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The celebration of 500 years of European contact, which is basically the commemoration of Columbus It is an opportunity for Indian people to tell their story Something that has to be, I think, very important for public people because There are always two sides to the story and that there is not just one way of looking at history but many ways Funding for this program has been provided by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting and by the financial support of viewers like you Additional funding has been provided by the Rockefeller Foundation and the Native American Public Broadcasting Consortium I make my living telling stories
Stories about human life, human tragedy, human drama Living in a place like Los Angeles is so different from the place where I grew up That place that I call home where my people are, my family, my clan And that's probably the reason why I return home as much as I can It's born and raised in this house coming up over here It's so close to the tracks and I remember as the kids standing outside in another house and watching the trains go by
Yeah It's like a red and silver train It's a village where I grew up Played them on these hills, played most of the children here Brings back a lot of memories I remember going to school and being taught that Columbus discovered America A land populated by brutal savages who had to be conquered, converted and civilized In the official version of history, it always seemed better to be white than to be Indian But at night when I came home to my family, my grandparents, especially my great grandfather, would tell us stories and legends
Myths about our past, about our history That began long before Christopher Columbus set sail Before Spain was a nation and even before Christ was born This then is our story, my story, a living story, a story of how public people have survived Also, King Men in中国, part 5 We have reached closes いきな世の中、友が空をお願いします
For example, I found something đây Futsutsutsutsutsutsutsutsutsutsutsutsutsutsutsutsutsuts Here I will tell you How are you? How are you? How are you? How are you? Always tell a story from the beginning That's what Pueblo Elders used to tell us Telling a story is re-knowing the experience This is the way all things have always been It's a little girl, I stayed with my grandparents and they would, you know, she would tell me, you know, long ago tales and she told me that one day two spider sisters came out of a hole in the ground and they saw all the beauty
that surrounds Acoma The Mesa, beautiful Mesa The Pinyon trees Cedar trees All around was beautiful So they went back in and told the Huchan that's the chief of the tribe And they told him, it's so pretty up there why don't we move? You know, up there everything is so beautiful So the Huchan got the the Coco Pele, the Hamptack food player to lead the people out from the underworld into the world we live in All the ways we live When people found a place they wanted to settle
they of course could not do it just by themselves they always had to talk to other animals they had to talk to the rainbow they had to talk to the water spider and say how does this feel to you does this feel like like we've arrived at some place where the energies are swirling and this is a place that we can give ourselves to After their emergence from that world beneath that place called Shabbat our ancestors set off to find the center of this world the middle place of a spiritual landscape It's here that they created one of the most highly evolved civilizations ever known cities like Chaco Canyon
Mesa Verde Aztec and Canyon de Che stand in testimony to a complex highly sophisticated culture Public culture was in formation about the time of Christ and of course it all picked up steam in the centuries between 900 and about 1350 AD when the largest towns were occupied and the most architecturally complex cities were built and the public culture extended from Las Vegas, New Mexico to Las Vegas, Nevada and an east to west range and from Durango, Colorado to Durango, Mexico north to south it was a very vast range There's a story
in Agama history that talks about a place like Chaco Canyon A place called Cush Cuts A place where Agama people migrated from I remember my grandparents going to Chaco Canyon and taking prayer bundles with them and late at night as they were praying My grandma later told me she thought she heard someone somebody singing and not only frightened her but maybe even at the same time delighted her to know that there was still this connection between what had been and what is now
what we're told as children is that people when they walk on the land leave their sweat and leave their breath wherever they go so that wherever we walk the place that particular spot on the earth never forgets us and when we go back to those places we know that the people would live there are in some way still there and that we can actually partake of their breath and of their spirit and that's another incredible source of power Pueblo Life is always close to the earth the traditional homes of stone and adobe the red, yellow, and white
mesa cliffs and sandstone canyons into which they blend this closeness is in the agrarian way of life the link is there between our land and people our homes, our art and our religion it is in the colors of our skin and hair and our clothing and food just as it is in the natural earth and sky all around what makes Pueblo culture so unique is its special relationship to the land the mountains, the deserts and the rivers are not resources to be exploited but our sacred landscape we don't own the land we belong to it the land is part of a ceremonial universe in literally the shrine systems that exist in the center of the community
and around the community and that mountain tops as far as you can see and it defines who you are and where you are now but I think very much it defines the origin as well as the destination, the destiny of a person you can look back to the old members pottery and you see depictions of people and you can look at petroglyphs and rock arch and you see that occurrences in people's lives were being recorded and there is that presence there that really indicates that people are aware of where they came from and who they are and they were leaving images for other people to see each family has their own own designs you know that their mothers, their grandmas you know that this is the way they paint it and so it's you know it's just passed down you know it's just we just keep on doing it
when my mother was real sick I told her that my daughter had called from Phoenix and I told her I said she did a pottery with a parrot design that is one of our oldest designs and I hugged my mother and I told her oh mother you're going to leave forever through your designs I said you know people will always see always see the beauty that you have left with us all all this you have left don't be so sad I said because we will carry on this some of our ancestors moved closer to the real grand
so that their villages of stone and adobe were strung along the river and its tributaries like beads upon a string of water in the west other groups concentrated around desert water sources in Acoma in Zuni and Hopi the movement through the land by the people is very significant and is part of all purple myths it's part of that amulation of movement that was seen in the natural environment one that has always talked about in songs prayers in the movement of the clouds how the rain comes from the father's source and fertilizes the mother earth and then out of that everything grows purple light
before the Europeans arrived and the ancestors of farming and supplementing their farming by hunting buffalo, antelope, deer and because this is a semi-arid country low rainfall they spent much of their time fasting or praying for good weather and other times they spent dancing for more animals during the winter months they have buffalo dance, deer dance so that they hope that more will be available when hunting and season comes around in the forest
and in the forest there are many of them that they have almost almost almost almost almost almost almost almost almost almost almost almost almost almost almost almost almost almost almost almost almost almost almost almost on the eve of the first contact with the European culture the public people comprised of civil 잘못 and civil implementing and civil legislation
but deprived and unised and unisex understands we sawd in our dreams and our dark, nighttime nowines that a white man would come from the south we do not understand what the nighttime knew that these men would take our corn our corn meal our bodies use them throw them against the ground with disdain with disdain for both us and the ground for our place, for our lives it was a bad win against which we tightened our blankets closed our eyes and waited for the win to pass
the win passed but we were left with the men in metal with diseases which rotted our bodies with dying children our nighttime voices warned of more to come one afternoon in May of 1539 in the Zuni Pueblo of Hauiku the Pueblo world was changed forever because of a Spanish myth a dream of seven cities of gold less than 50 years after the voyage of Columbus this dream of golden cities waiting to be plundered drove men thousands of miles of seas of sand and stark mountains ironically the first white man to contact Pueblo people was Estabinico a black slave from Ezimor, Morocco Estabinico was the guide
for Freymarcus the Nesus expedition to find the seven cities of gold because the first man was representing the Spaniards who told Azudis when he arrived that he was representing white men they were following they were more powerful than he was and that they had to obey things that he was asking for and I'm sure he was asking for food for shelter for gifts and probably for women also and in the meantime of slave raids up into the northern part of Sonora where there was many slave raids where whole villages were killed by slave raiders taking all the men women and children and killing all the older men and leaving and taking them into slavery and so they were afraid that he was one of the slaves spies
Estabinico and the rumors of slave raids have long since entered Zuni legend over the centuries the actual events have receded until only faint echoes remain in the stories of giants and magic rattles but then Pueblo history is history through storytelling history through legend history history history history history history or International fighting history history history history COVID-19 history there was a similar
crime crime crime crime crime crime mutta digart crime crime crime
The Zuni treated Estebaneko like any other spy. They confined him in a house outside the public walls. But one morning in May 1539, Estebaneko tried to flee and was killed. When Fri Marcos de Nisa heard about Estebaneko's death, he turned around and sped back to Mexico without seeing the country he called Cibola. His lack of first-hand knowledge did not prevent him, though, from inventing the tale of the seven golden cities of Cibola. Cibola has the appearance of a very beautiful town. The city is bigger than the city of Mexico. And it is the list of the seven cities. There is much gold and the native straight in vessels and jewels. Fri Marcos' lies and exaggeration soon ignited Spanish greed for gold. One year later in 1540, an expedition led by Francisco Vasquez, the
Coronado, came to Zuni to find the treasure of the seven cities of Cibola. Coronado brought with him 300 Spanish soldiers, a thousand Mexican Indians, guns, cannons, crossbows, and warheads. Banners were waiting, armor was shining. Coronado was arriving right at the most important religious period of time. People arriving at the summer solstice for the pilgrimage. When the pilgrims are out on their journey, going to and coming from the sacred lake, nobody must cross their path, because that cuts off the rain, wishes of the people that are performing the ceremonies. As they approach the high breeze, they are very hopeful. Forming the front line, spread a line of cornea, which is a symbol for do not enter now. Do not enter now because we don't want to interrupt our ceremony.
And of course, they did just that. They violated the Zuni ritual taboo. And that was a terrible thing to do, and violence was inevitable after that. Against the peaceful Zuni, European military techniques and weapons resulted in a quick victory. The Spanish, however, were bitterly disappointed. There was no gold, no precious jewels. When the Spaniards first saw the village, which was Sibola, such were the curses that they hurled at the primarcus, that I pray God may protect him from them. It is a crowded little village, looking as if it had been all crumpled together. After hearing about the arrival of the Spanish, the people of Pecos Pueblo sent two of their
most important men, including a man who the world would come to know only as Begotez, the man with a mustache. Begotez led the Spanish on a tour of the Pueblos, perhaps hoping to show Coronado that the Pueblos lacked the gold and the treasures that they sought. Begotez was a war chief, or at least a war captain, and in the company of one of his leaders, very likely a Kaseki, they made plans to go out to Zuni to look into the situations themselves, and Begotez was able to bring them out to his country to show them the place first, but at the same time the idea of the Spaniards was that maybe there was something that they were looking for further east from Zuni.
The Pueblos were not the cities of gold the Spanish sought, but the collapse of the myth of the seven cities of Cebola only made the Spanish ripe for an even bigger lie, the legend of Kivira. Kivira was a land where rich lords drifted along a river in gold draped barges and ate from golden plates. In their efforts to prove the existence of Kivira, Coronado threw Begotez in chains and set the warhounds on him. The Pueblos peoples near Coronado's camp were also learning the true nature of the invaders. Constant Spanish demands for food, blankets, and clothing coupled with a rape of a Pablo woman ignited a rebellion among the Tiva. After the Pueblo of Adenal had been set ablaze, the Pueblo people surrendered of their own accord. As cardinans had been ordered by Coronado not to take them alive but to make an example of them
so that the other natives would fear the Spaniards. He ordered 200 steaks prepared at once to burn them alive. Then when the enemy saw that the Spaniards were binding them and beginning to roast them, about a hundred men who were in the tent began to struggle and defend themselves. Our men who were on foot attacked the tent on all sides so that there was great confusion around it and then the horsemen chased those who escaped. As the country was level not a man of them remained alive unless it was some who remained hidden in the village and escaped that night to spread throughout the countryside the news that the strangers did not respect the peace they had made. The Pueblos of the Tiva were abandoned like so many Pueblos would be in the future. Their peoples pacified by death and destruction. Coronado pushed on to Kansas only to find that Kivita was yet another lie and without gold Spanish interest quickly waned and the expedition
retreated leaving the Pueblos in relative peace for yet another 50 years. Coronado may be a knight or an explorer and a pioneer to Spanish people and to Euro-American peoples in general but from a public perspective he was a disaster. His expedition might better be termed a destructive rampage through public country. Really it was Coronado by behavior who was a savage. So what does the conquered call her conqueror? What name does the victim give her victimizer? What is the proper name of the man who brings a bewildering storm of people, wagons, guns,
strange ways and a cold philosophy of fear into your beautiful peaceful place? What right sound and true image conveys the psyche of the man who wreaks unspeakable sacrilege and does not know he does? The name of the conqueror is not discoverer. The name of the victimizer is not pacifist. The name of the conqueror is fear and death. The name of the victimizer is hunger and loss. One morning in 1598, 400 soldiers, colonists, priests, Mexican Indian servants and Black slaves gathered on the banks of the Rio Grande hundreds of miles to the south of public country. On April 30th, 1598, the day of ascension of our Lord at this Rio del Norte,
governor Don Juan de Oñate took possession of all the kingdoms and provinces of New Mexico in the name of En Felipe. The Spanish who came into the southwest were imbued as were all Europeans of the age of discovery with a peculiar notion that they owned the whole heaven and the whole earth and that any land that were not already occupied by Europeans were theirs by right of discovery to do with as they wished. When the Spanish arrived in New Mexico, they established their first capital in San Juan Pueblo. It was clear that this group of invaders was different from Coronado's expedition. They brought their families, mission supplies, wheat seed, fruit trees, and thousands of horses,
cattle, sheep, pigs, and chickens. The Spanish were here to stay. When the Spanish were coming from the south, I suppose, that was where they were coming from the each Pueblo where they stopped at. They were driven off and then when they came to San Juan, they were on the other side of the river and the people had heard about them being driven off from the other places so they were going to do the same and they had a meeting. But then the governor that they had there then was one who had compassion and he talked to his people and he said, why do we want to treat them in this manner? They have families, they have children to raise, they have to feed their families and we can't be mean. We'll let them stay on and let them raise
their family, let them raise a crop. The reason we'll call Pueblo Indians is because when the Spaniards came through our country, they found our Indian people living in towns and in villages. So Pueblo is a Spanish word which means town or village. They classified as their only classification they knew of course was Pueblo Indians or town or village Indians. One of the first things the Spanish taught the San Juan people was the dance of the Moors and Christians, a dance that celebrated the invincibility of Spanish arms and European religion. Although the dance has changed over 400 years, the Matatina is still being danced in San Juan on
Christmas Day. The Matatina dance is known to us as Matatina and represents Christianity and the main dancer represents the king and the little girl that dances will be a man represents the blessed Virgin Mary and there are 10 dancers and these dancers represent the 10 beats on Rosary. This is how we celebrate the birth of Jesus Christ and he's coming into the Pueblo and basically reminds us that we not only have our traditional way of life but the legacy or the tradition of being Catholic is passed on to the people. ...
...I mean Catholic Church? Have you ever heard of the Eucharist in 키 Hertheism time, time, the time? For over 3 months I see Jewish missionaries to become a missionary. So I see it in Yetzheka. They were, they wanted to Christianize the people here, the tribe here. We have to look also at who were the people who came to settle. Although they were families, this place was not settled by Spaniards who were tied to being farmers, tied to the crafts or anything like that. They were basically people who wanted to colonize and use the invaderable labor source here.
We send people out every month in various directions to bring maize from the poeblos. The feelings of the natives against supplying it cannot be exaggerated. For they weep and cry out as if they and all of their descendants were being killed. The Spaniards sees their blankets by force, leaving their poor Indian women stark naked, holding their babies to their breasts. At Akhama the demands of a small Spanish force led by Onyati's nephew Juan de Zadivar provoked a fierce battle. Pueblo warriors poured out of the houses and killed Zadivar and 13 other Spanish soldiers. When he heard the news Onyati moved quickly to crush this rebellion by ordering Zadivar's own brother Vicente to lead the attack on Akhama. Many of the Spanish soldiers who were there were either thrown off the mesa or were in some way hurt by the Akhama Indians.
His brother came in with the idea of revenge, with the idea of getting back at these people who had killed his brother and hurt so many and killed so many Spaniards. Led by Vicente de Zadivar, 70 Spanish soldiers arrived at the steep cliffs of Akhama and methodically prepared for a European war without water. Against cannons, muskets, crossbows, steel swords and war horses, the Akhama people held out for three days. Vicente de Saladivar ordered the kivas and devine quarters to be set on fire. Many were burned alive in those places, men and women, some with children in arms, others were suffocated by the smoke. Those who refused to surrender were dragged before Zadivar and hacked to pieces,
their limbs, heads, and bodies thrown over the cliff. The Spanish lost a single man while 800 Akamas died, a line of 500 men, women and children were led down from the Pueblo and brought to Santo Domingo to stand trial before Onyate for rebelling against the King of Spain. The mails who are over 25 years of age, I sentenced to have one foot cut off and to 20 years of personal servitude. The mails between the ages of 12 and 25, I sentenced likewise to 20 years of personal servitude. Shocked by the severity of the sentences, the Spanish settlers brought charges against Onyate and Saladivar, who were found guilty, fined, and banished from New Mexico. Still, these European invaders continued their efforts to impose the feudal world of 17th century Spain on the Pueblo people.
We were considered the property of an unseen king and his armored servants. We were forced to pray to a cross in European saints and follow the rules of an invisible pope and his all too visible missionaries. The church in the state in the early colonial period had a similar goal. I would say the political perspective was of course one to subjugate politically and to control within a feudal system when the church's view was to Christianize and to convert and to save souls. And these two coincided as the Encomienda system was formalized and implemented where they could use Indian labor, there were the missions which were to missionize, rise to Christianize.
The Encomienda and the repartemento systems were the basic economic systems that were imposed on native people of New Mexico. And all of a sudden there comes these invaders who begin to tell you well things are going to change here now. You can't leave your Pueblo, you can't travel as far as you want anymore because we don't want you leaving your area. They began to cut up the land and for the Pueblo people they were told how much of the land was now theirs. So you get the idea of owning other people for yourself. What an incredible strange foreign notion when we talk about that other world. The Spanish imposed a governmental system on the Pueblos whereby governors ran the civil part of tribal life. In 1623 the Spanish gave each Pueblo governor a cane as a symbol of authority.
One of the most symbolic gestures that has elevated this whole notion of our status of sovereign entities over the last 400 years has been the issuance of canes by various sovereigns of the world. A traditional passing of authority annually among Pueblo officials is a passing of the canes which symbolize the sovereign status of our governments. I remember elders in my family talking about when the mission at Akima was being constructed and built. Pueblo people there had been basically placed into slavery and made to work until they dropped dead.
And yet ironically now three, four hundred years later we celebrate and with the feast days we dance inside the mission. We revere Christianity. When the Spaniards first came up into Northern New Mexico one of the first things that they did was to build churches. And they utilized Indian labor to build those churches and later on to maintain those churches. And the labor was not voluntary. A part of land was to decide for the priest in which they would plant corn, cultivate corn, squash and things of that sort to maintain the missionary household. The churches of whole because of its theological position would look at the Indian religion as probably superstition and witchcraft. So from time to time people were punished for that. And I think the church was concerned with creating a unified worldview.
And it's not only converting people and saving souls but also getting a perspective from the Indians that would support the medieval Catholic worldview of the Spaniards. The missionary program involved the attempted destruction of all semblance of the indigenous religions. The filling end of Kivas, the destruction and burning of Gatina Mass, the outlawing of the dances, the reporting of people who were involved in the practice of the traditional indigenous religion. There were three missions that were built on hope during that period of time. The priests were so isolated that they pretty much made their own rules. And they made claims on women reaching puberty. They were said to be the first to have these young women reaching the age of puberty.
Before the girls were free to participate in the rest of the social marital institutions of hope. And that this apparently according to the stories was the last straw. In their efforts to destroy our religion, the missionaries tried to separate sons from the knowledge of their fathers and daughters from the world of their mothers. Christianity would have destroyed our culture, our relationship to the earth mother herself. We did not consent to the eradication of our world.
Gran Kivira at Ampedo Pueblo abandoned in 1672 was one of the victims of the great contraction of the low world. It was a time when the world was out of balance. It was a time of death. The rain ceased to fall, the corn withered. Thousands of Pueblo people died in a great famine. For three years, no crop has been harvested. Last year, 1668, a great many Indians perished of hunger, lying dead on their roads in the ravines and in their hovels. That year, thousands died of starvation in Gran Kivira, Kurai and other Pueblos. The elders and the children were the first to die, leaving a society bereft of its past and its future.
Giving food to the missionaries and giving food to the Spanish colonizers had a tremendous impact on the Pueblo economies. For example, it tells us where the climate varies from season to season and some seasons where you are able to reap a lot of corn and other years not being able to do that. Some years being lean in terms of hunting for venison in some days, some years not. So it did have a tremendous impact on the economy. Many people were not eating as well as they used to. The Apaches had mastered the horse, upsetting the balance between the Pueblo peoples and their nomadic neighbors. Their raids on the Pueblos came with increasing frequency, and then there was disease, a disease that struck both Indian and European. The Spanish attributed the deaths to witchcraft by Pueblo sorcerers. In 1675, the Spanish governor finally heated the calls of the missionaries and arrested 47 alleged sorcerers and brought them to trial.
Naturally, the case was against them and four men were condemned to die and the others were to be whipped publicly. One of the men that was whipped was a man from San Juan Pueblo, whose name was Pope In and the Spanish called him Pope A. He began to think about what should be done to retaliate. Pope A decided to go to Tau's Pueblo far away from the center of Spanish activity and Tau's needs to be given credit for giving protection to him and all the others that were planning the revolt. The decision to fight to go to war probably took a lot of soul searching, a lot of input from various factions, various groups, various clans, various leaders within the Pueblo.
And then to unite all the Pueblos, to unite each of these sovereign nations in a united effort to drive the Spaniards out of their lands. There must have been an awful lot of suffering that occurred, that eventually drove them to that point. It was a very ingenious plan, first of all, to communicate this plan to have the rebellion. It consisted of messengers running to all the various Pueblos in New Mexico and into Arizona and informing them that this is going to happen, that they would create their own little rebellion within the village and kill the intruders. The three spirits told Pope A to make a court of Magui Fiber and tie some knots in it, which would signify the number of days that they must wait for the rebellion.
The court was taken from Pueblo to Pueblo by the swiftest youth under the penalty of death, if they review the secret. Two young men were appointed to carry the knotted rope, and each day as the sun came up, a knot would be untied. And on the last day that the knot was untied would be the day the action would begin. It didn't happen the way it was really planned. The two boys were discovered, they were brought to Santa Fe for trial. When the Tussuki people learned about it, they became extremely alarmed. Consequently, they killed a spaniard that was a Tussuki. This was the beginning of the first successful revolt by a Native American organization against the European.
On August 10th, 1680, the Pueblo warriors by design attacked the churches. August 10th happens to be St. Lorenzo's Day, and so the people knew that both Indian and non-Indians would be congregated in church. And it was in retaliation for what the church and civil authorities were doing to the couple of people. Most of the villages, the churches were destroyed, and those people who were accepting of the Catholic faith were ousted from the villages if not killed. All of the Pueblos under the Spanish rule rose up against the Yoke of Spain. In some cases, as I hope he killed the priests of the Tussuki priests.
Within three days, over 400 spaniards, men, women and children lay dead. 21 of New Mexico's 33 priests were killed. Churches, crosses, saints, and the symbols of Christianity were burned and destroyed. The Spanish governor and most of the colonists were trapped in Santa Fe, besieged by thousands of Pueblo warriors. Indians from the Pueblos of Pecos, and Cristobals, and Lazarus, and Marcos, Galisteo, and Sienica are one leg from the Villa of Santa Fe, on the way to attack and destroy the governor and all the Spaniards. They're saying that now God and Santa Maria were dead, and that their own God, in the Yoke, never died. They had a few days of standoff here.
The Spanish guns, occupants against Pueblo, bulls and arrows, clubs, and stones. Naturally, the Pueblos were at a disadvantage, but soon decided that the only way they could dislodge the Spaniards were to cut up the water. A few days later, the Spaniards had no water for themselves nor their animals. Every day of the nine days which the siege of Santa Fe lasted, more and more people assembled until the beasts and the cattle began to die because we had been entirely caught off from water. Being agreed that it was better to die fighting, his lordship advanced, and invoking the name of the Verdi, he routed and ran them and massacred more than 300 Indians. 47 Indians were taken prisoner in their houses, they were executed, but finding ourselves out of provisions with very few horses. Threatened by the enemy and not being assured of water, it is necessary to leave, we have decided to withdraw.
The Pueblo peoples had a chance during the siege of Santa Fe to wipe out all of the Spaniards, and they stood to one side when their siege worked, and the Spaniards silently filed out, heading southward under remaining horses and carrying what possessions they could carry. The Pueblo will warriors made no effort to attack them, they just let them leave. We are at quits with the Spaniards, and the persons we have killed. Those of us whom they have killed do not matter, for the Spaniards are going, and now we shall live as we like. The period after the revolt, it is recorded that the Pueblo people went down to the river, clents themselves. They did away with many of the things that the Spaniards brought. For example, they burned the orchards and tried to again be pure Pueblo people again.
It was a very joyous time for them, it was a time of relearning what had been lost in the past, and there was also a sense of threat as well that existed, because they knew that there would be other people to come in. They knew that they weren't completely safe in the Spaniards. During the 12 years that the Pueblo world was free from European domination, the Spanish sent a number of armed expeditions to reclaim their kingdom. In the Pueblo of Alameda, the Spaniards found a man who unable to flee, hung himself rather than be captured by the Spanish. There would not be much of a public culture left over if the Pueblo people of 1680 had not taken the action they did. They acted to save their culture, to save their integrity of communities, and to save their self-respect, which the Spaniards were rapidly weathering away,
with their onslaughts on their religion, on their labor, on their politics, on their very independence. And so it's in that sense that the sense that Pueblo culture survives laid into the 20th century that we must honor and commemorate the Pueblo Revolt of 1680. There was no mention in the textbooks that I read of the Pueblo Revolt. There was never any mention of the kind of treatment of Pueblo people at the hands of Spaniards in the textbooks that I read. There was never anything said about our survival, our efforts to survive. And I think it's only now that our story be told.
Surviving Columbus, the story of the Pueblo people will continue after this brief intermission.
Surviving Columbus: The Story of the Pueblo People (Part 1)
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KNME-TV (Television station : Albuquerque, N.M.)
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WGBH (Boston, Massachusetts)
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Late one afternoon in May 1539, the world of the Pueblo Indians changed forever when Estevanico--an enslaved African from Morocco--and his 300 retinue of Mexican Indians marched into the Zuni city of Hawikuh. Through wild tales and exaggerations, Hawikuh would be transformed into one of the fabled Seven Golden Cities of Cibola. A year later, Coronado and his soldiers would wreak destruction and violence on this peaceful world in search of non-existent gold. Surviving Columbus is a search for the Pueblo people's view of these first encounters with European civilization and is told exclusively through the voices and visions of the Pueblo Indians.This Peabody Award-winning documentary from New Mexico PBS looks at the European arrival in the Americas from the perspective of the Pueblo Peoples.
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Executive Producer: Kruzic, Dale
Producer: Ladd, Edmund J.
Producer: Walsh, Larry
Producer: Burdeau, George
Producing Organization: KNME-TV (Television station : Albuquerque, N.M.)
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Format: VHS
Generation: Original
Duration: 00:20:00
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Chicago: “Surviving Columbus: The Story of the Pueblo People (Part 1),” 1992, WGBH, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed May 26, 2024,
MLA: “Surviving Columbus: The Story of the Pueblo People (Part 1).” 1992. WGBH, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. May 26, 2024. <>.
APA: Surviving Columbus: The Story of the Pueblo People (Part 1). Boston, MA: WGBH, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from