian so those races races in the war in the north and sent a very steely for warren yes and so he's doing it with what you remember that race that it is about race but anything else happens and they change as circumstances change believe that race last year
the services last eight years had changed many northern whites about race they had you know they become the gallup harris and so the monsters they thought that that service these people planning to citizenship fine gave african americans a claim there is so little the supreme court says he says the united states illinois state
and melissa here when the black soldiers when they come back from service is graceful so races lost as a city we think that's why the civil war sometimes called a revolution the revolution and that's one part of deliberations but there are other parts of the form which really hadn't existed before the word sex in the hands of a very small number of ambitious but now we're saying well these people play this is gravy the land issue that comes up in savannah measurement of african americans
reparations say is that sharon was an african american way didn't you nice one many big issue it'll go up in january at sixty five generals you're in the lab this is from savannah ga to selma both haven't slept southern africa where woody's appeal know slavery and they joseph
four cents they say his black slave is taking illicit later without incident which actually is exactly when we did the wrestler this is stolen way he says it's amazing chaos will support ourselves and not the nomination once and you're worried that we need to have freedom and that's the meeting where you land we will attend we will find ourselves we will support our families
and we will be getting free surely she says this field order number fifty lisa simon marshall for this you don't need it this is the argument in the heart of the region's plantation history in the south and here in the spring and summer of eighty six thousands of light on what really cool sherman way
to fall themselves this is this seems to be the beginning of a revolution in southern line also destruction of slavery itself was wired of the land should become so violent across the whole debate because so many divisions still a question for african americans land is essential to really enjoy freedom the person who is economically and is not truly free and it has limited only two african americans johnson says the same thing that reverses a small hall levy says that plus the person works for wages entire three years of the
nineteenth century america this is economic but lebanese give you the wherewithal to decide to sell their work when they were not the direction a white slave owners lawyers so blackstone is a set of three main or think that lands is that right he's lying he says this is the way
so and here's why it will still be on this side where is that just a sigh you know or do you have a question
he wanted to be it's beautiful well what this is is whether they think for slaves would rather live by themselves in seconds or as he says that among whites and brady says i think we would rather live by ourselves you know and sherman says while this is because there is a prejudice against us that's you this was
a mistake he worries europeans so the termination it weighed in when you know the circumstance what it's worth noting that was the only question that this is actually because of one of the people at that gathering of reverend james the english was a woman set aside it needs work the disease that still gets its big but the notion of what is critical of the former slaves that's what friends telling you when you talk about all the reasons it's moving
and directed or patients or why wasn't long one yes well freedom and many people one of the things the frequent problems access to education most other states so this is the last they realize that education as free society as well as they are so in the economy at the end of the civil war and world war still going on in some areas and that immediately after this explosion of energy to create schools
northern aid society has come down to help create schools the freedom rides time to hire the final building use of energy to create scenes at the schools it's not just our ct this is one of the critical well triple definitions of freedom for what people use the occasion i don't know what one of the ways that african americans first began to get patients in schools created by doing so last soldiers get his view on the cover of a st louis lives more than cancel other areas protect
schools created their vessel the first real people in occupied areas to the south during the war and that it stands out the rate of black institutions egyptians and talk about how well another key elements of freedom as far as the americas the senate is taking for the longest lines before the civil war it was illegal for a black person to preach without wiping president nominate slates of secret services feature what's in a formal institution when the war ends this is wholesale exodus of blacks from biracial churches in the south like some worshippers and for churches and it basically what you're just when they have to sit in the back or
something like that now please be sure since nineteen seventy the message aren't african this is all working in black churches african methodist episcopal that this other denominations that created a black churches one of the signal he says the reconstruction patients the president's day song so this is a crucial exception and creation infrastructure to widen the
circle that who leads a session and johnson so who is ian right and of the way johnson was well why didn't want lew well said johnson was the years for president you are there for the white house we're only as a tailor's apprentice as hugely moved to tennessee a new religious
politics before he was a local official in east tennessee in the us house of representatives sitting there isis is worse a recent ones as well and it is his harvard education my wife's at jost says he was the audience's set of a sassy is the only senator from his cds they may see he refused to go tyson tennessee martin he says he'd rather our lives
better there is and eventually he obviously is yes he was and the new locations and as human rights is possible from this is that the three people just because that was you were probably vice president at his word he says his nomination vice presidents
he was once yeah no real feelings and really johnson was what would have to say just not cut out for this job he just wasn't copy was became he was an intellectually able to take over the presidency in the middle of the greatest crises of the americas in the last war the qualities that lincoln is a politician a willingness to listen to the reforms are going to criticize the village policies are not working johnson's self righteous way he was really the worst forces boss become president
that was you racist when african americans join us yes the conditions in the brooklyn view or you know waiters or make it pretty successful but he saw the civil war he's a pretty live on say happens on
his land he get out of their shows for her worry is available to people but you will under investigation of the island's senate collaboration with a riff on an as he is mrs lancer so here is a guy who takes seriously the idea of landing the basis of freedom and hoping to establish a self sufficient black community on his knees
well this is the issue so so what does the awesomeness who were really has a flow of mirrors onto the stage of history so they just weren't used to slip free agents arrested so in some regions that some forms of war leaders of their respective procedure so disrespected the cicadas will or won't waste why is that in a five state legislatures because the american
producer but they're coming out of various roles alive in slavery and among blacks and setting off the stage of his friends take advantage of the situation there's versions well the book to just can't accomplish as a result of a few sensible and so singular business what goes on inside he created the structure he's the head of that but he's the last fall well they want to be here and ready for school working this
last week one of the places it at sixty five there is the us wants how we're still within days that places that take place the sea on the severity and the arab politicians denounced in a white sleigh we jurors all right so he can't get to do but nonetheless he gives you a window into this impulse which is very common
i mean this has been this became a citizen those another reaches the assistant can still go and how to
sow i'm arun rath it's soft what was he saying where does this country use the world wants it happens on themselves the governor's own government structure with his own way this is like in the white pages asked why
American Experience
Reconstruction: The Second Civil War
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Interview with Eric Foner, Historian, Columbia University, part 1 of 5
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WGBH (Boston, Massachusetts)
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In the tumultuous years after the Civil War (1863-77), America grappled with how to rebuild itself, how to successfully bring the South back into the Union and how to bring former slaves into the life of the country. Foner talks about Reconstruction and its impact on the 21st century, Sherman's March, traumatic moment for white planters, devastation caused by Civl War, rethinking race, Field Order Number 15 for settlement of black families, 40 acres and a mule, access to education, creation of the black church, Andrew Johnson, Tunis Campbell and establishment of black community on St. Catherine's Island.
Race and Ethnicity
Politics and Government
American history, African Americans, civil rights, racism, Reconstruction, Confederacy, voting rights, slavery, emancipation
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Chicago: “American Experience; Reconstruction: The Second Civil War; Interview with Eric Foner, Historian, Columbia University, part 1 of 5,” WGBH, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed July 9, 2020,
MLA: “American Experience; Reconstruction: The Second Civil War; Interview with Eric Foner, Historian, Columbia University, part 1 of 5.” WGBH, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. July 9, 2020. <>.
APA: American Experience; Reconstruction: The Second Civil War; Interview with Eric Foner, Historian, Columbia University, part 1 of 5. Boston, MA: WGBH, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from