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Ronnie Moore is in the studio with me. And I think that while many people may have read it in one form or another about your case Ronnie that the best thing we could do would be to sort of begin at the beginning. You are I believe facing very serious legal charges in Louisiana in connection with an incident which took place. Is it in Baton Rouge. Yes buttonwood. Well that's telling. Tell us about it. Well the very beginning of our struggle and but what took place when the Supreme Court decision on December the 11th was handed down by outlawing racial segregation which we considered sit in demonstrations advocating student demonstrations by overturning the convictions of 16 student demonstrators. I'm a 960. We thought this was a historical very historical decision.
And therefore we wanted to make it tangible in the city of Baton Rouge. And so on December 12 we sent out 150 students from the Baton Rouge chapter of core to demonstrate throughout the city six sitting in everywhere at every lunch cart. There were no there were a few servers. Proud to this we had. We had decided to foster a selective buying program against Americans for advocating segregated practices. With this in mind. On December 13th we had a picket line a test picket line. It is peculiar to us that in Baton Rouge we were not allowed to picket we were asked to move on. But inthe report when James Farmer the national director of corps addressed it rally the police officers in the same state so rounded
the picketers and they were allowed to picket in New Orleans Negroes and white picket but not so in Baton Rouge the same state and so on December 14th. Twenty three students went down to pick at least 12 stores which practiced discrimination and they were arrested. And you were one of them. I was in one of the students arrested on December 14. So with the realization of this being an injustice by arresting these students are the Baton Rouge chapter of core college a meeting on Sunday university campus with several of the student leaders. And I addressed the group that night and we decided on December 15th the day after this arrest we would go down and protests racial segregation and also the own lawful incarceration of these students. We thought that this was our right to redress our grievances but we were very wrong because in
in Baton Rouge Louisiana we have no such right to redress our grievances for this was considered intimidating court officials. And Reverend BLT Cox receiver now you what did you actually do let's let's. Only 7:15. Yes well we went down into Baton Rouge. Twenty five hundred students or more to protest segregation we walked to the courthouse informed on the university campus we form the university campus now this is what University Southern University in Baton Rouge Southern University in Baton Rouge is that a university where both Negroes and whites go or as if it's a say you go to university only it's a negro University. Yes it is. Yes. OK. Now and you left from the campus of that university. Yes and we went into the. Downtown section of the city Baton Rouge to the courthouse. Just to protests. Segregation. And as we moved into the city. And we were surrounded the
courthouse students. Were shot all would tear gas. They met obviously as well I think you I think were going a little too fast but I want to be sure that we get the story to the audience this was an orderly procession. It was very orderly and you had as you were in in its carefully organized so that you were in control of students they weren't just sort of mobbing milling around the place let's please describe it for our audience the students moved out of marching two by two along the sidewalks. They march down Third Street. To Main Street before the courthouse. And when you got to the courthouse then what did you do did you form a simply form the picket line all the way around the courthouse. We didn't follow people like we just. Met before the court house and we stood they stood there momentarily. We sang to him. We prayed and we spoke out in opposition to racial segregation and other ways you were there simply there as a group as a group in front of the
courthouse is there a park or anything of that sort of person that you're blocking the street. There was a parking lot and then the there's a lot of space for the courthouse. I see there was no students no student whatsoever. We might say we could be considered blocking the sidewalk in any way. I see all of the street the tram and you were just there about how long were you there before the authorities moved in. Well that the authorities were there when we came. They were ready for us. We were there about five minutes and this is the time where they shot tear gas to disburse the group. Yeah they came out with the dogs at this point. By the way I might point out that 50 students were arrested that I was arrested on scenic highway for disturbing the peace and my bar was placed at fifteen hundred dollars. Well now again I think that for me at least you are ahead of me.
We had this group of people and they'd been singing and praying for approximately five minutes when the police moved in with tear glass tear gas and dogs. Well did they just sort of attack a whole crowd as a as a group. Yes they shut 43 shells tear gas down. This was to disperse the students from the courthouse and what did the students do. I mean this kind of attack the students. Regrouped after the tear gas was shot and they went to the state capitol and believe received teargas there and so finally about 15 minutes later they began to march back to the campus. Well at the original time when they first attacked the crowd did they arrest anyone at that point or or what were the arrests made later. The arrest was made at this point. They just went in the crowd it went in general to where any of the students are resisting in any active way.
I mean when when people are attacked like that was a line attack the police did they know the students. What they're hearing. Greatly to the philosophy of Gandhi nonviolence that night then chairman of the Congress of Racial Equality but whose chapter. I told the students that if you would go down to our time could we ever strike back. At no time did we ever raise our hand in combat. But we must be willing to suffer and to submit ourselves to the injustice or to what ever make up whatever and when the police attacked them. It was your feeling that in fact this is the way they behave. That's right. Definitely did not. I mean no policeman for example were injured. No police officer whatsoever. I see and then as they broke up this main meeting some of the students proceeded to the Capitol building. Yes. Were you one of those. No I was arrested at that point but I see and the you were arrested and approximately another 50 people besides you were were
arrested. And then what did they do with you. What Well I was taken to jail. Attorneys came down trying to get me out of jail. And after six hours trying at 6 o'clock that evening I was released. But two minutes because I was rearrested and charged with conspiracy to commit criminal mischief I was taken I was taken back to jail. Did this apply just to you as a leader in the situation you had happened to the other youngsters who were arrested at the same time. Well they were they were charged with disturbing the peace obstructing the sidewalks and things of this nature. Were any of them tried and sentenced in any way or were they just dismissed. Well they haven't brought the trial yet. The leaders of course all of the persons who will be politically intimidated do trials convictions and so forth. They're not concerned with the masses. They believe that if we are stopped the leaders of the movement
they could can control the masses through this way. But specifically these other students who were arrested are still under some kind of charge but have not been tried and sure that they're under various charges and they will be brought to trial pending the outcome of our trials. I see now you were then rearrested on this criminal mischief charge where you again put in jail or have you been out on bail. I was put in jail and we all stayed in jail with mites. This is a Southern term. We are. We stayed in jail until February January rather the 4th and you were arrested on the 15th of December. Yes we were. We stay in jail until January the 4th released on a total of sixty four thousand dollar bar. You know this was how many of you. Forty nine because some got out gradually. I nearly 60 from this are the whole group then yes the total bottom of $64000 six thousand four hundred dollars was paid by the National Office of the Congress of Racial
Equality which was the bondsman fee. Might I point out that during the stay in jail we experience police brutality our three officials of course were attacked one being choked and slapped side the face because he requested medical assistance the other being thrown against iron bars because he protested the beating. And one gentleman chairman of the New Orleans chapter of core was attacked and he received a judo chop behind the neck. This particular young man was one who was attacked by the vicious mob in McCall Mississippi. We reported this incident to the Federal Bureau of Investigation. They held an investigation but however they reported their findings in this statement that there is they found no
violations or no evidence of a violation of a civil rights and therefore the investigation was not fruitful in regard to this be disclosing the truth. Who was the person that was involved in the Cole Jurong Smith and the others to David dentals field secretary for core in Mike and myself. Where does Robert Zellner come into this is he under a separate charge entirely He's the one that he was involved in the McComb Mississippi world and and I know was under some kind of charge at that time. Well I don't know too much about Zoners CASE expression McCall Mississippi. But he was arrested in Baton Rouge I think later on in the story we got to his arrest. Our students are released on January 4 and they return to school. We return to school because we realize that the president of Southern University had vowed that he would not implement the directive of the State Board of Education
which had ordered him to dismiss all the students arrested from the university and he was prepared to readmit you. Yes he said that before he would suspend any student he would give in his resignation. And we vowed to him that if you would given your resignation we would stand by you and would stand by it to the extent of even closing the segregated institution of so university and going to LSU Louisiana State University where we should have been in the first place with this at my returning to class. However on January the 15th a compromise was made between the president of Southern University the State Board of Education and the district attorney. The compromise was this will let 73 students 73 students return to the university. However the officials of course must go and so on January 18 we were suspended from the
university. So here we fly we're suspended from the university. So I was in court that day waiting for arraignment ribbon B Alton Cox was standing trial for Clark. I returned to the university where I was arrested on the campus by the request of the university officials. I was arrested for criminal trespassing along with Weldon Rouge vice chairman of the Baton Rouge chapter of Core. We were arrested for criminal trespassing on this day when the piece placed on a $3000 bar and placed back in jail. Let's go over this again. You had already been arrested twice and you were in court for arraignment for your trial. And you left the court room to go back on to the Southern University campus when you went back onto the campus. Did you know that the deal had taken place and that
you had been expelled from the university. Well I'd heard that the student had been dismissed but I had a right to go and pick up the letter I'm not saying it because I just got to keep all the fact yes right. I went back to pick up the letter and to make final arranges with the university. Yes. And the university itself requested that for the third dime you'll be arrested in additional charges placed that they requested I be arrested on campus. This is this is according to the head of the university have anything to say about that ever that day. I understand it's in the newspaper here. You tell me in your swords that day. January the 18th at 12:00 noon the president of the university closed the institution and he was the first man to accuse me of anarchy. He said there can be no communication in a mob situation because the night before the students marched on his house and the students wanted to know
Mr. President why have you changed your decision for at least 15 and now you suspended the students see President Clark was doing the same thing which the national politicians have been doing with with us for a long time. He began to play politics with us just like civil rights and the whole freedom struggle have been the political football of the national politicians. We we talk about our liberals in the north. We talk about our beloved President Kennedy. We talk about the good brother Teni General John and Robert Kennedy but yet we find that these good liberals are complacent right now. Theyre not do what they should about the problem of what it was the response of the rest of the students in the university after this had taken place. Well the students began to began to demonstrate on campus and at this point the president ordered all students off campus on January 18
and he closed the university. Well then what did they do is it still closed. You know the university opened on the twenty ninth of January and the students return to school. But. The students began to demonstrate again and at this time they arrested Dion diamond on campus for leading a demonstration. He was for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. I was still in jail rules you and I were in isolated confinement at this time. Then in other words after your third arrest they just kept you in the house. We stayed in jail for 57 days and isolated confinement on February the 12 and I think this is the most interesting thing about the whole situation. As my attorneys protested excessive bail no writ of papers corpus I was arrested with a criminal Anneke advocating so called the district attorney overthrowing the government of the state of Louisiana criminal Anneke
cares 10 years in the state penitentiary Plus a $10000 fine and if I am convicted in the state courts I will not be allowed bail until the case is fully appeal. Well now how did you get out from under all this. Long enough to get out of the state and to and to do what you're doing now to tell yours. Well I was sorry I was released on bond. Twelve thousand five hundred dollars. March 16. And when do you have to stand trial. Well I'm through to retiring on March 30th for arraignment and my attorneys tell me that the district attorney has agreed to try me on May 28. Well I'm going to ask a very strange question now. What would happen if you didn't go back. What if I wouldn't return then I would be a fugitive from justice. Yes. And this of course would they would put a bench warrant for my recess and I would have to return to stand trial and I would be the butler died bond
completely. You mean in other words they could extradite you the state of California. Yes but would they. I mean has Has this ever been discussed at all with your attorneys or anything because it seems to me if I may say so that. 10 years is a great sacrifice to ask of anyone in this fight and that the authorities in the south appear to be producing more and more serious charges in order to try to do this. And as has any attorney even discussed with you the advisability of not returning him to trying to go on working from the outside will however their turn is. I haven't suggested this to me. I don't think that I would accept this advice if it was given to me and that's why the answer I'm really after you say I want you to tell me why you see the problem is so great to solve and I don't think I would be answering the problem I would be helping you by running away from
it. This has happened in many case that Negroes and the South have left the problem and that's why we are suffering so greatly there. And so I must return to face this injustice and I believe if I have to spend this time in jail and when I would come out at 31 years of age I would start all over again for you know get the point and this is the thing to be in for says because the American people said I live by it permit me to suffer this injustice I Will they began to write to the president of United States and to the attorney general to intercede and to intervene rather. I wonder will the American people do this. Will the American people support the car was a racial equality. This all relation to sponsoring my legal work there. Well of course as you as everyone knows a great many people have participated in the Freedom Rides and so on under core and a
great deal of money has been raised. When when another to try to help the people who went and there isn't any question but what there is support of a sort and really quite quite a lot of support. So the point is what is the situation and what are the chances in Louisiana. Are there any elements of the population apart from the Negro students that are in any way concerned or excited about what's happening to you and the other people into these charges. Well I think that quite a few Caucasian in the south. Are deeply concerned about the injustice. Many of them believe that save a Geisha must be maintained in the south. However they believe in maintain it by legal means. But there are some races like the district attorney and other parish officials who don't believe in fairness. They don't believe in justice they believe in maintaining
segregation by any means. One gentleman from the district attorney said he says you can talk about fairness because you winning he says but in my book there is no fairness when I'm losing the struggle. And are we going to preserve segregation in the south. Legal are legal and this is the General Latta to go I there. Have any of the white students in Louisiana done anything about this that the white students just like quite a few Negro students are Fred of political social and economic intimidation. And so they're afraid to speak out. However we have a lot of underground support from the students. Well it seems to me that in the next month or two you're going to need something besides underground support. I don't want to have any committee has been formed to to to back you in this situation had there been any public outcry
from any section church or or white universities any anything. Only the students are so in California and New York and Washington D.C. have been protesting the injustice. However we believe that Tulane University may speak out because several members of Tulane universities are members of the New Orleans chapter of Core. So they might most like Will Jones speak out in protest. However. The activities of protests and their activities have been halted are handed at the present point due to the fact that a federal judge issued this injunction a permit injunction which prohibits the Congress of Racial Equality or any other group from even holding a meeting in protest of segregation. They said
quote according to the injunction protesters say brigade such as the demonstration on December 15th and such as the picket line. These types of demonstrations were validation of state and federal laws. Imagine is the Fed and this sat on Rouge. This is the 9000 district of the federal. And here's where you're supposed to run all over the state or is it just in just one valid route. The injunction is under appeal but it would take time before the injunction is overturned. But under the meantime we're handicapped because we can even protests our rights and only where we can protest douse from the outside in other parishes in Louisiana. Well do you think that that the students you said that on the original demonstration some 2500 students marched. Are they going to obey this
injunction when your trial comes up and if you were sentenced for example I believe it would be your guess. I believe that the students will obey the injunction. I don't know I cannot speak for at present. I'm not at liberty to advocate any type of mass action in protests. However I think that the students will attend the trial. I don't think that they can arrest anybody for attending the trial. However this book you that one white young lady who came down to Diana's trial was arrested for vagrancy in the coach house. So we cannot we can never underestimate the limits to which the races will go. However at present we have no intentions of valid Nikken injunction because of contempt of court and if we would violate the injunction they could find the national office of court
maybe a half a million dollars or something like this. The organization couldn't afford this. What has Jim Farmer think about all this as the head of the national organization what plans have they nationally to try to break this. Well all they can do now for the national office would be to demand federal intervention. We've been trying to get an interview with the president United States and no one else. You see the problem the United States called in Georgia when Dr. Martin Luther King was in jail you know and said Let King go and one foreign call released Dr. Martin Luther King from jail. But here in Baton Rouge I faced 10 years in jail and if I'm convicted all the other co-leaders in Baton Rouge will face the same thing they will convict him all on. Criminal advocate but we are in significant because the president cannot make a phone call to Baton Rouge and say release revenue be out in Cox. The red carpet must stay in jail until his
case appeal he is 21 months but if I am convicted he will have two news two because he's going to be he's going to be tried again. And so the national office of course concerned about creating more national concern about the problem about who is very ill. Only one thing they can do any better. Sponsor litigation about the farther they can go and secure for us the best lawyers possible. And of course there must be plans on the part of your attorneys to appeal the conviction even if it is made illegal the trial will be in Baton Rouge I take it. Yes the trial under the auspices of what court or city or state or district court the parish court the district court. Yes and then it would go. Have you any idea where it goes from there. It will be appealed directly to the federal courts. Will it be a jury trial. There's a possibility of a jury trial. My attorneys are working on it
but they're in doubt we'll let the jury trial would be of any benefit to me. Maybe I would have a better chance with the Georgia law. So they're considering this. And your attorneys I understand it's very difficult to get attorneys on these cases in the in the south where if you managed to secure adequate legal weld our three attorneys are cool attorneys for New Orleans call Ragland chief counsel for the Congress of Racial Equality by the way may I point out that we are considering requesting at the federal court issued an injunction against the university from dismissing the students. This injunction should be filed sometime this week. So we have been blessed with some good attorneys down our alley attorneys involved negroes know a tiny call recognize a Caucasian. We have quite a few want to and it will come in and assist these attorneys are
usually from the north white attorneys of the South who would like to offer legal assistance free of charge to us. They cannot because of their practice. This is unfortunate because most of our support in many cases may be considered hindered because of intimidation. Weston sir I know that the district attorney knows deep down in his heart that. I haven't done anything to overthrow the government to Louisiana and I believe he knows that criminal anarchy will not stick in the federal federal court. But he's not concerned about whether this is just not for me but he is concern about putting on a sure for the White Citizens Council he's concerned about. Make an example out of me. He's concerned about making other negroes afraid to speak up because they'll be charged with criminal Anikin might have to spend maybe a few years in jail while the case has been appealed and so the point of all of this type of political intimidation.
The general part is to make other people feel full of taking the step of exercising their rights as American citizens. Well we've followed here on the station this whole pardon me situation pretty. Extensively I have the impression that the reaction as far as the officials in the SOL and so on as the resistance becomes greater is getting worse. Is it not. I mean the original. In other words it seems to me that at first in the freedom writers and so on people were getting away with less legal penalties of all kinds and that now they are definitely trying to to make the penalties involved in the expenses involved so enormous that no one will dare venture is that your impression that it is oppression of the
Sonos realize that they are losing and they're doing everything possible to delay integration. They know it's coming but they're going to do everything legal or illegal to do. They are they going to try to overtax us with borrowed money. They would like if they could. Make the Congress a really really quality go into bankruptcy. They would love this. You see and maybe they won't even get one conviction in the federal courts. But the point is that they made us spend $50000 or maybe a half a million dollars in litigation. The point is that they fixed my bar where they had to come up with twelve thousand five hundred dollars cash. This is what there is I understand again that it's very difficult to to get bond in the ordinary way you know Nissans decide to risk C because he has to apply for his bondman license I think ever so many years from the East Secretary of State in Louisiana. So he's afraid to risk taking a stand.
Well one of the things I suppose that the Negroes or the whites in the South who do see what's going on can do is to give money. Even if they can't make a public protest even if they the students can't march on the Capitol building they still can at can help by putting up money as there is there anyone working on this. Well it's purses everywhere. Nothing solved by supporting the movement by raising funds. But in Baton Rouge the injunction for here was us from even raising money for the injustices for advocating suggesting off financing a violation of a state or federal law. Well are they going to go over all of mail is there anything stopping anybody in Louisiana that hires without any courage at all from putting a check in a novel Open sending it to the national headquarters. Well they're doing this. That's what I was one of those if it weren't for the injunction is general but I think that the federal courts realized that the injunction would be in very general but they cannot stop you from
sending money. But the various The very idea we would place in such in an injunction from financing. I believe this as one parish official said. He said running integration is coming but you believe it. Annette I'm doing every damned thing possible to make it so token when it gets here so you won't even know it's here. And this is the feeling of the parish officials down south that are eish that's the word you're using. Well I like to use parish officials because Baton Rouge is a parish where I'm deeply involved in this type of injustice. However the state officials are backing this. You know it used to usually you point to the south and you say well the poor white people of the south or in opposition to integration but the poor white people in the south are no more than the poor colored people like myself. Because the poor people in NO society run the government. The rich people run the
government and the rich people set the laws. You see if the rich people allow the poor white people say in the south to protest the integration of schools then who do you say did this. The poor white people. No because you have offices and all that gov has to do is say arrested. But here we find that the people of this aristocratic class both law often suffer who talk about this liberal aspect of government who talk about equality who talk about justice. These are the same people who are complacent and who fail to speak out against the injustice. Tell me Ronnie. You've been dealing with the students university age in the work that you've been doing and you obviously were one of the leaders in this whole situation there in Baton Rouge.
By and large the Hoenn movement in the south has been based on the Gandhi and nonviolent idea. Do you find any tendency at all among the students to transfer from. It's that I mean there have been a few people who have spoken out and said Well you know if they attack you with blood instruments then that the what you really need is a blunt instrument of your own do you find that that attitude is gaining any ground among the Negroes as the opposition of the authorities gets more intense. Quite to the contrary. We have a few radical groups like the Muslims I think however most students I'm suck at here to the philosophy of Gandhi and even Jesus Christ and even the philosophy which is advocated by the Congress of Racial Equality. And this is the philosophy of nonviolence. We believe that if we're going to
expose the injustice we submit ourselves to it. We don't believe that by striking back. We'll answer the problem. It will only add turmoil to the situation. Are we firmly believe this or that. None violence is not a technique. With us is not a method with us but nonviolence is a principle which we exercise in life daily for instance. When I was coming up and I like to put this on a professional basis up are avoided fights period and because I didn't believe that a man could sell an argument by rolling up his fears and fighting back. He only causes strife from the other party. But if they can they could talk together. For this reason we didn't go downtown and boycott the stores automatically when we attempted to negotiate. You see
if we were to become violent then negotiation would go out the window because no one talks in a war and so therefore we desire not to fight and we will never fight back. I'd like to know a little about you now Ronnie. How did you ever get started at this what sort of background did you come out of what would you have been studying and what were you studying. What were you going to as the colloquial phrase is if you hadn't gotten involved in that racial situation. Well the my vocation my intimate location is the ministry. However I've been attending a segregated school all the days where like I attended a Catholic school elementary school Booker T Washington High School in New Orleans Louisiana. You know I was attending So university until I was dismissed the district attorney point out this and so I think you might be hearing added to our he said if you were born in the shock of that he must have gone to the
law are someone a doctor needs you in speaking out against evil. There was no smart nigger in his work is ever bowing to share there satisfied any this is his attitude unquote. However when they fail to realize that even in their Sygate of schools they teach is Americanism but when they teach is Americanism in a segregated school they must realize that when we go out into the community we want the blessings of our American heritage. Now if they're not errantly they don't realize that otherwise perhaps they'd stop teaching here as well. They're trying to intimidate us. How is this even infringing upon academic freedom in the south. No because there are too many now instructors saying that you cannot speak out on integration. And there's a state law and instructor who speaks out because of integration will be dismissed from his job.
However de laws are state law. However the. One hundred and thirty two instructors or so universities spoke out anyway in protest to the dismissal of the students and the mass arrest. And so for. Well it now there is a source perhaps a support to say the president of the university changed his views and cooperated with the authorities. How have the faculty of the university responded to this. Well they have made this open protests which is the greatest thing in modern times for them to even speak out this is a good sign. However many of the outstanding instructors of the new version who spoke out all the top instructors spoke up. They have an audit to submit their resignation. My sociology instructor was ordered to submit his resignation by June when his contract expires.
And this is true of many instructors. The principal of Southern University laboratory school which is the high school there was ordered to submit in his resignation because why. Because he said that the students had a right to redress their grievances. That's all he said. But you said were you trying to do what you try to indoctrinate those negroes in some type of communistic idea coming down into Baton Rouge protesting segregation. This is communistic in Louisiana. First as one official asked me why don't you plead guilty to sedition which carries five years. You have a better chance. In other words they would like if they could to get you to identify yourself politically instead of the racial. Oh yes that they would they would like this very much. Do you yourself. And again you've had an enormous amount of experience with the students. Do you think. And we're returning now
to an earlier question in a way do you think the students are politically conscious. I mean for example there's this idea about communism. Are there many Negro students interested in communism. You know I find that most Negro students are anti communism. They have reasons to be because we want freedom. Now I want to make this in fact that the time has reached has been reached in America and has come in America when we are more interested in freedom than anything else. The the the hell with American prestige. The American reputation abroad. If America is concerned about its prestige abroad than do something about the problem in the south let us have freedom and we want freedom. You know if they talk about just like the other day yesterday as we were walking a picket line right here in California. One lady walked up and told her colleague Why don't you become American. So here
you see we are interested in one thing in America. That's freedom. And we want it at any cost and any risk but we're going to do it. Our belief this is true. And this is what we want in this remote half. And the only way they're going to answer the problem aside the only way we're going to stop us from demonstrating the only way they're going to stop us from speaking out. The only way we're going to do anything and that is to give us what we want that's freedom. And this what America must do in the hypocritical liberals up here must speak out. You see no long we except this think of the Democratic party adopting this historical platform and they put all of these things on paper and do nothing about them. You see no longer will we accept the national politicians telling the negroes we're going to implement the platform at the same time telling Governor Davis and and the other southerners govern southern governors
The Battle Is Not Yet Won
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Ronnie Moore, the chairman of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) chapter for Baton Rouge, discusses his arrest in December 1961 after participating in a Southern University student demonstration to protest segregation. At the time of this interview, Moore faced a sentence of 10 years in prison on a charge of criminal anarchy and attempting to overthrown the state of Louisiana. Moore discusses the racial situation in Baton Rouge, events leading up to his arrest, the reactions of the students, faculty, and the president of Southern University, an all-black college, his frustrations with liberals, and his belief in the principle of non-violence. COREs 1963 summer voter registration drive led by Moore was profiled in the National Educational Television documentary Louisiana Diary. For information on Ronnie Moore and the civil rights movement in Louisiana, see Adam Fairclough, Race & Democracy: The Civil Rights Struggle in Louisiana, 1915-1972 (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1995).
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Interviewee: Moore, Ronnie
Interviewer: Thompson, Elsa Knight
Producing Organization: KPFA (Radio station : Berkeley, Calif.)
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Chicago: “The Battle Is Not Yet Won,” 1962-03-22, Pacifica Radio Archives, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed September 21, 2021,
MLA: “The Battle Is Not Yet Won.” 1962-03-22. Pacifica Radio Archives, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. September 21, 2021. <>.
APA: The Battle Is Not Yet Won. Boston, MA: Pacifica Radio Archives, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from