thumbnail of PBS NewsHour; June 1, 2011 3:00pm-4:00pm PDT
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>> Lehrer: PRESIDENT OBAMA TALKED ABOUT DEBT REDUCTION WITH CONGRESSIONAL REPUBLICANS AT THE WHITE HOUSE TODAY, BUT NO DEAL WAS MADE. GOOD EVENING. I'M JIM LEHRER.
>> Ifill: AND I'M GWEN IFILL. ON THE NEWSHOUR TONIGHT, DAVID CHALIAN WALKS US THROUGH THE POLITICS BEHIND THE POSTURING ON SPENDING CUTS AND RAISING THE DEBT LIMIT.
>> Lehrer: THEN, JUDY WOODRUFF EXPLORES COMPUTER HACKING AND THE IMPACT CYBER ATTACKS HAVE ON GOVERNMENT, BUSINESS, INDIVIDUALS, AND EVEN THE NEWSHOUR.
>> Ifill: TOM BEARDEN REPORTS ON THE SCIENTIFIC PUSH TO IDENTIFY POSSIBLE TORNADOES SOONER, GET OUT WARNINGS EARLIER. 6-TOP BEARDSLEY REPORTS ON THE SCIENTIFIC PUSH TO IDENTIFY POSSIBLE TORNADOS SOONER AND GET OUT WARNINGS EARLIER.
>> Lehrer: WE LOOK AT THE MEDIA SPOTLIGHT ON SARAH PALIN'S BUS TOUR.
>> Ifill: AND, JEFFREY BROWN TALKS TO TRUMPET PLAYER AND BAND LEADER WYNTON MARSALIS ABOUT PASSING HIS LOVE OF JAZZ ON TO THE NEXT GENERATION.
>> Lehrer: THAT'S ALL AHEAD ON TONIGHT'S NEWSHOUR. MAJOR FUNDING FOR THE PBS NEWSHOUR HAS BEEN PROVIDED BY:
>> OKAY, LISTEN. SOMEBODY HAS GOT TO GET SERIOUS.
>> I THINK...
>> WE NEED RENEWABLE ENERGY.
>> ...RENEWABLE ENERGY IS VITAL TO OUR PLANET.
>> YOU HEAR ABOUT ALTERNATIVES, RIGHT? WIND, SOLAR, ALGAE.
>> I THINK IT'S GOT TO WORK ON A BIG SCALE. AND I THINK IT'S GOT TO BE AFFORDABLE.
>> SO, WHERE ARE THEY?
>> IT HAS TO WORK IN THE REAL WORLD. AT CHEVRON, WE'RE INVESTING MILLIONS IN SOLAR AND BIOFUEL TECHNOLOGY TO MAKE IT WORK.
>> WE'VE GOT TO GET ON THIS NOW.
>> RIGHT NOW. MOVING OUR ECONOMY FOR 160 YEARS. BNSF, THE ENGINE THAT CONNECTS US.
>> AND BY THE BILL AND MELINDA GATES FOUNDATION. DEDICATED TO THE IDEA THAT ALL PEOPLE DESERVE THE CHANCE TO LIVE A HEALTHY PRODUCTIVE LIFE. AND WITH THE ONGOING SUPPORT OF THESE INSTITUTIONS AND FOUNDATIONS. AND... THIS PROGRAM WAS MADE POSSIBLE BY THE CORPORATION FOR PUBLIC BROADCASTING. AND BY CONTRIBUTIONS TO YOUR PBS STATION FROM VIEWERS LIKE YOU. THANK YOU.
>> Lehrer: THERE WAS MORE TOP- LEVEL TALK TODAY ABOUT RAISING THE NATION'S BORROWING LIMIT, THE SO-CALLED DEBT CEILING. THIS TIME, THE SETTING WAS THE WHITE HOUSE, WITH PRESIDENT OBAMA PLAYING HOST TO SOME OF HIS TOUGHEST CRITICS.
>> Reporter: ON A SWELTERING WASHINGTON MORNING, HOUSE REPUBLICANS MUSTERED AT THE EXECUTIVE MANSION FOR THE HIGH- STAKES TALKS ON THE DEBT LIMIT.
>> I THINK IT WAS AN OPPORTUNITY FOR, CLEARLY, OUR MEMBERS TO COMMUNICATE DIRECTLY WITH THE PRESIDENT ABOUT OUR IDEAS ABOUT HOW TO GET THE ECONOMY GOING AGAIN, HOW TO CREATE JOBS, AND OUR IDEAS ABOUT HOW WE SOLVE THE DEBT PROBLEM THAT'S FACING OUR COUNTRY.
>> Lehrer: THE MEETING FOLLOWED LAST NIGHT'S LARGELY-SYMBOLIC HOUSE VOTE THAT REJECTED ANY STAND-ALONE INCREASE TO THE DEBT CEILING, NOW AT $14.3 TRILLION.
>> THE BILL IS NOT PASSED.
>> Lehrer: REPUBLICANS STAGED THE VOTE TO REINFORCE THEIR DEMAND FOR MAJOR SPENDING CUTS BEFORE AGREEING TO INCREASE THE DEBT LIMIT. AND AT THE WHITE HOUSE TODAY, SPEAKER BOEHNER CAME ARMED WITH A LETTER SIGNED BY 150 ECONOMISTS SUPPORTING THE REPUBLICAN POSITION. THEY SAID SPENDING CUTS ARE NEEDED TO GROW THE U.S. ECONOMY. AT THE SAME TIME, BOEHNER AND HIS COLLEAGUES REITERATED THEY WILL ACCEPT NO TAX INCREASES AS PART OF THE DEAL. WHITE HOUSE PRESS SECRETARY JAY CARNEY SAID THE SESSION SERVED MOSTLY TO LOWER THE TEMPERATURE ON HOTLY-DEBATED FISCAL ISSUES.
>> ALL OF THOSE DISAGREEMENTS WILL NOT BE RESOLVED IN THE NEXT SEVERAL WEEKS AS THESE NEGOTIATIONS MOVE FORWARD. BUT THERE IS COMMON GROUND, AND MORE COMMON GROUND CAN BE FOUND TO SIGNIFICANTLY REDUCE OUR DEFICITS.
>> Reporter: THE U.S. GOVERNMENT ACTUALLY REACHED ITS BORROWING LIMIT LAST MONTH. FOR NOW, TREASURY SECRETARY TIMOTHY GEITHNER IS USING A VARIETY OF UNORTHODOX MEASURES TO PAY THE BILLS. HE'S SAID SUCH TACTICS CAN RUN UNTIL AUGUST 2, WHEN THE U.S. WOULD FACE DEFAULT, A PROSPECT UNNERVING TO WALL STREET. GEITHNER WILL MAKE THAT CASE TO HOUSE REPUBLICAN FRESHMEN TOMORROW. THE "NEW YORK TIMES" REPORTED TODAY REPUBLICAN LEADERS HAVE ASSURED TOP WALL STREET EXECUTIVES THAT A DEAL REMAINS POSSIBLE, AND LAST NIGHT'S DEBT CEILING VOTE WAS SIMPLY TO MAKE A POINT. THE PRESIDENT WILL SIT DOWN TOMORROW WITH HOUSE DEMOCRATS. HE'S ALREADY MET WITH BOTH PARTIES IN THE SENATE. AND VICE PRESIDENT BIDEN CONTINUES WIDE-RANGING NEGOTIATIONS ON RAISING THE DEBT CEILING AND ON CUTTING SPENDING TO REDUCE LONG-TERM BUDGET DEFICITS. THE NEXT SESSION CONVENES JUNE 9. AND TO NEWSHOUR POLITICAL EDITOR DAVID CHALIAN. DAVID, WELCOME.
>> THANK YOU.
>> Lehrer: ARE THERE SERIOUS NEGOTIATIONS UNDER WAY OR IS IT ALL STILL ANT MAKING POINTS FROM BOTH SIDES? EACH SIDE?
>> THERE ARE SERIOUS NEGOTIATIONS UNDER WAY, JIM. TODAY'S MEETING WAS NOT THAT. IT'S VERY LARGE GROUP. A COUPLE HUNDRED HOUSE REPUBLICANS THERE. YOU'RE NOT GOING TO GET INTO THE MEAT AND POTATOES OF THIS DEAL BUT THE BIDEN NEGOTIATION THAT YOU MENTIONED IN THE PIECE, THAT'S WHERE THE ACTION IS HAPPENING. THAT'S WHERE BIPARTISAN, BICAMERAL REPUBLICANS AND DEMOCRATS FROM THE HOUSE AND SENATE AT THE TABLE AND THEY ARE MAKING PROGRESS ALL SIDES SAY THAT THEY'RE MAKING PROGRESS AND I THINK THERE'S SOME DEBATE ABOUT HOW MUCH PROGRESS THEY'RE MAKING BUT THAT IS WHERE SERIOUS NEGOTIATION IS TAKING PLACE ABOUT REDUCING THE DEFICIT TO A SUFFICIENT LEVEL IN ORDER TO GET ENOUGH SUPPORT TO RAISE THE BORROWING LIMIT.
>> Lehrer: REDUCING THE DEFICIT BY CUTTING FEDERAL SPENDING, RIGHT? THERE'S NO TALK ABOUT RAISING TAXES IN ANY FORM OR ANY... IN ANY WAY WHATEVER, CORRECT?
>> CORRECT IN THE SENSE THAT THE REPUBLICANS-- SPEAKER BOEHNER AND SENATOR McCONNELL, LEADER OF REPUBLICANS IN THE SENATE-- HAVE SAID TAX INCREASES ARE OFF THE TABLE. THEY WILL NOT PUT THAT ON THE TABLE. WHAT THE ADMINISTRATION AND REPUBLICANS DO AGREE THAT THEY ARE TALKING ABOUT IS TAX REFORM. SOME WAY TO REFORM THE TAX CODE THAT CAN INCREASE REVENUES BUT NOT THAT... THAT WOULD NOT AMOUNT TO A NET TAX INCREASE.
>> Lehrer: THEY WOULDN'T CALL IT A TAX INCREASE. THEY WOULD CALL IT TAX REFORMING RIGHTING?
>> THEY WOULD CALL IT TAX REFORMING. THIS IS CLOSING LOOPHOLES, PERHAPS LOWERING THE RATE OF CORPORATE TAXES.
>> Lehrer: WHAT DID YOU FIND OUT ABOUT WHAT WAS SAID IN THIS MEETING TODAY?
>> WELL, ONE CONGRESSMAN, PHIL GINGREY, WAS WALKING OUT AND CALLED THE SORT OF TONE AND TENOR OF IT FROSTY. I CAN'T FIND ANYONE ELSE THAT SAYS THAT. I SPOKE TO A LOT OF MEMBERS AND THE WORD YOU HEAR OVER AND OVER AGAIN IS "FRANK AND PRODUCT I HAVE." BUT THAT IT WAS A VERY FRANK CONVERSATION. I SPOKE THE NUMBER-THREE REPUBLICAN IN THE HOUSE LEADERSHIP KEVIN McCARTHY AND HE USED THAT WORD AND HE SAID WITHOUT THE PRESS IN THERE NOBODY WAS DOING THE POLITICAL POSTURING, THEY REALLY TOOK THE OPPORTUNITY-- HOUSE REPUBLICANS-- TO EXPLAIN TO THE PRESIDENT WHERE THE PHILOSOPHICAL DIVIDES ARE, ARE WHERE THEY'RE COMING FROM BUT, JIM, I FOUND THIS FASCINATING, THE PRESIDENT BEGAN THE MEETING TALKING ABOUT THE DEBT LIMIT, THE NEED TO RAISE IT, BUT THEN QUICKLY THEY PIVOTED TO A HOST OF OTHER ISSUES. THAT WAS NOT THE CRUX OF THE MEETING. THE MEETING TALKED ABOUT JOBS. IT TALKED ABOUT THE MEDICARE REFORM PLAN IN THE PAUL RYAN PLAN. THEY EVEN TALKED ABOUT E.P.A. REGULATIONS THAT THE REPUBLICANS ARE BUCKING AGAINST. THE NOTION ABOUT THE NEED TO RAISE THE DEBT LIMIT IS NOT PART OF THE DEBATE BECAUSE THE PRESIDENT AT THE TOP OF THE MEETING SAID "LISTEN, WE CAN'T PLAY GAMES WITH THIS SO I'M NOT GOING TO DEBATE THIS WITH YOU HERE TODAY."
>> Lehrer: IS THERE, IN FACT, AGREPT ABOUT THAT? ABOUT THE IMMEDIATE TO RAISE THE DEBT LIMIT? HOWEVER YOU DO IT?
>> CERTAINLY THERE ARE A BUNCH OF TEA PARTY FRESHMAN REPUBLICANS, THE FOLKS TIM GEITHNER IS GOING TO TALK TO, THE TREASURY SECRETARY ON THE HILL, THAT DON'T BELIEVE YOU HAVE TO RAISE IT. BUT I DO THINK THERE IS BIPARTISAN AGREEMENT. IN FACT, IN MY CONVERSATION WITH CONGRESSMAN McCARTHY JUST A LITTLE BIT AGO HE SAID DAVID, REMEMBER, WE PASSED THE RYAN BUDGET AND IN THAT BUDGET, THE REPUBLICAN BUDGET, WE ASSUME THERE'S GOING TO BE AN INCREASE IN THE DEBT LIMIT. OUR OWN BUDGET CALLED FOR AN INCREASE IN THE DEBT LIMIT, HE'S SAYING. SO REPUBLICANS, THE LEADERSHIP, THEY UNDERSTAND THAT THE DEBT LIMIT IS NOT SOMETHING YOU WANT TO PLAY WITH. THEY WANTED TO MAKE SURE WALL STREET WAS AWARE LAST NIGHT THAT THIS WAS JUST A SYMBOLIC VOTE. SO I THINK THERE IS AGREEMENT. THERE'S NO DOUBT THERE'S AGREEMENT THAT IT WILL BE RAISED. BUT THEIR POINT ALL ALONG IS IT MUST BE RAISED WITH AN EQUAL AMOUNT OF SPENDING CUTS ATTACHED TO IT. THAT, THEY SAY, IS ACTUALLY NEEDED FOR THE ECONOMY, THAT ECONOMIC WATCHERS, THE JOB MARKET AND WHAT HAVE YOU, THOSE THAT ARE HIRING WANT TO SEE AN EQUAL COMMITMENT TO THE NEED TO RAISE THE DEBT LIMIT TO CONTINUE TO PAY OUR BILLS BUT AN EQUAL COMMITMENT TO REDUCING THE SPENDING.
>> Lehrer: AUGUST 2 IS NOW THE MAGIC DATE. THERE'S NO INDICATION ANYTHING IS GOING TO HAPPEN. IT WILL BE A DEADLINE THING, WILL IT SNOT.
>> Lehrer: THERE'S NOTHING CONGRESS LOVES MORE THAN A DEADLINE. WE'VE SEEN TIME AGAIN WHEN THEIR WORK NEEDS TO GET DONE THEY GO UP TO THE DEADLINE. THERE IS A LITTLE CONCERN IF THE MARKETS START TO GET RATTLED THAT THEY'RE GETTING TO CLOSE TO THE DEADLINE SO I THINK THIS WILL GO TO THE END OF JULY.
>> Lehrer: OKAY, THANKS, DAVID.
>> SURE.
>> Ifill: STILL TO COME ON THE NEWSHOUR: CYBER ATTACKS AND THE WIRED WORLD; EARLIER TORNADO WARNINGS; THE PALIN PHENOMENON; AND SWINGIN' WYNTON MARSALIS. BUT FIRST, THE OTHER NEWS OF THE DAY. HERE'S KWAME HOLMAN.
>> Reporter: NEW ECONOMIC REPORTS TODAY STOKED FEARS THAT THE RECOVERY IS STALLING. ONE SHOWED MANUFACTURING SLOWED IN MAY, AND THE OTHER SAID PRIVATE EMPLOYERS ADDED JUST 38,000 JOBS. THE NUMBERS SENT WALL STREET INTO A DIVE, AND MAJOR INDEXES FELL MORE THAN 2%. THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE PLUNGED 279 POINTS TO CLOSE AT 12,290. THE NASDAQ FELL 66 POINTS TO CLOSE AT 2,769. INTENSE FIGHTING SPREAD ACROSS MORE OF YEMEN'S CAPITAL, SANAA, TODAY. AT LEAST 41 PEOPLE WERE KILLED. TRIBAL MILITIAS EXCHANGED GUN AND ARTILLERY FIRE WITH TROOPS LOYAL TO PRESIDENT ALI ABDULLAH SALEH. THE VIOLENCE MOVED INTO NEW SECTIONS OF THE CITY. IN WASHINGTON, U.S. SECRETARY OF STATE HILLARY CLINTON WARNED AGAIN THAT SALEH IS THE MAIN OBSTACLE TO PEACE.
>> WE CANNOT EXPECT THIS CONFLICT TO END UNLESS PRESIDENT SALEH AND HIS GOVERNMENT MOVE OUT OF THE WAY TO... TO PERMIT A... THE OPPOSITION AND CIVIL SOCIETY TO BEGIN A TRANSITION TO POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC REFORM.
>> Reporter: PRESIDENT OBAMA HAS DISPATCHED COUNTERTERROR ADVISOR JOHN BRENNAN TO THE REGION. HE'LL BE IN SAUDI ARABIA AND THE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES LATER THIS WEEK FOR TALKS ON YEMEN. IN SYRIA, GOVERNMENT TROOPS KILLED NEARLY 50 MORE PROTESTERS IN THE LAST 24 HOURS, EVEN AS THE REGIME FREED ABOUT 500 POLITICAL PRISONERS. TROOPS OPENED FIRE TUESDAY AND AGAIN TODAY IN RASTAN, KILLING 41 PEOPLE. AND IN THE SOUTH, SHELLING IN HIRAK CLAIMED EIGHT MORE LIVES. ELSEWHERE, PROTESTERS MARCHED IN HOMS, CARRYING IMAGES OF A 13- YEAR-OLD BOY, HAMZA ALI AL- KHATEEB. HIS DEATH, APPARENTLY AFTER BEING TORTURED, HAS BECOME A FLASHPOINT. THE GOVERNMENT OF PRESIDENT BASHAR AL-ASSAD NOW IS PROMISING AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE BOY'S KILLING. A STATE OF EMERGENCY WAS LIFTED TODAY IN THE PERSIAN GULF KINGDOM OF BAHRAIN, HOME TO THE U.S. FIFTH FLEET. TANKS AND SOLDIERS PULLED OUT OF THE CAPITAL, MANAMA, BUT POLICE STAYED AT A NUMBER OF CHECKPOINTS. MAJORITY SHIITES BEGAN PROTESTING IN FEBRUARY, DEMANDING A GREATER SHARE OF POWER. BUT IN MARCH, BAHRAIN'S SUNNI LEADERS CALLED IN TROOPS FROM SAUDI ARABIA AND OTHER SUNNI STATES TO CRUSH THE PROTESTS. THE DEATH TOLL FROM AN E. COLI OUTBREAK IN EUROPE HAS RISEN TO 17, WITH HUNDREDS MORE CASES REPORTED. SOME 1,500 PEOPLE HAVE BEEN SICKENED IN GERMANY, WHERE MOST OF THE CASES OCCURRED. THE GERMAN AGRICULTURE MINISTER SAID TODAY IT'S STILL NOT KNOWN WHERE THE VERY VIRULENT FOOD-BORNE BACTERIA ORIGINATED.
>> ( translated ): IT'S CLEAR THESE BACTERIA HAVE OCCURRED IN HUMANS AND WE ARE WORKING NON-STOP TO FIND OUT WHERE THEY HAVE COME FROM, THEREFORE THE ENTIRE CHAIN IS AFFECTED, PRODUCTION AS WELL AS ALL THE SUBSEQUENT STEPS UNTIL IT FINALLY IS ON THE TABLE.
>> Reporter: INITIAL TESTING SUGGESTED MOST OF THE PEOPLE WHO TOOK ILL HAD EATEN CERTAIN TAINTED VEGETABLES. LATER TESTS CAST DOUBT ON THOSE FINDINGS. AN APPARENT TORNADO HIT NEAR SPRINGFIELD, MASSACHUSETTS, TODAY. FUNNEL SHOWED A TORNADO RIPPING THROUGH THE SCENE. THERE WERE CARS "BOSTON GLOBE" OVER. MEANWHILE, THE CONFIRMED DEATH TOLL IS 34 AND THE HUGE TORNADO THAT HIT JOPLIN, MISSOURI, LAST MONTH. STATE OFFICIALS SAID THEY'VE ACCOUNTED FOR EVERYONE ON THE LIST OF MISSING. THE SPACE SHUTTLE "ENDEAVOUR" MADE ITS FINAL LANDING OVERNIGHT AFTER 25 FLIGHTS. "ENDEAVOUR" TOUCHED DOWN AT KENNEDY SPACE CENTER IN FLORIDA, IN PRE-DAWN DARKNESS. THE MISSION WAS THE NEXT-TO-LAST FOR NASA'S 30-YEAR SHUTTLE PROGRAM. HOURS EARLIER, THE FINAL SHUTTLE BOUND FOR SPACE, "ATLANTIS," ARRIVED AT THE LAUNCH PAD TO PREP FOR ITS FLIGHT IN JULY. BEING ABLE TO SEND "ATLANTIS" TO THE PAD AND LAND "ENDEAVOUR" WAS A COMBINATION THAT NEVER EXPECTED TO HAVE.
>> Reporter: NOW THAT "ENDEAVOUR'S" FLYING DAYS ARE OVER, IT WILL BE DISPLAYED PERMANENTLY AT THE CALIFORNIA SCIENCE CENTER IN LOS ANGELES. PEOPLE WHO POINT HIGH-POWERED LASERS AT PLANES AND HELICOPTERS COULD FACE STIFF FINES FROM NOW ON. THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION ANNOUNCED TODAY THE FINES WILL GO AS HIGH AS $11,000. THE LASER POINTERS ARE USED TO POINT OUT STARS AT NIGHT BUT CAN TEMPORARILY BLIND PILOTS WHEN THEY AIM AT COCKPITS. PILOTS HAVE REPORTED MORE THAN 1,100 INCIDENTS THIS YEAR. THOSE ARE SOME OF THE DAY'S MAJOR STORIES. NOW, BACK TO GWEN.
>> Ifill: NEXT, THE GROWING PROBLEM OF CYBER-ATTACKS AND ITS CONSEQUENCES. WE HAVE A TWO-PART LOOK, BEGINNING WITH THIS RAY SUAREZ REPORT ON HOW IT HIT CLOSE TO HOME. ♪
>> Reporter: THE LATE RAPPERS TUPAC SHAKUR AND BIGGIE SMALLS, ALIVE AFTER ALL, TOGETHER IN NEW ZEALAND? THAT WAS THE FAKE STORY POSTED SUNDAY NIGHT ON THE PBS NEWSHOUR'S WEB SITE BY HACKERS. READERS WERE SURPRISED, TO SAY THE LEAST, WITH SOME EVEN WONDERING IF IT WERE TRUE. BUT A GROUP KNOWN AS LULZSEC ANNOUNCED ON TWITTER THAT IT POSTED THE STORY AFTER BREAKING INTO PBS SERVERS AND DATABASES. IT ALSO PUBLISHED PASSWORDS OF PBS STAFFERS AND LOG-IN INFORMATION FOR PBS WEB SITES. HACKERS SAID IT WAS RETALIATION FOR THE PBS PROGRAM FRONTLINE AND ITS RECENT DOCUMENTARY ON WIKILEAKS AND THE LEAK OF U.S. DIPLOMATIC CABLES LAST NOVEMBER. THE NEWSHOUR PUT OUT ITS OWN MESSAGE ABOUT THE HACKING SUNDAY NIGHT USING VARIOUS SOCIAL MEDIA, AND THE PHONY TUPAC STORY WAS QUICKLY PULLED DOWN. BUT THAT WASN'T THE END OF IT.
>> LATE TODAY, BOTH THE FRONTLINE WEB SITE AND THE NEWSHOUR'S WERE ATTACKED.
>> Reporter: THE NEWSHOUR'S HOME PAGE WENT DOWN ENTIRELY DURING MONDAY EVENING'S BROADCAST AND WAS FINALLY RESTORED TUESDAY AFTERNOON. DURING THAT TIME, STAFFERS HAD TO REROUTE ONLINE CONTENT TO OTHER ONLINE SERVICES, TUMBLR AND YOUTUBE. WIKILEAKS DEFENDERS HAVE STRUCK BEFORE. LAST DECEMBER, ONE GROUP BOMBARDED A SWISS BANK AND MASTERCARD FOR TRYING TO SHUT OFF FUNDS TO THE SITE'S FOUNDER, JULIAN ASSANGE. AND MORE BROADLY, COMPUTER ATTACKS ON BOTH GOVERNMENT AND PRIVATE SYSTEMS HAVE BEEN GROWING WORLDWIDE. OVER THE WEEKEND, DEFENSE CONTRACTOR LOCKHEED MARTIN SAID IT HAD BEEN THE TARGET OF WHAT IT CALLED A "SIGNIFICANT AND TENACIOUS" HACK, BUT MANAGED TO THWART IT IN TIME. THE COMPANY WOULD NOT REVEAL THE ORIGINS OF THE ATTACK, BUT IT SAID IN A STATEMENT: AND GOOGLE REPORTED TODAY THAT HACKERS LIKELY BASED IN CHINA TRIED RECENTLY TO ENTER E-MAIL ACCOUNTS USED BY SENIOR U.S.c< GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS. OTHER ATTACKS HAVE INFLICTED SERIOUS DAMAGE TO COMPANIES AND THEIR CUSTOMERS. IN LATE APRIL, SONY HAD TO CUT OFF 100 MILLION USER ACCOUNTS FROM ITS PLAYSTATION VIDEO GAME SYSTEM'S ONLINE NETWORK. THE COMPANY LATER ACKNOWLEDGED A HACKER HAD GAINED ACCESS TO PERSONAL DATA OF USERS, POTENTIALLY INCLUDING CREDIT CARD INFORMATION. SONY SAYS IT HAS MADE CONSIDERABLE SECURITY ENHANCEMENTS SINCE THE INCIDENT, BUT CONGRESS WILL WANT TO HEAR MORE TOMORROW WHEN SONY REPRESENTATIVES APPEAR AT A HOUSE HEARING. IN THE MEANTIME, THE COMPANY'S ONLINE SERVICE IS STILL NOT FULLY RESTORED, AND THE COSTS ARE STAGGERING. SONY SAYS IT MAY END UP SPENDING MORE THAN $170 MILLION RELATED TO THE ATTACK, INCLUDING ONLINE SECURITY AND PROTECTING ITS CUSTOMERS. THAT'S WHAT MAKES HACKING DIFFERENT FROM OTHER CRIMES. AROUND THE WORLD, WHEN BUSINESSES ARE THREATENED, MERE VANDALISM CAN BECOME EXTORTION-- "PAY ME, OR I'LL BREAK YOUR WINDOWS, DESTROY YOUR STOCK, BURN DOWN YOUR STORE." BUT FOR ALL THE REAL DAMAGE DONE WITH HACKING, BUSINESSES CAN'T MAKE SALES, YOU BURN UP STAFF TIME CLEANING UP THE MESS. THERE'S NO APPARENT CASH FLOW BACK TO THE HACKER.
>> Reporter: IN LONDON TODAY, AN INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE HEARD WARNINGS THAT THE PROBLEM IS GROWING EXPONENTIALLY, WITH UP TO 70,000 MALICIOUS PROGRAMS DESIGNED TO DISRUPT SYSTEMS BEING DISCOVERED EVERY DAY. PRESIDENT BARACK OBAMA HAS ALREADY MADE CYBER SECURITY A PRIORITY, AND U.S. GOVERNMENT AGENCIES SAY THEY'VE GOTTEN MORE AGGRESSIVE ABOUT TACKLING CYBER CRIME. THE DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IS BEGINNING TO EMPLOY A NEW AUTOMATED SYSTEM TO PROTECT FEDERAL COMPUTER SYSTEMS. THE PENTAGON HAS SET UP A NEW CYBER COMMAND ALONGSIDE THE NATIONAL SECURITY AGENCY IN FORT MEADE, MARYLAND. AND REPORTS TUESDAY SAID PENTAGON OFFICIALS ARE READY TO DECLARE THAT ATTACKS ON KEY GOVERNMENT SYSTEMS CONSTITUTE AN ACT OF WAR. PORTIONS OF THE PENTAGON'S NEW CYBER STRATEGY ARE EXPECTED TO BECOME PUBLIC NEXT MONTH.
>> Lehrer: AND TO JUDY WOODRUFF.
>> Woodruff: WE ZERO IN NOW ON THE PROLIFERATION OF HACKING AND ITS FALLOUT WITH THREE PEOPLE WHO KNOW THE SUBJECT WELL. JEFF MOSS IS THE FOUNDER OF THE BLACK HAT AND DEF CON HACKER CONVENTIONS. HE CURRENTLY SERVES AS THE CHIEF SECURITY OFFICER FOR THE INTERNET CORPORATION FOR ASSIGNED NAMES AND NUMBERS, KNOWN AS ICANN, WHICH MANAGES COMPUTER DOMAIN NAMES. ALAN PALLER IS DIRECTOR OF RESEARCH AT THE SANS INSTITUTE, WHICH TEACHES GRADUATE LEVEL COURSES ON COMPUTER SECURITY. AND MISCHEL KWON IS THE FORMER DIRECTOR FOR THE U.S. COMPUTER EMERGENCY READINESS TEAM, WHERE SHE WAS RESPONSIBLE FOR REDUCING CYBER THREATS ON THE COUNTRY. SHE NOW RUNS HER OWN CONSULTING FIRM. WELCOME TO ALL THREE OF YOU. WE APPRECIATE YOUR BEING HERE. I JUST WANT TO GIVE... TELL OUR VIEWERS SOME LATE-BREAKING NEWS AFTERNOON AND THAT IS THAT GOOGLE REPORTED THAT THEY HAVE LEARNED THAT CHINESE HACKERS HAVE BROKEN INTO THE GMAIL ACCOUNTS OF HUNDREDS OF U.S. GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS AND OTHER POLITICAL ACTIVISTS IN THIS COUNTRY. THEY SAY THAT IT'S ALL BEEN FIXED BUT IT'S JUST THE LATEST DEVELOPMENT IN THIS TOPIC THAT WE'RE ADDRESSING TONIGHT. LET'S START WITH YOU, THOUGH, ALAN PALLER. NOT SERVE HACKING FOR THE SAME REASON. WHAT ARE THE MOTIVATIONS BEHIND THESE KINDS OF ATTACKS?
>> THERE ARE THREE GROUPS DOING MOST OF THE HACKING. ONE ARE THE SPIES. THERE'S TWO KINDS OF SPIES, THE MILITARY SPIES AND THE ECONOMIC SPIES. IN CHINA THEY'RE THE SAME PEOPLE BUT IN A LOT OF COUNTRIES THEY'RE JUST... ONE, THEY'RE VERY SOPHISTICATED SPIES. THE SECOND GROUP IS PEOPLE WHO ARE CRIMINALS WHO USED TO DO DRUG TRADE AND THEY'VE FOUND THAT CYBER CRIME IS A BETTER PAYOFF, THE PERSON WHO USED THE RUN THIS AREA FOR THE SECRET SERVICE OFTEN SAID ANY ORGANIZED CRIME GROUP NOT DOING THIS SHOULD BE SUED FOR MALPRACTICE. AND THE THIRD IS HACKERS WHO MAY HAVE THE BEST OF MOTIVES BUT THEY CAUSED KNOW MORTAR DAMAGE THAT YOU'VE BEEN EXPERIENCING THE LAST FEW DAYS.
>> Woodruff: SO JEFF MOSS, TELL US ABOUT WHO THESE PEOPLE ARE. THEY'RE VERY, VERY DIFFERENT PEOPLE DEPENDING ON WHAT'S GOING ON.
>> WELL, LIKE ALAN SAID, DIFFERENT GROUPS HAVE DIFFERENT MOTIVATIONS. I WANT TO POINT OUT IN A LOT OF THESE GROUPS EVERYONE DEPENDS ON THE INTERNEXT FUNCTIONING, SPIES ORGANIZED CRIME. IF THE NETWORK IS DOWN, THEY DON'T GET TO STEAL ANYTHING FROM YOU. WHAT WE'RE STARTING TO SEE IS SOME OF THE HACKETTIST HAVES ARE INTERESTED IN DISRUPTING PARTS OF THE NETWORK AND THAT'S A BIT OF A CHANGE. IT REMINDS ME OF THE TIME OF BLACKMAIL AGAINST ONLINE POKER DEALERS. THEY TRY TO EXTORT MONEY EXCEPT NOW THEY'RE NOT TRYING TO EXTORT ANYTHING EXCEPT GET THEIR MESSAGE OUT. IF YOU THINK ABOUT IT, THIS IS NOT THE MOST EFFECTIVE WAY TO GET THEIR MESSAGE OUT.
>> Woodruff: THAT'S JUST ONE TYPE OF HACKING THAT YOU'RE TALKING ABOUT.
>> RIGHT. IF YOU LOOK AT THE PLAYSTATION 3 NETWORK HAMERS AND READ THEIR TRANSCRIPTS POSTED ONLINE, THEY LOOK LIKE COLLEGE KIDS HAVING FUN TAKING APART A CHALLENGE. THEY DON'T SOUND LIKE CRIMINALS BUT I THINK WHAT HAPPENS IS THESE GROUPS GET INFILTRATE BID OTHER CRIMINALS WHO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF SOME OF THE NAIVETE AND USE THEM AS A STEPPINGSTONE FOR THEIR OWN PURPOSES. SO YOU SEE A LOT OF INTERMINGLING PURPOSES OF GROUPS EVERYTHING FROM A SECURITY RESEARCHER THAT USES A NEW TOOL THEN GETS MISAPPROPRIATED BY A CRIMINAL. TWO PEOPLE WHO JUST WANT TO EXPLORE.
>> Woodruff: MISCHEL KWON, HOW EASY IS IT TO BRING INTO SOMEBODY'S WEB SITE? UNFORTUNATELY, EASIER THAN WE WANT IT TO BE. HAVING SIMILARS THAT ARE COMPLICATED TODAY IS ONE OF THE REASONS AND KEEPING THOSE SYSTEMS UP TO DATE AND CURRENT AND WITHOUT VULNERABILITIES IS DIFFICULT AND EXPENSIVE. CREATING THE CODE BEHIND THE WEB SITE IN A SECURE MANNER IS EXPENSIVE AND DIFFICULT TO DO. THE TRAINING FOR THOSE PROGRAMERS IS EXPENSIVE.
>> Woodruff: IS IT SOMETHING THAT HAS TO BE CONSTANTLY UPDATED?
>> IT'S SOMETHING THAT HAS TO BE CONSTANTLY UPDATED AND CHECKED TO BE SURE THERE'S NO VULNERABILITIES. IN ADDITION TO THAT, HACKING HAS REALLY MATURED TO THE POINT THAT MOST HACKS ARE PAY FOR PURCHASE. YOU CAN PURCHASE THE HACK AND PERFORM THE HACK YOURSELF....
>> Woodruff: YOU MEAN DIRECTIONS? INSTRUCTIONS?
>> DIRECTIONS, INSTRUCTIONS. THESE ORGANIZED UNITS EVEN HAVE HELP DESKS TO HELP YOU LEARN HOW THE DO THE ATTACKS. IN ADDITION TO THAT YOU CAN HIRE PEOPLE TO DO THE ATTACKS. WITH IT BEING THIS SIMPLE OR THIS EASY, ATTACKS ARE HAPPENING MORE AND MORE EVERYDAY.
>> Woodruff: AND IF THEY'RE OUT THERE, IF THEY'VE GOT HELP DESKS, IF THEY ARE MAKING THEIR SKILLS AVAILABLE TO OTHERS, ALAN PALLER, HOW EASY IS IT TO FIND THEM
>> IT'S VERY DIFFICULT TO FIND THEM. THERE ARE HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE WHO ARE AT ONE LEVEL OR ANOTHER HACKING THE COMPUTERS. THE F.B.I. HAS DONE AN INCREDIBLY GOOD JOB AT FINDING ENOUGH OF TIME TO MAKE IT VERY EXPENSIVE FOR AMERICAN TACTICS BUT THAT DOESN'T DO ANYTHING.
>> Woodruff: AND THAT RAISES THE QUESTION IS WHAT HAPPENS TO THESE PEOPLE. IF VERY FEW OF THEM ARE FOUND, THE ONES WHO ARE PINNED DOWN, WHO ARE CHARGED AND FOUND, WHAT'S THE... HOW ARE THEY HELD ACCOUNTABLE?
>> IT USED TO BE THEY WEREN'T PUT IN JAIL AND THEY WERE GIVEN JOBS AS EXPERTS NOW MORE. NOW THEY GO TO JAIL FOR A MINIMUM OF TWO TO THREE YEARS AND THE PRESIDENT HAS JUST PUT OUT A NEW PROPOSED BILL THAT WOULD SIGNIFICANTLY LENGTHEN THE SENTENCES.
>> Woodruff: BUT JIFF MOSS, THIS IS A PRETTY SMALL PERCENTAGE OF ALL THOSE WHO ARE DOING THE HACKING, IS THAT RIGHT?
>> RIGHT, A MINUSCULE DROP IN THE LAKE.
>> Woodruff: AND HELP US UNDERSTAND HOW DISRUPTIVE THESE THINGS ARE. OBVIOUSLY WE'RE TALKING ON A VERY DIFFERENT SCALE. THE PENTAGON IS ONE THING, SONY, PBS COMPLETELY DT... AT A COMPLETELY DIFFERENT LEVEL. BUT HOW MUCH DISRUPTION... WHAT KIND OF DAMAGE ARE WE TALKING ABOUT BEING DONE?
>> WELL, IT CAN BE ANYTHING FROM REPUTATIONAL DAMAGE WHERE MAYBE THERE'S NOTHING WORTH STEALING AT YOUR COMPANY THAT'S NOT PUBLIC ANYWAY. BUT YOU'RE TAKING A HUGE REPUTATIONAL HIT. PEOPLE WON'T TRUST YOU ANYMORE, TRUST WHAT YOU SAY THAT. 'S WHAT YOU SEE MOSTLY WITH NEWS ORGANIZATIONS. OR IT COULD BE SOMETHING LIKE A LOCKHEED MARTIN WHERE THEY HAVE DEFENSE SECRETS THAT ARE OF HIGH VALUE AND FOR THEM THAT'S THEIR GOLDEN EGG. THAT'S WHAT THEY WISH TO PROTECT. SO DEPENDING UPON THE MOTIVATION OF THE ATTACKER, THE ATTACKER ISN'T TRYING TO STEAL YOUR SECRET, THEY JUST WANT TO EMBARRASS YOU. THAT'S AN EASIER PROBLEM TO DEAL WITH. HAVING A MORE SECURE WEB SITE. HAVING A MEDIA PLAN TO RESPOND TO SUCH ATTACKS. IF YOU'RE A LARGE COMPANY YOU'RE CONSTANTLY BEING ATTACKED ONE WAY OR THE OTHER. IT MIGHT NOT MAKE THE NEWS BUT LARGE ORGANIZATIONS SHOULD BE USED TO THIS BY NOW.
>> Woodruff: WE SHOULD POINT OUT HERE AT THE NEWSHOUR, AS I COME BACK TO YOU MISCHEL KWON, VISITORS TO THE PBS WEB SITE WERE NOT COMPROMISED, IT WAS JUST OUR SITE THAT WAS BUT THE COST, WE HEARD $170 FOR SONY AND IT'S STILL DEALING WITH THIS.
>> AND AT TIMES IT'S HARD TO PUT A NUMBER ON THE DAMAGE. THERE ARE FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS THAT HAVE GONE OUT OF BUSINESS BECAUSE OF CYBER ATTACKS. SO THIS IS VERY SERIOUS. IT'S SOMETHING WE REALLY HAVE TO PAY ATTENTION TO.
>> Woodruff: WHAT CAN COMPANIES DO? I'VE BEEN READING TODAY THERE'S INSURANCE AVAILABLE BUT MANY COMPANIES DON'T HAVE IT.
>> THERE'S INSURANCE AVAILABLE. SOME COMPANIES AND SECTORS ARE REQUIRED TO HAVE INSURANCE. BUT I THINK THAT THE GOOD NEWS HERE AND WHAT WE HAVE TO PAY ATTENTION TO IS THAT THIS IS A LEARNING EXPERIENCE. THAT PEOPLE ARE LEARNING ABOUT HOW TO PROTECT THEIR ORGANIZATIONS, HOW TO UPGRADE THEIR SYSTEMS, WHAT HELP THEY CAN GET TO IMPROVE THEIR SECURITY AND USE THIS AS AN OPPORTUNITY TO IMPROVE THEIR SYSTEMS AND IMPROVE THEIR SECURITY AND BE MORE AWARE.
>> Woodruff: THERE'S A COST ASSOCIATED WITH THAT, ISN'T THERE ALAN PALER?
>> THERE IS. AND I THINK FOR TOO LONG THE CORPORATIONS AND GOVERNMENTS HAVE BEEN BLAMING THE USERS. TELLING THE SMALL BUSINESS THEY HAVE TO PROTECT THEMSELVES. TELLING THE BIG BUSINESS THEY HAVE TO PROTECT THEMSELVES. BUT 60 YEARS AGO THEY SAID THE DRIVERS HAD TO BE SAFE DRIVERS AND THAT WOULD SOLVE ALL THE PROBLEMS. BUT WE DIDN'T SOLVE MOST OF THE... WE DIDN'T DO IT WELL. WE HAVEN'T DONE ENOUGH TO MAKE SOFTWARE PEOPLE BUY SAFE AND MORE IMPORTANTLY WE HAVEN'T DONE ENOUGH TO MAKE A BETTER INTERNET THAT IS ONE THAT YOU KNOW WHO YOU'RE DEALING WITH.
>> Woodruff: ARE YOU SAYING IT'S NOT AVAILABLE OR AVAILABLE BUT NOT ENOUGH ORGANIZATIONS HAVE IT?
>> IT'S NOT AVAILABLE. WE HAVEN'T PUT THE ATTENTION ON THE CARS IN THE ROADS. WE PUT ALL THE ATTENTION ON THE DRIVERS SO WE F YOU STAY A SMALL COMPANY, YOU SHOULD DO A BETTER JOB CURING THE SYSTEM BUT THESE ATTACKS ARE SOPHISTICATED ENOUGH THAT IT'S VERY CHALLENGING FOR EVEN THE LARGEST COMPANIES. SO THE SMALL COMPANIES DON'T HAVE A CHANCE.
>> Woodruff: I WANT TO COME BACK TO YOU, JEFF MOSS, ON HOLDING HACKERS ACCOUNTABLE. I MEAN, THERE'S BEEN THIS SENSE ALMOST OF A CULT OF SOMETHING SORT OF INTERESTING AND TO BE ADMIRED ABOUT HACKERS. BUT I... BUT THAT'S CHANGING, ISN'T IT?
>> WELL, I ALWAYS TELL PEOPLE HACKING IS A WAY TO DESCRIBE SOMEBODY'S SKILL SET. YOU CAN HAVE CRIMINAL HACKERS AND YOU CAN HAVE QLEJ EXPLORATORY HACKERS. IT'S A WAY OF DESCRIBING SKILLS. AND SO I ALWAYS TRY TO USE THE TERM "COMPUTER CRIMINAL" TO DESCRIBE WHAT THEY'RE UP TO. THE TERM HACKER GETS TOO CONFUSING FOR PEOPLE.
>> Woodruff: AND IN TERMS OF ACCOUNTABILITY...
>> THAT'S THE HARD PART BECAUSE IN OLDEN DAYS HACKERS HAD A SKILL SET AND THEY KEPT IT TO THEMSELVES AND IT WAS HARD TO GET INFORMATION ON HOW TO BREAK INTO SYSTEMS. THE PROBLEM IS INFORMATION IS SO AVAILABLE READILY ONLINE THAT YOU CAN GOOGLE HOW TO BREAK INTO SYSTEMS. YOU COULD LEARN EVERYTHING YOU NEEDED TO KNOW AND NEVER HAVE TO TALK TO ANOTHER PERSON AND THAT MAKES IT MORE DIFFICULT BECAUSE IF YOUR MOTIVATIONS ARE DIFFERENT AND YOU'RE NOT ALTRUISTIC AND NOT DOING THIS TO ENHANCE THE OVERALL SECURITY OF SOCIETY YOU WANT TO DO THIS TO MAKE MONEY, YOU CAN DO THIS IN YOUR OWN HOUSE AND NEVER MAKE FRIENDS WHO WILL THEN SHARE THE SAME BELIEFS. THAT MAKES FINDING THEM HARDER BECAUSE DETECTING CRIMINALS ONLINE.
>> Woodruff: MISCHEL KWON, WHAT DOES THE FUTURE LOOK LIKE? DOES IT LOOK LIKE WITH NEW SOFTWARE, WITH A LITTLE MORE EXPENSE AND ALERT, OPERATION, THAT THIS KIND OF THING CAN BE PREVENTED OR WHAT?
>> WELL, I THINK AS WE MOVE OUR LIVES TO THE INTERNET, AS WE MOVE OUR LIVES MORE AND MORE WHETHER IT BE YOUR MOBILE FOAM OR SYSTEM AT HOME OR P.C. AT WORK, MORE AND MORE OF YOUR LIFE IS ON THE INTERNET. WE'RE GOING TO HAVE TO TAKE DIFFERENT ACTIONS TO PROTECT OURSELVES. JUST LIKE THE CRIMINALS HAVE MOVED WITH US TO THE INTERNET, WE HAVE TO BRING BETTER PROTECTIONS. IT MAY BE WE DESIGN A DIFFERENT WAY OF DOING THE INTERNET. IT MAY BE THAT WE RELY LESS AND LESS ON INDIVIDUAL COMPANIES TO PROTECT OURSELVES AND MOVE TO A MORE GLOBAL SECURE CLOUD TYPE ENVIRONMENT. THERE ARE LOTS OF DIFFERENT WAYS THAT WE COULD MOVE TO ACCOMPLISH A MORE SECURE PLATFORM, A MORE SECURE TECHNOLOGY. BUT WE'LL HAVE TO SPEND MORE TIME LOOKING AT, AS ALAN SAID, THE ROAD AND THE TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES.
>> Woodruff: AND IT LOOKS LIKE MORE OF US ARE GOING TO BE DOING THAT AS IT GOES ON. MISCHEL KWON, THANK YOU, ALAN PALLER, JEFF MOSS, THANK YOU ALL THREE.
>> Lehrer: THIS SPRING HAS BEEN ONE OF THE MOST DEADLY TORNADO SEASONS EVER. JUST TODAY MUCH OF THE EAST COAST FROM PENNSYLVANIA TO MAINE HAS BEEN UNDER A TORNADO WATCH. THIS HAS RAISED QUESTIONS ABOUT HOW WELL SCIENTISTS CAN ANTICIPATE AND WARN OF THE STORMS TO COME. NEWSHOUR CORRESPONDENT TOM BEARDEN REPORTS ON EFFORTS TO IMPROVE THE RECORD.4g
>> Reporter: THE MAY 22 TORNADO THAT FLATTENED A LARGE PART OF JOPLIN, MISSOURI, KILLED WELL OVER 100 PEOPLE. IT WAS CLASSIFIED EF5, THE MOST DAMAGING STORM ON THE SCALE. LESS THAN A MONTH EARLIER, AN EF4 TWISTER ROARED THROUGH TUSCALOOSA, ALABAMA. IT, AND OTHER TORNADOES THAT DAY, KILLED SOME 300 PEOPLE. PEOPLE IN BOTH TOWNS WERE WARNED. IN FACT, JOPLIN GOT 20 MINUTES OF ADVANCE NOTICE-- FAR MORE THAN THE AVERAGE OF ABOUT 13 MINUTES. COULD MORE TIMELY AND MORE ACCURATE WARNINGS HAVE SAVED LIVES? JOSH WURMAN HAS BEEN CHASING TORNADOES FOR 15 YEARS, BUT HE'S QUICK TO SAY SCIENCE STILL HAS MUCH TO LEARN.
>> THE BIG MISSING PIECES ARE THE REAL DETAILS OF EXACTLY HOW THE TORNADOES FORM AND HOW TO DISTINGUISH THE THUNDERSTORMS THAT ARE GOING TO MAKE TORNADOES AND THE ONES THAT AREN'T. MOST OF THEM DON'T. MOST OF THESE THREATENING, ROTATING THUNDERSTORMS DON'T MAKE TORNADOES, BUT A FEW DO. AND IN ORDER TO PREDICT BETTER WHEN THE TORNADOES ARE GOING TO FORM, WE NEED TO BE ABLE TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN THE ONES THAT DO AND THE ONES THAT DON'T.
>> Reporter: WURMAN IS THE PRESIDENT OF THE CENTER FOR SEVERE WEATHER RESEARCH, HEADQUARTERED IN BOULDER, COLORADO. SIX YEARS AGO, I WAS WITH HIS TEAM AS WE RACED ACROSS THE BACK ROADS OF KANSAS AND OKLAHOMA, TRYING TO POSITION TRUCK-MOUNTED RADARS TO PEER INTO THE MYSTERY OF HOW NATURE'S MOST VIOLENT STORMS ARE BORN. IN THE YEARS THAT FOLLOWED, THEY'VE DEVELOPED SOME NEW TOOLS.
>> IN ORDER TO SEE IN A BLIND AREA RIGHT AT THE GROUND, WE DEPLOY THESE TORNADO PODS. AND WE HAVE 18 OF THESE. AND WHEN THE TORNADO IS MOVING, GENERALLY EAST, WE DROP A WHOLE ROW OF THESE, LIKE A PICKET FENCE IN FRONT OF THE TORNADO, AND WE HOPE THAT IT RUNS OVER ONE OR SEVERAL OF THESE. AND WE MEASURE WIND, AND WE MEASURE WIND IN A DIFFERENT WAY. WE MEASURE TEMPERATURE AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY, AND THEN WE RECORD ALL THIS DATA INSIDE HERE. AND THIS IS TOUGHER THAN AN AIRCRAFT BLACK BOX. SO EVEN IF THESE INSTRUMENTS GET DESTROYED, THE DATA, WHICH IS REALLY IMPORTANT, SURVIVES INSIDE THIS, AND WE CAN PICK UP THE BOX AND DOWNLOAD IT TO A COMPUTER.
>> Reporter: TORNADO RESEARCH GOT A BIG BOOST OVER THE LAST TWO SPRING TORNADO SEASONS. WURMAN WAS ONE OF THE PARTICIPANTS IN A PROJECT CALLED VORTEX 2, THE LARGEST EFFORT EVER MADE TO UNDERSTAND TORNADOES. IT INVOLVED MORE THAN 100 SCIENTISTS AND 50 CHASE VEHICLES.
>> SCIENTISTS FROM VORTEX 2 ARE WORKING ON DOZENS OF TERABYTES OF DATA THAT WE COLLECTED FROM MOBILE RADARS LIKE WHAT'S BEHIND ME, FROM INSTRUMENTED VEHICLES, WEATHER BALLOONS. WE'RE TRYING TO SYNTHESIZE ALL THAT INTO A BETTER PICTURE OF HOW TORNADOES FORM. I THINK WITHIN ONE, TWO OR THREE YEARS, WE ARE GOING TO MAKE THOSE BREAKTHROUGHS.
>> Reporter: THE GOAL IS TO INCREASE WARNING TIMES TO PERHAPS 30 MINUTES.
>> IF PEOPLE HAD 30 MINUTES TO GET TO SAFETY, MAYBE MORE OF THEM COULD GET OUT OF THEIR HOUSES, GET OUT OF THEIR INTERIOR ROOMS, AND REALLY GET TO A TOUGH COMMUNITY SHELTER SO THEY CAN SURVIVE ONE OF THESE EF5 TORNADOES, WHICH JUST WIPES ALL... ALL THE ROOMS IN A HOUSE. IT DOESN'T MATTER IF YOU'RE IN AN INTERIOR ROOM OR NOT.
>> Reporter: OTHER SCIENTISTS ARE BUILDING ON THE EVOLVING KNOWLEDGE OF HOW AND WHY TORNADOES FORM TO CREATE NEW TECHNOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO IMPROVE WARNING TIMES FOR PEOPLE IN HARM'S WAY. SCIENTISTS FROM COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY AND THE UNIVERSITIES OF MASSACHUSETTS, OKLAHOMA AND PUERTO RICO ARE WORKING TO DEVELOP NETWORKS OF SMALL RADARS LIKE THIS ONE, UNDER A TEN-YEAR GRANT FROM THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION. WHEN NETWORKED TOGETHER, THE DISHES CAN PROVIDE A LOT MORE INFORMATION TO WEATHER FORECASTERS THAN THE EXISTING LARGE WEATHER RADAR SYSTEMS. THEY'VE BEEN TESTING A NETWORK OF FOUR OF THESE RADARS IN OKLAHOMA FOR THE LAST FOUR YEARS. DR. V. CHANDRASEKAR IS THE RESEARCH DIRECTOR.
>> IN A COUPLE OF EXAMPLES WE'VE HAD WHERE THE TORNADO HAS ACTUALLY COME INTO OUR NETWORK, THE FORECASTERS THAT USE THIS DATA, WITH A LOT OF TRAINING, THEY'VE FELT THEY WERE ABLE TO GET SOMEWHERE BETWEEN THREE TO FIVE MINUTES LEAD TIME IN PREDICTING TORNADOES AND WARNING FOR TORNADOES.
>> Reporter: FRANCESC JUNYENT IS THE PROJECT'S CHIEF ENGINEER. HE SAYS THE SYSTEM OPERATES PRETTY MUCH WITHOUT HUMAN SUPERVISION.
>> AS SOON AS SOMETHING ENTERS THE DOMAIN, THE SYSTEM WILL FOCUS ON IT AND WILL KEEP TRACK OF IT, AS WELL AS ANY OTHER THING ELSE THAT POPS IN THAT DOMAIN.
>> Reporter: AND HE SAYS IT PROVIDES MORE INFORMATION MUCH MORE QUICKLY.
>> IT'S FASTER IN THE SENSE THAT THE RADARS WILL REPOSITION THEMSELVES AT A FASTER RATE. I MEAN, JUST FROM AN INTUITIVE POINT OF VIEW, MOVING SOMETHING BIG IS A LOT HARDER THAN MOVING SOMETHING SMALL. SO THESE RADARS WILL BE MUCH MORE AGILE IN HOW THEY SCAN.
>> Reporter: THEY'RE ABOUT TO START BUILDING A NEW NETWORK IN DALLAS THAT WILL BE TWICE AS LARGE AS THEIR TEST SYSTEM.
>> WE HOPE TO GIVE, IN ADDITION TO TORNADO WARNINGS AND WATCHES, VERY EFFECTIVE STREET FLOOD WARNINGS, TO PREVENT STREET FLOODING AND THEN CARS GETTING STUCK IN STREET FLOODS AND SO ON.
>> SO SOME OPERATION LIKE THIS YOU COULD DEPLOY IN A METROPOLITAN ENVIRONMENT AS A NETWORK SO IT'S LIKE A PROTECTIVE SHIELD FOR THAT WHOLE METRO ENVIRONMENT.
>> Reporter: THIS SPRING'S DEADLY OUTBREAK HAS PEOPLE ASKING WHETHER TORNADOES ARE BECOMING MORE FREQUENT. JOSH WURMAN SAYS THE COUNTRY IS ON A RECORD PACE, BUT NOT THAT MUCH ABOVE THE RECORD.
>> IT'S PROBABLY JUST REALLY BAD LUCK. THE TORNADOES THIS YEAR HAVE GONE THROUGH CITIES. WE HAD ONE GO THROUGH TUSCALOOSA, WE HAD ONE GO THROUGH JOPLIN. AND WHEN A TORNADO GOES RIGHT THROUGH A CITY, IT CAN DESTROY THOUSANDS AND THOUSANDS OF STRUCTURES, AND, AS WE SEE, 100 PEOPLE OR EVEN MORE CAN DIE.
>> Reporter: WHILE SCIENCE IS WORKING HARD TO MAKE EARLIER WARNINGS POSSIBLE, NOT MUCH WILL BE ACCOMPLISHED IF PEOPLE IGNORE THEM. ANOTHER GOAL IS TO REDUCE THE ERROR RATE BECAUSE TODAY NEARLY ANOTHER GOAL IS TO REDUCE THE ERROR RATE FOR TORNADO WARNINGS, WHICH NOW STANDS AT 70%. RESEARCH SHOWS THAT PEOPLE TEND TO IGNORE WARNINGS IF THEY KNOW MOST OF THEM TURN OUT TO BE FALSE.
>> Lehrer: THE TOTAL NUMBER DEAD TODAY CONFIRMED AT 134.
>> Ifill: NEXT, A LOOK AT THE POLITICAL PHENOMENON THAT IS SARAH PALIN. OFFICIALLY, THERE ARE NOW FOUR DECLARED CANDIDATES SEEKING THE REPUBLICAN NOMINATION IN 2012: A FORMER MINNESOTA GOVERNOR; A FORMER HOUSE SPEAKER; THE FORMER C.E.O. OF A PIZZA FRANCHISE; AND A CURRENT TEXAS CONGRESSMAN. AND TOMORROW, ANOTHER FORMER GOVERNOR, MITT ROMNEY, WILL MAKE IT FIVE WHEN HE FORMALLY KICKS OFF HIS OWN CAMPAIGN IN NEW HAMPSHIRE. BUT FOR THE PAST FOUR DAYS, ALL THE OXYGEN IN THE RACE HAS BEEN CONSUMED BY SOMEONE WHOSE POLITICAL PLANS ARE EMPHATICALLY UNCLEAR: SARAH PALIN. THE FRENZY SURROUNDING THE 2008 VICE PRESIDENTIAL NOMINEE BEGAN SUNDAY, WITH THE LAUNCH OF HER "ONE NATION" BUS TOUR IN WASHINGTON. WITH NO PUBLISHED ITINERARY, REPORTERS HAVE TAKEN TO CHASING PALIN AT EVERY STOP, FROM GEORGE WASHINGTON'S VIRGINIA HOME, MOUNT VERNON; TO FORT McHENRY IN BALTIMORE; TO GETTSYSBURG; AND THEN TO PHILADELPHIA, TO SEE THE LIBERTY BELL. MORE FUEL WAS ADDED TO THE PUBLICITY FIRE LAST NIGHT WHEN PALIN JOINED DONALD TRUMP FOR A PIZZA DINNER BEFORE THE CAMERAS AT A TIMES SQUARE RESTAURANT. TODAY, IT WAS ON TO ELLIS ISLAND AND A VISIT TO THE STATUE OF LIBERTY. ALONG THE WAY, PALIN HAS FIELDED REPEATED QUESTIONS ABOUT HER POLITICAL PLANS, AND INSISTING EACH TIME THAT HER TOUR IS, FOR NOW, JUST A TOUR.
>> I DON'T KNOW IF I'M GOING TO BE A CANDIDATE FOR ANYTHING IN THE FUTURE. I'M JUST ON A MISSION RIGHT NOW TO BRING SOME GOOD ATTENTION TO THE HISTORICAL SITES THAT I WISH EVERY AMERICAN WOULD GET OUT AND SEE AND APPRECIATE. THIS ISN'T A CAMPAIGN BUS. THIS IS A BUS TO BE ABLE TO EXPRESS TO AMERICA HOW MUCH WE APPRECIATE OUR FOUNDATION AND TO INVITE MORE PEOPLE TO BE INTERESTED IN ALL THAT IS GOOD ABOUT AMERICA. IT INDICATES A DESIRE OF OURS TO GET ACROSS AMERICA AND REMIND OTHERS ABOUT OUR FOUNDATION, HOW IMPORTANT IT IS TO RESPECT AND PROTECT OUR CONSTITUTION.
>> Ifill: THOSE SWEPT UP IN THE MEDIA SWARM AROUND PALIN THIS WEEK HAD MIXED REACTIONS.
>> WE GOT SURPRISED WITH SEEING SARAH PALIN, WHICH WAS THE HIGHLIGHT OF OUR TRIP THIS WEEKEND.
>> I'M JUST NOT A FAN OF HERS. THERE'S NO BIG GAME DOWN HERE. SHE COULD HAVE CAUGHT A KODIAK BEAR OUT THERE IN THE HARBOR, FOR ALL I CARE.
>> Ifill: BUT IF PALIN WERE TO LAUNCH A PRESIDENTIAL BID, SHE SAID IT WOULD HAVE A DIFFERENT FEEL THAN OTHER CAMPAIGNS.
>> OH, IT WOULD DEFINITELY BE UNCONVENTIONAL AND NONTRADITIONAL, YES, KNOWING US.
>> Ifill: PALIN'S BUS TOUR-- PART SUMMER FAMILY VACATION, PART POLITICAL TEASE-- IS JUST THE LATEST EXAMPLE OF THAT UNCONVENTIONAL STYLE, WHICH USUALLY LIVES ONLINE. GRANTING FORMAL INTERVIEWS ONLY TO FOX NEWS, WHERE SHE IS UNDER CONTRACT, PALIN OFTEN ENGAGES IN PUBLIC DEBATE THROUGH SOCIAL MEDIA OUTLETS LIKE FACEBOOK AND TWITTER. THAT UNPREDICTABLE APPROACH HAS MADE HER A TEA PARTY FAVORITE AS WELL AS A REPUBLICAN WILD CARD. WITH OR WITHOUT PALIN IN THE RACE, THERE ARE ALREADY OTHERS HOPING TO WOO THOSE SAME VOTERS, INCLUDING MINNESOTA CONGRESSWOMAN MICHELE BACHMANN. JOINING US FROM NEW HAMPSHIRE IS DAN BALZ, NATIONAL POLITICAL CORRESPONDENT FOR THE "WASHINGTON POST." DAN, THIS ISN'T YOUR MOTHER'S CAMPAIGN, IS IT, IF THIS IS, INDEED, A CAMPAIGN?
>> WELL, I THINK THE KEY QUESTION, GWEN, IS IT IS A CAMPAIGN OR NOT A CAMPAIGN? SO FAR IT IS NOT A CAMPAIGN AND I DON'T KNOW THAT ANYBODY OTHER THAN SARAH PALIN AND HER HUSBAND TODD PALIN REALLY KNOW WHETHER IT'S GOING TO BECOME A CAMPAIGN. BUT IT IS AN UNCONVENTIONAL, UNORTHODOX APPROACH EVEN TO TESTING THE WATERS IF YOU COULD CALL IT THAT.
>> Ifill: YOU'RE IN NEW HAMPSHIRE AND SHE IS RUMORS TO BE HEADED THERE. ARE NEW HAMPSHIRE OR IOWA POLITICAL OPERATIVES LOOKING AT THIS AND SAYING YES, SHE'S COMING?
>> NO, I THINK AT THIS POINT EVERYBODY IS A LITTLE BIT BEMUSED, A LITTLE BIT CONFUSED AND WONDERING AND WAITING TO SEE WHETHER SHE DOES TAKE THE NEXT STEP. SHE HAS NOT BULLPEN IN IOWA OR NEW HAMPSHIRE THIS YEAR, UNLIKE ANYBODY ELSE WHO'S GOT A SERIOUS THOUGHT OF RUNNING FOR PRESIDENT. SO WHEN SHE ARRIVES HERE PRESUMABLY BY THE END OF THE WEEK THIS WILL BE HER FIRST TRIP HERE AND I THINK THAT PEOPLE WILL BE PAYING ATTENTION. BUT AS WE'VE SEEN ON THIS TRIP, BECAUSE SHE'S NOT LETTING PEOPLE KNOW WHERE SHE IS GOING TO BE SHE'S NOT DOING TRADITIONAL KINDS OF EVENTS THAT A CANDIDATE WOULD DO THAT DRAW A CROWD, HER INTERACTION WITH PEOPLE IS SOMETIMES MORE HAPPENSTANCE AND A LOT OF IT IS NOW THROUGH SOCIAL NETWORKING AND THE KIND OF INTERACTION THAT SHE'S GETTING THAT WAY.
>> Ifill: DAN, I DON'T WANT TO DATE YOU BUT YOU'VE BEEN DOING THIS FOR A LITTLE BIT. HAVE YOU EVER SEEN ANYTHING QUITE THIS WAY BEFORE?
>> NO, WE'VE NOT SEEN ANYTHING LIKE THIS BEFORE AND I THINK THAT'S BEEN THE CASE WITH GOVERNOR PALIN SINCE SHE CAME ON THE POLITICAL SCENE AS THE VICE PRESIDENTIAL NOMINEE IN 2008. SHE IS A DIFFERENT KIND OF CANDIDATE AND SHE CONNECTS WITH PEOPLE IN A DIFFERENT KIND OF WAY. I THINK SHE BELIEVES IN HER HEART IF SHE WERE TO RUN SHE COULD RUN, AS SHE PUT IT, AN UNCONVENTIONAL CAMPAIGN AND IT MIGHT BE SUCCESSFUL. NOBODY'S EVER SUCCESSFULLY DONE THE KIND OF THING SHE SEEMS TO WANT TO TRY TO DO IF SHE BECOMES A CANDIDATE, BUT THERE IS A FIRST TIME FOR EVERYTHING.
>> Ifill: IS ALL THE ATTENTION SHE'S GETTING SUCKING AIR OUT OF THE ROOM, CAUSING THAT SHAH GRIN FOR ANNOUNCED CANDIDATES? IS IT A FUNCTION WITH MEDIA, DISINTEREST WITH THE REST OF THE FIELD OR PUBLIC LACK OF ENTHUSIASM FOR THE REST OF THE FIELD?
>> I THINK IT'S A BIT OF ALL OF THOSE, GWEN. I DON'T THINK THE OTHER CANDIDATES ARE SITTING AROUND SAYING HOW DO WE PLOT OUR STRATEGY WITH THE POSSIBILITY THAT SARAH PALIN MIGHT BECOME A CANDIDATE AT SOME POINT LATER THIS YEAR. IF YOU'RE SERIOUS ABOUT TRYING TO WIN THE REPUBLICAN NOMINATION YOU KNOW YOU HAVE TO BE BUILDING AN ORGANIZATION, RAISING MONEY AND, IN FACT, YOU HAVE TO BE LEARNING TO TALK TO VOTERS IN A COMPELLING WAY. BUT THERE'S NO QUESTION THAT SARAH PALIN TAKES UP A LOT OF SPACE IN PART BECAUSE THERE IS LACK OF ENTHUSIASM WITH THE REST OF THE FIELD. WE'VE SEEN THAT IN POLLING. WE'VE SEEN THIS WHEN WE'VE TALKED TO VOTERS. BUT IF YOU ARE MITT ROMNEY WHO ANNOUNCES HERE TOMORROW YOU HAVE TO DO WHAT YOU HAVE TO DO AND YOU HAVE TO RUN THE CAMPAIGN YOU THINK IS THE BEST CAMPAIGN AND TRY TO WIN THE NOMINATION.
>> Ifill: SARAH PALIN'S A FORMER STATE GOVERNOR, A FORMER PARTY NOMINEE FOR THE VICE PRESIDENTIAL NOMINATION JUST A FEW YEARS AGO. CAN SHE SUCCESSFULLY CRAFT HERSELF?
>> WELL, I THINK SARAH PALIN HAS ALWAYS TRIED TO BE AN OUTSIDER AND EVEN THOUGH SHE WAS THE REPUBLICAN NOMINEE FOR VICE PRESIDENT I THINK GIVEN HER COMBATIVE RELATIONSHIP WITH THE MEDIA AND THE FACT THAT SHE HAS IDENTIFIED HIRST WITH THE SORT OF INSURGENT PART OF THE REPUBLICAN PARTY THAT IF SHE WERE TO GET IN SHE WOULD BE THE INSURGENT IN THE RACE, SHE WOULD BE THE OUTSIDER CHALLENGING THE REPUBLICAN ESTABLISHMENT TO THE EXTENT THAT THIS EXISTS. FILL FAIL XATIVE RELATIONSHIP BUT ONE PEOPLE CANNOT LOOK AWAY.
>> THAT'S RIGHT. I THINK WHETHER PEOPLE LIKE SARAH PALIN OR DON'T LIKE SARAH PALIN PEOPLE M PEOPLE FIND HER AN INTRIGUING PERSONALITY, A POLITICAL CELEBRITY LIKE THEY'VE NOT SEEN. SO SHE DOES DRAW ATTENTION. AND PARTICULARLY MEDIA AMENTION THIS KIND OF CABLE, TWITTER FACEBOOK ENVIRONMENT. SHE'S SORT OF READY MADE FOR THAT ENVIRONMENT AND THE QUESTION IS CAN SHE TRANSLATE THAT INTO A REAL CAMPAIGN?
>> Ifill: WELL, MAYBE SHE'S HEADED YOUR WAY UP THERE IN NEW HAMPSHIRE. DAN, THANKS FOR JOINING US.
>> THANK YOU, GWEN.
>> Ifill: FINALLY TONIGHT, A JAZZ MASTER AND HIS BIG BAND OF THE FUTURE. JEFFREY BROWN TALKS TO WYNTON MARSALIS. ♪
>> Reporter: IT WAS PART-WW COMPETITION, PART-CELEBRATION, PART WORKSHOP, AS HUNDREDS OF STUDENTS FROM AROUND THE NATION DESCENDED ON JAZZ AT LINCOLN CENTER IN NEW YORK RECENTLY FOR THE FINALS OF THE 16th ANNUAL "ESSENTIALLY ELLINGTON" FESTIVAL. 110 HIGH SCHOOL BANDS HAD ENTERED THIS YEAR'S COMPETITION, SUBMITTING RECORDED PERFORMANCES FOR THE JUDGES. JUST 15 WERE CHOSEN. IT BEGAN WITH AN EXTENDED MEDITATION FROM THE MAN BEHIND IT ALL: THE RENOWNED TRUMPET PLAYER, BAND LEADER AND HEAD OF JAZZ AT LINCOLN CENTER, WYNTON MARSALIS, WHO ANSWERED A BARRAGE OF QUESTIONS.
>> HOW DO YOU SAY WHAT YOU WANT TO SAY WHEN YOU'RE NOT SURE WHAT TO SAY?
>> I WAS WONDERING, WHAT IN YOUR MIND IS MUSIC IN ITS PUREST FORM?
>> WHAT WOULD BE YOUR ONE GREATEST PIECE OF ADVICE WHEN TRYING TO LEARN TRYING TO IMPROVISE?
>> Reporter: MOSTLY, THOUGH, MARSALIS SPOKE TO THE STUDENTS ABOUT WHAT HE CALLS THE "VALUES" IN AND GAINED THROUGH JAZZ.
>> YOU ALL ARE REQUIRED TO MAKE ANOTHER TYPE OF STATEMENT BECAUSE OF THE POSITION OF YOUR GENERATION. YOU'RE FORCED TO MAKE AN "I AM" STATEMENT WHERE YOU HAVE TO SAY "HEY, THIS IS AN IMPORTANT PART OF THIS COUNTRY, AT THIS TIME, IN THE WORLD, THIS MUSIC AND WHAT IT BROUGHT OUT." WE TEACH THEM THE BASIC VALUES OF OUR MUSIC. ONE, THE SIGNIFICANCE OF YOUR OWN CREATIVITY AND YOUR OWN IDEAS, YOUR "PERSONHOOD." THAT'S THROUGH IMPROVISATION. AND THROUGH SWING, THAT OTHER PEOPLE HAVE THAT, AND YOU HAVE TO FIGURE OUT HOW TO CHOOSE TO WORK TOGETHER. AND THAT OURS IS A MUSIC OF ETHICS MORE THAN LAWS. THE ETHICS ARE MORE IMPORTANT THAN THE LAWS.
>> Reporter: ETHICS MORE THAN LAWS? WHICH MEANS WHAT?
>> WHICH MEANS THAT THE EXACT NOTE IS LESS IMPORTANT THAN THE FEELING OF THE NOTE. ♪
>> Reporter: MARSALIS, WHO TURNS 50 IN OCTOBER, HAS BEEN IN THE PUBLIC EYE AND A MAN ON A MISSION FOR DECADES. HE WAS BORN INTO A MUSICAL NEW ORLEANS FAMILY. FROM EARLY ON, HE PLAYED WITH OLDER BROTHER BRANFORD, AND THEY AND THEIR SIBLINGS LEARNED FROM THEIR FATHER, ELLIS, A PIANIST AND EDUCATOR. YOUNG WYNTON PLAYED IN A CHURCH BAND AND PERFORM FUNK FOR FUN AND MONEY. AND HE STUDIED AND EXCELLED AT CLASSICAL MUSIC, WHICH HE'S CONTINUED THROUGHOUT HIS CAREER. ♪ BUT IT'S JAZZ AND THE PRESERVATION OF ITS MUSICAL TRADITION THAT'S BEEN HIS PASSION. ♪ HE STARTED HIS OWN BAND IN 1981 AND LATER BECAME THE FOUNDING ARTISTIC DIRECTOR OF JAZZ AT LINCOLN CENTER. MARSALIS CALLS IT THE HOUSE OF SWING, AND "SWING" IS WHAT HE WANTS TO TEACH TODAY'S STUDENTS.
>> SWING IS EXTREME COORDINATION.
>> Reporter: EXTREME COORDINATION?
>> IT'S A MAINTAINING OF BALANCE, EQUILIBRIUM. IT'S ABOUT EXECUTING VERY DIFFICULT RHYTHMS WITH A PANACHE AND A FEELING IN THE CONTEXT OF VERY STRICT TIME. SO EVERYTHING ABOUT THE "SWING" IS ABOUT SOME GUIDELINE AND SOME GRID AND THE ELEGANT WAY THAT YOU NEGOTIATE YOUR WAY THROUGH THAT. ♪
>> Reporter: AMONG THE BANDS COMPETING THIS YEAR: EAST ST. LOUIS HIGH, MAKING A FIRST-EVER APPEARANCE AFTER A 23-HOUR DRIVE TO NEW YORK. AND THAT GAVE ALTO SAX PLAYER CARLOS BROWN, JR., A CHANCE TO WORK WITH PROFESSIONAL MUSICIANS FROM THE JAZZ AT LINCOLN CENTER ORCHESTRA, AND TO SHOW HIS CHOPS IN A JAM SESSION WHILE DELANO REDMOND, DIRECTOR OF THE EAST ST. LOUIS BAND, LOOKED ON PROUDLY. ♪ AFTERWARDS, I ASKED THE PAIR HOW JAZZ FITS IN AT THEIR SCHOOL.
>> SPORTS IS VERY POPULAR IN OUR SCHOOL, SO IT'S LIKE YOU HAVE TO GO ABOUT IT LIKE SPORTS, LIKE THIS IS YOUR THING, YOU WANT TO DO IT. AND IF YOU GO ABOUT IT SAYING "THIS IS MY THING, I REALLY WANT TO DO IT THIS, I PUT MY BLOOD, SWEAT AND TEARS IN THIS," THEN PEOPLE WILL RESPECT IT. AND THAT'S HOW IT IS.
>> AS THE BAND DIRECTOR, WHEN I GET A NEW STUDENT, I HAVE TO TRANSFORM THAT STUDENT INTO A PERSON WHO'S WILLING TO APPRECIATE MUSIC AS A WHOLE. SO BY THE TIME THAT PERSON GRADUATES HIGH SCHOOL, THEY APPRECIATE BACH, BEETHOVEN. THEY ALSO APPRECIATE BASIE, DUKE ELLINGTON, MILES, COLTRANE. IT'S NOT ABOUT JUST JAZZ; IT'S ABOUT MUSIC AS A WHOLE.
>> Reporter: AND THAT IS EXACTLY WHAT WYNTON MARSALIS IS AFTER, AND MORE. BECAUSE FOR ALL THE UPLIFT AND SHEER EXUBERANCE OF THIS FESTIVAL, IT STEMS FROM A DEEPLY FELT CONCERN FOR AMERICAN CULTURE. MARSALIS' RECENT BOOK, TITLED "MOVING TO HIGHER GROUND," WAS A MIX OF MUSIC LESSON, SELF-HELP, AND A LAMENT ABOUT THE LOSS OF KNOWLEDGE OF THE ARTS IN THE NATION AND THE BLACK COMMUNITY IN PARTICULAR. IN IT, HE WROTE:
>> IF YOU ARE SERIOUS ABOUT AMERICAN CULTURE AND YOU ARE SERIOUS ABOUT AFRO-AMERICAN CULTURE, YOU ARE IN A LOT OF PAIN. YOU ARE NOT SMILING ABOUT IT. ( LAUGHS ) I'M LAUGHING, BUT IT'S THAT KIND OF LAUGH LIKE "OKAY."
>> Reporter: YOU'RE LAUGHING, BUT YOU RE IN PAIN ABOUT IT.
>> IT'S PAINFUL. YEAH, IT'S PAINFUL. THAT'S A PAINFUL THING FOR A BLACK AMERICAN WHO IS REALLY ENGAGED WITH OUR CULTURE. LET'S TAKE THE AFRO-AMERICAN OUT OF IT, BECAUSE THE AFRO-AMERICAN IS A CULTURE INSIDE OF A CULTURE. SO A LACK OF INTEREST IN OUR CULTURE, PERIOD, IN OUR NATION. WE WOULD BE SO MUCH BETTER IF WE KNEW OUR OWN CULTURE. IT'S HERE FOR US. IT'S BEEN LEFT BY, YOU KNOW, TAKE YOUR PICK. START WITH WALT WHITMAN. WE ARE NOT BETTER BECAUSE WE DON'T KNOW WHAT HE HAD TO TELL US. WE ARE NOT BETTER FOR NOT KNOWING DUKE ELLINGTON'S MUSIC. ♪
>> Reporter: AFTER HIS QUESTION AND ANSWER SESSION WITH THE YOUNG STUDENT MUSICIANS, HE TOOK US TO HIS BACKSTAGE DRESSING ROOM WHERE HE RELAXES PLAYING BLUES PIANO. ONE OF THE MOST MOVING QUESTIONS OUT THERE WAS THE YOUNG MAN WHO SAID HE WASN'T ALWAYS SURE WHAT HE WANTED TO "SAY" IN HIS SOLO OR HOW TO SAY IT, AND YOU TOLD HIM IT WAS THE SAME FOR YOU.
>> DIZZY GILLESPIE TOLD ME SOMETHING HE ONCE ASKED LOUIS ARMSTRONG: "POPS, WHY YOU ALWAYS LOOKING UP WHEN YOU PLAY?" AND ARMSTRONG SAID, "I DON'T KNOW WHAT I'M LOOKING FOR, BUT I ALWAYS FIND IT." ( LAUGHTER ) ♪
>> Reporter: THE KEY FOR THE NATION, MARSALIS SAYS, IS EDUCATION. AND FOR THESE STUDENTS: KEEP LOOKING AND KEEP PLAYING. AND THAT'S JUST WHAT THE COMPETITION'S ULTIMATE WINNER, FT. LAUDERDALE'S DILLARD CENTER FOR THE ARTS, DID. ♪
>> Lehrer: AND AGAIN, THE MAJOR DEVELOPMENTS OF THE DAY. PRESIDENT OBAMA TALKED ABOUT A DEBT REDUCTION DEAL WITH CONGRESSIONAL REPUBLICANS AT THE WHITE HOUSE TODAY, BUT NO DEAL WAS MADE. AND A CORRECTION BEFORE WE GO. LAST NIGHT, WE REPORTED THAT GERTRUDE STEIN BEQUEATHED A FAMOUS PICASSO PAINTING TO THE MUSEUM OF MODERN ART IN NEW YORK. IT WAS ACTUALLY THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART. AND TO KWAME HOLMAN FOR WHAT'S ON THE NEWSHOUR ONLINE. KWAME?
>> Reporter: WATCH MORE OF JEFF'S INTERVIEW WITH WYNTON MARSALIS, AND FIND VIDEO OF A TORNADO TRACKING POD IN ACTION. PLUS, MARGARET WARNER HAS MORE ON THE LIFTING OF THE STATE OF EMERGENCY IN BAHRAIN AND WHAT IT MAY MEAN FOR POLITICAL DIALOGUE IN THE COUNTRY. ALL THAT AND MORE IS ON OUR WEB SITE, newshour.pbs.org. GWEN?
>> Ifill: AND THAT'S THE NEWSHOUR FOR TONIGHT. ON THURSDAY, WE'LL LOOK AT THE REPUBLICAN PRESIDENTIAL FIELD AS MITT ROMNEY THROWS HIS HAT INTO THE RING. I'M GWEN IFILL.
>> Lehrer: AND I'M JIM LEHRER. WE'LL SEE YOU ONLINE AND AGAIN HERE TOMORROW EVENING. THANK YOU AND GOOD NIGHT. MAJOR FUNDING FOR THE PBS NEWSHOUR HAS BEEN PROVIDED BY:
>> OKAY, LISTEN. SOMEBODY HAS GOT TO GET SERIOUS.
>> I THINK...
>> WE NEED RENEWABLE ENERGY.
>> ...RENEWABLE ENERGY IS VITAL TO OUR PLANET.
>> YOU HEAR ABOUT ALTERNATIVES, RIGHT? WIND, SOLAR, ALGAE.
>> I THINK IT'S GOT TO WORK ON A BIG SCALE. AND I THINK IT'S GOT TO BE AFFORDABLE.
>> SO, WHERE ARE THEY?
>> IT HAS TO WORK IN THE REAL WORLD. AT CHEVRON, WE'RE INVESTING MILLIONS IN SOLAR AND BIOFUEL TECHNOLOGY TO MAKE IT WORK.
>> WE'VE GOT TO GET ON THIS NOW.
>> RIGHT NOW.
>> AND BY BNSF RAILWAY. PACIFIC LIFE-- THE POWER TO HELP YOU SUCCEED. AND BY THE ALFRED P. SLOAN FOUNDATION. SUPPORTING SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND IMPROVED ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE AND FINANCIAL LITERACY IN THE 21ST CENTURY. AND WITH THE ONGOING SUPPORT OF THESE INSTITUTIONS AND FOUNDATIONS. AND... THIS PROGRAM WAS MADE POSSIBLE BY THE CORPORATION FOR PUBLIC BROADCASTING. AND BY CONTRIBUTIONS TO YOUR PBS STATION FROM VIEWERS LIKE YOU. THANK YOU. Captioning sponsored by MacNEIL/LEHRER PRODUCTIONS Captioned by Media Access Group at WGBH access.wgbh.org
>> THIS IS "BBC WORLD NEWS AMERICA." FUNDING FOR THIS PRESENTATION IS MADE POSSIBLE BY THE FREEMAN FOUNDATION OF NEW YORK, STOWE, VERMONT, AND HONOLULU. NEWMAN'S OWN FOUNDATION. THE JOHN D. AND CATHERINE T. MACARTHUR FOUNDATION. AND UNION BANK.
>> UNION BANK HAS PUT ITS FINANCIAL STRENGTH TO WORK FOR A WIDE RANGE OF COMPANIES, FROM SMALL BUSINESSES TO MAJOR CORPORATIONS. WHAT CAN WE DO FOR YOU?
>> AND NOW, "BBC WORLD NEWS AMERICA."
Series
PBS NewsHour
Episode
June 1, 2011 3:00pm-4:00pm PDT
Producing Organization
NewsHour Productions
Contributing Organization
Internet Archive (San Francisco, California)
AAPB ID
cpb-aacip/525-804xg9g73x
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Description
News/Business. Jim Lehrer, Gwen Ifill, Judy Woodruff. (2011) New. (CC) (Stereo)
Date
2011-06-01
Subjects
Palin; Sony; Wynton Marsalis; Washington; Pentagon; Marsalis; New York; Jeff Moss; PBS; Mischel KwonBahrain; Dan; Pbs Newshour; New Hampshire; Lincoln; Oklahoma; Boehner; Joplin; Missouri; Tom Bearden; Josh Wurman; Wurman; Minnesota; Tuscaloosa; Mischel Kwon; Jeffrey Brown; David Chalian; Macneil Lehrer; China; Jim Lehrer; Biden; Kwame Holman; Yemen; Lockheed Martin; Chevron; Bnsf; Obama; Jim; Massachusetts; Alan Paller; Sarah Palin
Media type
Moving Image
Duration
01:00:00
Embed Code
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Credits
Producing Organization: NewsHour Productions
AAPB Contributor Holdings
Internet Archive
Identifier: KQED_20110601_220000_PBS_NewsHour (Internet Archive)
Duration: 01:00:00
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Citations
Chicago: “PBS NewsHour; June 1, 2011 3:00pm-4:00pm PDT,” 2011-06-01, Internet Archive, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed August 1, 2021, http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-525-804xg9g73x.
MLA: “PBS NewsHour; June 1, 2011 3:00pm-4:00pm PDT.” 2011-06-01. Internet Archive, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. August 1, 2021. <http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-525-804xg9g73x>.
APA: PBS NewsHour; June 1, 2011 3:00pm-4:00pm PDT. Boston, MA: Internet Archive, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-525-804xg9g73x