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>> Stewart: ON THIS EDITION FOR SUNDAY, MARCH 20: PRESIDENT OBAMA EMBARKS ON A HISTORIC TRIP TO CUBA. DAY ONE OF A PLAN TO START SENDING SOME MIGRANTS ARRIVING IN GREECE BACK TO TURKEY. AND, THE MAN BEHIND THE LYRICS OF "FIDDLER ON THE ROOF." NEXT ON PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND.
>> PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND IS MADE POSSIBLE BY: LEWIS B. AND LOUISE HIRSCHFELD CULLMAN. BERNARD AND IRENE SCHWARTZ. JUDY AND JOSH WESTON. THE CHERYL AND PHILIP MILSTEIN FAMILY. THE CITI FOUNDATION. SUPPORTING INNOVATION AND ENABLING URBAN PROGRESS. THE JOHN AND HELEN GLESSNER FAMILY TRUST. SUPPORTING TRUSTWORTHY JOURNALISM THAT INFORMS AND INSPIRES. SUE AND EDGAR WACHENHEIM, III. CORPORATE FUNDING IS PROVIDED BY MUTUAL OF AMERICA-- DESIGNING CUSTOMIZED INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP RETIREMENT PRODUCTS. THAT'S WHY WE ARE YOUR RETIREMENT COMPANY. PROVIDED BY:PPORT HAS BEEN AND BY THE CORPORATION FOR PUBLIC BROADCASTING, AND BY CONTRIBUTIONS TO YOUR PBS STATION FROM VIEWERS LIKE YOU. THANK YOU. FROM THE TISCH WNET STUDIOS AT LINCOLN CENTER IN NEW YORK, ALISON STEWART.
>> Stewart: GOOD EVENING AND THANKS FOR JOINING US. WHEELS DOWN IN HAVANA FOR AIR FORCE ONE, AS BARACK OBAMA BECOMES THE FIRST SITTING U.S. PRESIDENT TO VISIT CUBA SINCE CALVIN COOLIDGE ALMOST 90 YEARS AGO. THE PRESIDENT WILL SPEND A BUSY TWO DAYS ON THE COMMUNIST-RULED ISLAND NATION.
>> Reporter: ONLY EIGHT MONTHS AFTER THE FLAG WAS RAISED AT THE REOPENED U.S. EMBASSY IN CUBA, FOR THE FIRST TIME IN MORE THAN HALF A CENTURY, THE STREETS OF HAVANA ARE DECORATED WITH AMERICAN FLAGS AND IMAGES OF PRESIDENT OBAMA. THE PRESIDENT AND THE FIRST FAMILY ARE BEGINNING THEIR CUBAN VISIT WITH A WALKING TOUR OF HISTORIC OLD HAVANA TONIGHT. MR. OBAMA WILL MEET TOMORROW WITH CUBAN PRESIDENT RAUL CASTRO AND ATTEND A STATE DINNER. OBAMA HAS NO PLANS TO MEET WITH FORMER PRESIDENT AND REVOLUTIONARY LEADER FIDEL CASTRO, OLDER BROTHER OF THE CURRENT PRESIDENT. BUT HE DOES INTEND TO SPEND TIME ON TUESDAY WITH CRITICS OF CASTRO'S GOVERNMENT, MANY OF WHOM HAVE FACED ARRESTS FOR THEIR OUTSPOKEN OPPOSITION. THE WHITE HOUSE WOULD NOT DISCLOSE WHICH DISSIDENTS MR. OBAMA WILL SEE BUT INSISTS THE LIST IS NOT NEGOTIABLE:
>> BUT I CAN TELL YOU THAT THE PRESIDENT IS GOING TO MOVE FORWARD AND HOST MEETINGS AND HAVE A CONVERSATION ABOUT HUMAN RIGHTS WITH THE PEOPLE THAT HE CHOOSES TO MEET WITH.
>> Reporter: THIS AFTERNOON IN HAVANA, POLICE ARRESTED DOZENS OF ANTI-GOVERNMENT DISSIDENTS FROM THE SO-CALLED "LADIES IN WHITE" GROUP. THE PRESIDENT WILL ALSO DELIVER A SPEECH AT THE NATIONAL THEATER OF CUBA, WHERE HE PLANS TO LAY OUT HIS VISION FOR HOW THE TWO COUNTRIES CAN WORK TOGETHER. HE'LL ALSO CATCH A BASEBALL GAME BETWEEN CUBA'S NATIONAL TEAM AND THE MAJOR LEAGUE TAMPA BAY RAYS.
>> Reporter: AND IN A VIDEO RELEASED ONLINE BY THE WHITE HOUSE YESTERDAY, THE PRESIDENT JOKED WITH CUBA'S MOST FAMOUS COMEDIAN, LUIS SILVA WHO OFTEN SATIRIZES THE FAILINGS OF THE CUBAN GOVERNMENT AND ECONOMIC SYSTEM. EARLIER I SPOKE WITH CHRISTOPHER SABATINI, A PROFESSOR AT COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY'S SCHOOL OF INTERNATIONAL AND PUBLIC AFFAIRS ABOUT THIS NEW ERA IN U.S.-CUBA RELATIONS.
>> Stewart: CHRISTOPHER HAS DESCRIBED AS A LARGELY SYMBOLIC TRIP BUT YOU DON'T GO TO ALL OF THIS TROUBLE JUST FOR SYMBOLISM, WHAT ELSE ASK THERE TO IT.
>> IN BOTH CASE AS LEGACY. RAUL CASTRO AND HIS OLDER BROTHER FIDEL HAVE RULED CUBA SINCE 1959, FIDEL WILL TURN 90 IN AUGUST, SO IF YOU WANT TO SEE SOME ELEMENTS OF THE REVOLUTION PRESERVED AND IT HAS NOT BEEN SUCCESSFUL ON THE ECONOMIC 0 FRONT, ON THE SOCIAL FRONT. ON OBAMA SIDE HE WANTS TO TURN THE PAGE AND DOESN'T WANT TO HAVE CUBA AND U.S. RELATIONS IN CUBA FROZEN IN THE COLD WAR, HE HAS ENGAGED IN REFORMS THROUGH EXECUTIVE ORDERS, HE WANTS TO PRESERVE THAT LEGACY AS WELL, SO SYMBOLIC BUT VERY IMPORTANT.
>> Stewart: HIS CRITICS HAVE SAID SOME OF HIS APPROACH TO CUBA FOREIGN POLICY THA THAT IS NAIVE AND DANGEROUS.
>> DANGER DEFINITELY NOT, IMAW IS NOT A NATIONAL SECURITY THREAT TO THE UNITED STATES DESPITE SOME CLAIMS, BUT HE HAS -- HE IS TRYING TO ENGAGE WITH CUBA AND A GOVERNMENT THAT REALLY DOES NOT ABIDE BY BASIC HUMAN RIGHTS STANDARDS SO A LOT OF THE CRITICS ARE ARGUING OF PRESIDENT OBAMA'S FOREIGN POLICY HE IS WEAK NEED BEFORE DESPOTS BUT OBAMA IS BETTING THAT A, IN THE CASE OF CUBA 90 MILES OFF THE COAST OF THE UNITED STATES WHICH THERE ARE 2 MILLION CUBAN AMERICANS TWO, THIRDS OF THEM IN FLORIDA ALONE, THE FLOW OF DIALOGUE AND EXCHANGE IS GOING TO BUILD SORT OF, IF YOU WILL, THE FOUNDATION FOR LONGER TERM POLITICAL CHANGE THAT, YOU KNOW, IS MORE IMPORTANT TAN WHETHER YOU ENGAGE IN A GRUDGE MATCH WITH THE CURRENT REGIME OR NOT.
>> WILL THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES TALK ABOUT HUMAN RIGHTS?
>> FIRST OF ALL IT IS IMPORTANT THAT HUMAN RIGHTS HAVE NOT CHANGED IN CUBA, A LITTLE OVER A YEAR AGO THE PRESIDENT ANNOUNCED A SERIES OF EXECUTIVE ACTIONS TO LOOSEN THE EMBARGO AND CUBA HAS NOT BDGED, NORMALIZED, WE NOW HAVE EMBASSIES IN EACH OTHER COUNTRIES, CUBA HAS NOT BUDGED ON HUMAN RIGHTS.
>> IN THE LAST MONTH ALONE, OVER 1,400 DISSIDENTS AND ACTIVISTS WERE ROUNDED UP AND BRIEFLY DETAINED.
>> WHAT WILL HAPPEN? HE IS GOING TO TALK TO THE DISSIDENTS AND HAVE A MEETING IN THE EMBASSY WITH HUMAN RIGHTS ACTIVIST AND ENTREPRENEURS AS WELL. I THINK MOST IMPORTANTLY WHAT HE WILL DO IS ENGAGE IN A PUBLIC SPEECH THAT WILL BE BROADCAST LIVE NATIONALLY, IN THE NATIONAL THEATRE, AND YOU WILL SEE HIM TALK ABOUT CUBANS ASPIRATION FORCE A DIFFERENT LIFE AND CLOSE RELATIONS WITH THE UNITED STATES AND HUMAN RIGHTS AND POLITICAL FREEDOM BEING A PART OF THAT.
>> Stewart: CHRISTOPHER SABBATINI, THANK YOU SO MUCH.
>> >> Stewart: A NEW MIGRANT DEAL BETWEEN TURKEY AND THE EUROPEAN UNION AIMED AT STOPPING ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION WENT INTO EFFECT TODAY. UNDER THE AGREEMENT, MIGRANTS ILLEGALLY ENTERING GREECE BY SEA WILL BE SENT TO TURKEY AFTER THEIR ASYLUM CLAIMS ARE PROCESSED. BUT GREECE SAYS REFUGEES ARE STILL CONTINUING TO ENTER, WITH AT LEAST 875 PEOPLE ARRIVING IN THE PAST 24 HOURS. THE E.U. WILL HELP GREECE IMPLEMENT THE DEAL BY SENDING FOUR THOUSAND OFFICIALS TO HELP MANAGE THE MIGRANTS' CASES. THE DEAL CALLS FOR GREECE TO HAVE A FAST-TRACK PROCESS IN PLACE TO ASSESS ASYLUM CLAIMS BY APRIL 4. TODAY AT THE VATICAN, IN HIS PALM SUNDAY MESSAGE, POPE FRANCIS LAMENTED WHAT HE CALLED WIDESPREAD "INDIFFERENCE" TO THE PLIGHT OF THE REFUGEES. JOINING ME NOW FROM THE GREEK ISLAND OF LESBOS, AN ENTRY POINT FOR MANY OF THE REFUGEES IS NEWSHOUR SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT MALCOLM BRABANT.
>> Stewart: HOW ARE THINGS GOING SO FAR?
>> THINGS ARE SLOWING UP IN CERTAIN PARTS FORCE ISLAND, BUT IT LOOKS AS THOUGH PEOPLE ARE STILL DETERMINED TO COME HERE. MOST EXTRAORDINARY, ACTUALLY TODAY, WE ARE ABOUT 500 PAKASTANIS, FOR EXAMPLE, WHO REGISTERED IN A CAMP JUST OUTSIDE OF THE MAIN TOWN. NOW, THESE ARE THE SORT OF PEOPLE, THIS IS THE SORT OF NATIONALITY UNFORTUNATELY THAT THE EUROPEAN, EUROPEAN UNION NO LONGER WANTS AND ARE MOST LIKELY TO BE DEPORT SOD THEY HAVE COME AN EXTREMELY LONG WAY AND ALL EXTREMELY WORRIED.
>> I TALKED TO ONE A PAKASTANI MAN WHO HAS BEEN HERE A LITTLE LONGER THAN THEM, ONE DAY, AND HE SAID THAT SHE A CHRISTIAN, AND IF GREECE SENDS HIM BACK, HE SAYS HE WILL COMMIT SUICIDE HERE BECAUSE THE PROSPECT OF GOING BACK TO PAKISTAN IS TOO AWFUL TO CONSIDER.
>> Stewart: TELL ME ABOUT THE ADMINISTRATIVE CHALLENGES THE FIRST DAY.
>> WELL THEY HAVE BEEN DOING OVER THE PAST DAY OR SO IS TO EMPTY THE ISLAND OF PEOPLE THAT ARE HERE ALREADY, AND WE HAVE SEEN SEVERAL FERRIS COMING INTO LESBOS TO TAKE PEOPLE AWAY TO VARIOUS PARTS OF GREECE, TO AN AWFUL PORT JUST OUTSIDE OF ATHENS AND ANOTHER PLACE IS KABBALAH, AND THIS IS WHEREAS ASYLUM CLAIMS WILL BE ASSESSED. I THINK WHAT IS HAPPENING HERE IS THAT WHAT THEY WANT TO BE ABLE TO DO IS TO GET THEM AWAY FROM -- INTO VARIOUS PLACES AROUND GREECE SO THEY CAN DISPERSE THEM BECAUSE THEY ARE CONCERNED THAT THERE IS GOING TO BE SOME REVOLT AMONGST THESE PEOPLE BECAUSE THEY WON'T WANT TO GO BACK AND WE CAN SEE THE PREPARATIONS OF THE AUTHORITIES ARE MAKING. THEY HAVE BROUGHT IN RIOT POLICE FOR EXAMPLE TO CAMPS TO MAKE SURE THAT PEOPLE DO REGISTER, AND, RELUCTANTLY BECAUSE THEY END UP GETTING SENT BACK.
>> Stewart: WHAT ABOUT THE GREEK PEOPLE, THE GREEK FOLKS ON THE GROUND, HOW ARE THEY FEELING TODAY?
>> WELL, I WENT TO THE, THE MAIN CHURCH THIS MORNING TO SEE WHAT THE REACTION WAS AND WE TALKED TO THE PRIEST INSIDE THE CHURCH AND HE SAID, WELL, I REGARD THESE PEOPLE AS LIKE FISH YOU GOT OUT OF THE WATER THEY ARE HALF DEAD SO TO SEND THEM BACK IS ABSOLUTELY CRUEL BUT OF COURSE, THERE IS A DESIRE THAT THIS WHOLE WAVE OF PEOPLE COMING HERE WILL COME TO AN END BECAUSE THIS IS AN ISLAND THAT IS DEPENDENT ON THE HOLIDAY TRADE AND THEY ARE GOING TO HAVE A TERRIBLE 2016, ALL OF THEIR CHARTER FLIGHTS HAVE COME TO AN END, HARDLY ANY SORT OF PLANNED HOLIDAY MAKERS ARE COMING HERE AND THEY ARE LOOKING AT THE ECONOMIC RUIN POSSIBLY THIS YEAR, SO THEY ARE DESPERATE FOR
>> Stewart: MALCOLM BRABANT TO REPORTING FROM LESBOS, THANK YOU VERY MUCH.
>> >>
>> Stewart: SENATE MAJORITY LEADER MITCH McCONNELL TODAY FLATLY RULED OUT A VOTE ON SUPREME COURT NOMINEE MERRICK GARLAND IN THE LAME-DUCK SESSION OF CONGRESS FOLLOWING THE NOVEMBER ELECTION, EVEN IF DEMOCRATS WIN THE PRESIDENCY AND THE SENATE.
>> WE THINK THE IMPORTANT PRINCIPLE IN THE MIDDLE OF THIS PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION, WHICH IS RAGING, IS THAT AMERICAN PEOPLE NEED TO WEIGH IN AND DECIDE WHO'S GOING TO MAKE THIS DECISION. NOT THIS LAME DUCK PRESIDENT.
>> Stewart: FOR HIS PART, SENATE MINORITY LEADER HARRY REID SAID ON NBC'S "MEET THE PRESS" THAT THE MAJORITY LEADER'S REFUSAL TO ALLOW A VOTE WOULD HAVE CONSEQUENCES:
>> McCONNELL IS LEADING HIS SENATE OVER THE CLIFF. AND I AM TELLING EVERYBODY, THE SENATORS AREN'T GOING TO ALLOW THAT.
>> Stewart: READ MORE ABOUT THE POLITICAL SHOWDOWN OVER THE OPENING ON THE SUPREME COURT. VISIT US ONLINE AT pbs.org/newshour.
>> Stewart: SINCE OPENING ON BROADWAY IN 1964, "FIDDLER ON THE ROOF" HAS BECOME A CLASSIC. A MUSICAL ABOUT HOLDING ONTO TRADITIONS IN A CHANGING WORLD, A STRUGGLE AGAINST OPPRESSION, AND FINDING JOY AND LOVE IN THE FACE OF HARDSHIP. A REVIVAL OF "FIDDLER" IS NOW PLAYING ON BROADWAY, AND THE SHOW'S ORIGINAL LYRICIST, 91- YEAR-OLD SHELDON HARNICK, HAS HAD A FRONT ROW SEAT. THE NEWSHOUR'S ZACHARY GREEN HAS THIS PROFILE.
>> ♪ TRADITIOOOOON! TRADITION!
>> Reporter: A HALF CENTURY AFTER ITS PREMIERE, THE SONGS OF "FIDDLER ON THE ROOF" ARE KNOWN AROUND THE WORLD. IT TELLS THE STORY OF TEVYE, A POOR JEWISH DAIRYMAN, AND HIS FAMILY FACING OPPRESSION IN RURAL RUSSIA AT THE TURN OF THE 20TH CENTURY. THIS PRODUCTION AT THE BROADWAY THEATER MARKS THE FIFTH TIME "FIDDLER" HAS BEEN REVIVED ON BROADWAY.
>> THIS IS ONE OF THE FINEST CASTS WE'VE EVER HAD. SO REVISITING THE SHOW HAS BEEN A THRILL.
>> Reporter: EVEN AT 91-YEARS- OLD, LYRICIST SHELDON HARNICK HAS BEEN DIRECTLY INVOLVED IN THIS REVIVAL. HELPING CHOOSE THE DIRECTOR AND ATTENDING REHEARSALS. WE SPOKE WITH HIM AT SARDI'S RESTAURANT, FAMOUS FOR ITS CARICATURES OF BROADWAY STARS; AMONGST THEM, HARNICK'S OWN LIKENESS. HARNICK SAYS THE INSPIRATION FOR "FIDDLER" CAME WHEN HE RECEIVED A BOOK BY HUMORIST SHOLEM ALEICHEM.
>> THE STORIES WERE RIVETING. AND WHAT WAS ASTONISHING ABOUT THEM WAS THAT SOME OF THEM WERE ACTUALLY TRAGIC, AND YET THERE WAS A GREAT DEAL OF HUMOR IN THEM. AND BY THE TIME YOU GOT TO THE END OF THE STORY, YOU MIGHT BE CRYING, BUT YOU WERE LAUGHING ALONG THE WAY. SO I SENT IT TO JERRY BOCK, AND I SAID, "THIS IS OUR NEXT MUSICAL."
>> Reporter: COMPOSER JERRY BOCK AND HARNICK HAD ALREADY WRITTEN HIT MUSICALS LIKE "SHE LOVES ME," ALSO A CURRENT BROADWAY REVIVAL, AND "FIORELLO," ABOUT NEW YORK CITY MAYOR LAGUARDIA. BUT "FIDDLER" WOULD BECOME THEIR MOST SUCCESSFUL COLLABORATION AND PRODUCED THEIR BEST KNOWN SONG, BASED ON ALEICHEM'S PROSE.
>> ♪ IF I WERE A RICH MAN. ALL DAY LONG I'D BITTY BITTY ♪ BUM, IF I WERE A WEALTHY MAN!
>> I FIND IT A LITTLE EMBARRASSING IF SOMEBODY READS ONE OF THE STORIES CLOSELY, HE WILL FIND THE LYRICS TO IF I WERE A RICH MAN. I PRACTICALLY JUST TOOK THEM RIGHT OUT OF THE STORY AND SET THEM TO MUSIC. THAT'S NOT ENTIRELY TRUE; I HAVE SOME CRAFT. BUT A LOT OF THOSE IMAGES WERE IN THE STORIES.
>> Reporter: "FIDDLER'S" MAIN STORY FOLLOWS THE STRUGGLES OF TEVYE AND HIS WIFE, GOLDE, AS THEY TRY TO MARRY OFF THEIR FIVE DAUGHTERS.
>> ♪ MATCHMAKER, MATCHMAKER MAKE ME NO MATCH. ♪ I'M IN NO RUSH. MAYBE I'VE LEARNED.
>> Reporter: THE THREE ELDEST INSIST ON MARRYING SOMEONE THEY LOVE, DESPITE THE WISHES OF THEIR WELL-MEANING PARENTS TO FIND THEM WEALTHY SUITORS. THAT DISASSOCIATION BETWEEN LOVE AND MARRIAGE IS ILLUSTRATED IN THE SONG "DO YOU LOVE ME," WHERE TEVYE AND GOLDE ADMIT THEIR FEELINGS FOR EACH OTHER AFTER 25 YEARS OF MARRIAGE. HARNICK WROTE IT AS A LATE ADDITION TO THE MUSICAL DURING ITS INITIAL PRE-BROADWAY RUN IN DETROIT.
>> I WAS STANDING IN THE BACK OF THE HOUSE. AND I SUDDENLY STARTED TO SOB. AND I THOUGHT, 'iWHY AM I WEEPIG LIKE THIS?' AND THEN I THOUGHT, 'iIT'S BECAUSE I WISHED THAT MY OWN PARENTS HAD HAD THE RELATIONSHIP THAT GOLDE AND TEVYE HAD HAD.' I GREW UP DURING THE DEPRESSION, AND THERE WERE A LOT OF VICIOUS, VIOLENT ARGUMENTS BETWEEN MY PARENTS ABOUT MONEY. NOT THAT THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEVYE AND GOLDE IS A SIMPLE, LOVING RELATIONSHIP, IT'S A COMPLEX RELATIONSHIP, BUT BASICALLY IT'S A LOVING RELATIONSHIP. AND IT JUST AFFECTED ME, AND I STARTED TO CRY. SO THERE WAS MUCH MORE IN THE SONG THAN I KNEW WHEN I WROTE IT.
>> Reporter: "FIDDLER" OPENED ON BROADWAY TO RAVE REVIEWS AND WENT ON TO SWEEP THE 1965 TONY AWARDS. THE ORIGINAL PRODUCTION RAN FOR EIGHT YEARS. AT THE TIME, THE LONGEST RUN IN BROADWAY HISTORY. THE 1971 MOVIE VERSION BROUGHT THE SHOW TO A WIDER AUDIENCE. ALTHOUGH THE STORY FOCUSES ON THE PLIGHT OF RUSSIAN JEWS, HARNICK SAYS THE PREJUDICE IN THE FILM AND STAGE PRODUCTIONS IS FAMILIAR TO MANY DIFFERENT PEOPLE.
>> WE SAW A REMARKABLE PRODUCTION OF IT IN A BLACK AND PUERTO RICAN NEIGHBORHOOD, WHERE THE CAST WAS ALL BLACK AND PUERTO RICAN. AND THE YOUNG BLACK MAN, HE WAS 15-YEARS-OLD, WHO PLAYED TEVYE, WAS SUPERB. THEY UNDERSTOOD THE SHOW. THEY UNDERSTOOD WHAT IT WAS ABOUT, AND THAT KIND OF RACE HATRED.
>> Reporter: AND HARNICK SAYS THE MUSICAL'S END. WHEN TEVYE'S FAMILY AND FELLOW VILLAGERS LEAVE WITH ONLY THE BELONGINGS THEY CAN CARRY, CAN STILL BE SEEN IN REAL LIFE EVEN TODAY.
>> THE SYRIAN PROBLEM AND PEOPLE LEAVING SYRIA AND HAVING NOWHERE TO GO, IT RESONATES EVEN MORE. IT SAYS SOMETHING TERRIBLE ABOUT THE HUMAN RACE THAT IN 50 YEARS, THAT IMAGE HAS ALWAYS BEEN CURRENT. THERE'S ALWAYS BEEN SOME PLACE IN THE WORLD WHERE SOMETHING HORRIBLE IS GOING ON.
>> ♪ TO US AND OUR GOOD FORTUNE! BE HAPPY! BE HEALTHY! LONG LIFE!
>> Reporter: BUT DESPITE THE TIMELESS QUALITY OF "FIDDLER ON THE ROOF", HARNICK SAYS THE MUSICAL'S ENDURING LEGACY IS STILL REMARKABLE TO HIM.
>> THAT WE WOULD RUN EIGHT YEARS, AND THAT THE SHOW WOULD BECOME WHAT IT WAS, WAS A SURPRISE TO US. IT'S KIND OF STILL A SURPRISE. I MUST SAY IT'S A VERY PLEASANT SURPRISE. WE RECOGNIZED WHEN WE READ THE STORIES THAT THEY WERE NOT JUST ABOUT A JEWISH FAMILY, THAT THERE WAS SOMETHING UNIVERSAL ABOUT THESE STORIES. AND WE TRIED TO REALIZE THE UNIVERSALITY OF WHAT WAS IN THOSE STORIES, AND TO MAKE THIS A SHOW THAT WOULD APPEAL TO PEOPLE OF ALL FAITHS AND ALL BELIEFS.
>> ♪ DRINK L'CHAIM! TO LIFE!
>> Stewart: A RECENT REUTERS/IPSOS POLL REVEALS THAT ONLY 21% OF AMERICANS THINK THE COUNTRY IS HEADING IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION. SO, WHAT HAPPENS IN A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY WHERE UNDERSTANDABLE GRIEVANCES HAVE TURNED MANY CITIZENS ANGRY? SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT JEFF GREENFIELD LOOKS BACK AT A LONG- AGO LATE WINTER, AND TWO NATIONS THAT RESPONDED IN VERY DIFFERENT WAYS.
>> PEOPLE ARE FED UP WITH WHAT I CALL THE WASHINGTON CARTEL.
>> THE KIND OF BLUSTER AND BIGOTRY AND BULLYING.
>> ARE YOU TIRED OF A HANDFUL OF BILLIONAIRES RUNNING OUR ECONOMY?
>> Reporter: NOW IS THE LATE WINTER OF OUR DISCONTENT, AT LEAST, THAT'S WHAT THE POLLS, POLITICIANS, AND THE PUNDITS TELL US.
>> YOU'RE LOSING YOUR JOBS, YOU'RE LOSING YOUR INCOME, YOU'RE LOSING YOUR FACTORIES
>> Reporter: WE ARE AN ANGRY PEOPLE, BATTERED BY ECONOMIC STAGNATION AND CULTURAL DISLOCATION. FROM ACROSS THE POLITICAL SPECTRUM COME ARGUMENTS THAT WE'VE BEEN PLAYED FOR SUCKERS; THE SYSTEM IS RIGGED. SO HOW DOES A FREE SOCIETY RESPOND? HOW DO LEGITIMATE GRIEVANCES THAT STIR LEGITIMATE ANGER GET RESOLVED, NOT EXPLOITED? ONE ANSWER COMES FROM A LATE WINTER MORE THAN 80 YEARS AGO. ON MARCH 4, 1933, FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT BECAME PRESIDENT OF A NATION WHERE ONE IN FOUR ADULTS WERE OUT OF WORK, WHERE BANKS WERE FAILING BY THE HUNDREDS, WHERE DEPRIVATION WAS A STARK REALITY. HIS REASSURING WORDS ABOUT FEAR ARE FAMOUS, LESS SO, HIS
>> THE ONLY THING WE HAVE TO FEAR IS FEAR ITSELF.
>> Reporter: LESS SO, HIS INDICTMENT OF THOSE RESPONSIBLE:
>> RULERS OF THE EXCHANGE OF MANKIND'S GOODS HAVE FAILED THROUGH THEIR OWN STUBBORNNESS AND THEIR OWN INCOMPETENCE, HAVE ADMITTED THEIR FAILURE, AND HAVE ABDICATED.
>> Reporter: BUT BY MONTH'S END, F.D.R. HAD TURNED FROM RECRIMINATIONS TO ACTION, USING THE FIRST OF HIS "FIRESIDE CHATS" TO EXPLAIN A MANDATORY WEEK-LONG BANK HOLIDAY TO AVOID A RUN ON THE BANKS. AND HE WAS ALSO OFFERING A RAFT OF PROPOSALS DURING HIS FIRST HUNDRED DAYS, A NEW DEAL, TO PUMP UP THE ECONOMY.
>> CONFIDENCE AND COURAGE ARE THE ESSENTIALS OF SUCCESS IN CARRYING OUT OUR PLAN.
>> Reporter: BUT ACROSS THE ATLANTIC IN ANOTHER DEMOCRATIC NATION AFFLICTED BY CRISIS, SOMETHING VERY DIFFERENT WAS HAPPENING. A DAY AFTER F.D.R.'S INAUGURATION, GERMANS WENT TO THE POLLS BURDENED BY THEIR GRIEVANCES, PUNISHING REPARATIONS IMPOSED ON THEM AFTER WORLD WAR I AND STAGGERING INFLATION THAT RENDERED LIFE SAVINGS WORTHLESS. THEIR VOTES STRENGTHENED THE HAND OF INTERIM CHANCELLOR ADOLF HITLER, WHO ENDLESSLY TOLD HIS COUNTRY OF THE GREAT BETRAYAL AT THE HANDS OF BOLSHEVIKS AND JEWS, WHO, HE SAID, HAD COMMITTED A "CRIME UNPARALLELED IN GERMAN HISTORY." BY THE END OF MARCH, 1933, THE GERMAN PARLIAMENT WOULD ADOPT "THE ENABLING ACT," WHICH LET GERMANY SLIDE INTO A ONE-PARTY DICTATORSHIP DETERMINED TO AVENGE THE HUMILIATIONS OF THE GREAT WAR BY MILITARY CONQUEST. ONE NATION PRESERVING ITS TRADITIONS, THE OTHER DESCENDING INTO TYRANNY; BUT IT'S NOT THE WHOLE STORY. FOR INSTANCE, THERE WERE IMPORTANT AMERICAN VOICES BACK THEN ARGUING THE TOOLS OF THE AMERICAN GOVERNMENT WERE INADEQUATE TO MEET THE CRISIS OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION. WALTER LIPPMAN, THE MOST INFLUENTIAL, SYNDICATED NEWSPAPER COLUMNIST OF HIS DAY, HAD ARGUED: "A MILD SPECIES OF DICTATORSHIP WILL HELP US OVER THE ROUGHEST SPOTS IN THE ROAD AHEAD." THE DAY AFTER F.D.R. WAS INAUGURATED, A CHICAGO SUNDAY TRIBUNE HEADLINE HAD READ: "FOR DICTATORSHIP IF NECESSARY." WILLIAM RANDOLPH HEARST, THEN THE MOST POWERFUL NEWSPAPER PUBLISHER OF HIS DAY, FINANCED A MOVIE, "GABRIEL OVER THE WHITE HOUSE."
>> MR. PRESIDENT, THIS IS DICTATORSHIP.
>> Reporter: IT CELEBRATED THE IDEA OF A DIVINELY INSPIRED PRESIDENT SOLVING THE NATION'S WOES BY SEIZING TOTAL POWER.
>> AND AS COMMANDER AND CHIEF OF THE ARMY AND NAVY IT IS WITHIN THE RIGHTS OF THE PRESIDENT TO DECLARE THE COUNTRY UNDER MARSHALL LAW.
>> Reporter: AND IN REAL LIFE, LOUISIANA SENATOR HUEY LONG, WHOSE CONTROL OVER THE STATE WAS DESCRIBED AS A DICTATORSHIP BY CRITICS-WAS PREPARING A PRESIDENTIAL CHALLENGE TO F.D.R. WITH A "SHARE THE WEALTH" PROGRAM.
>> THAT FOUR PERCENT OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE OWN 85% OF THE WEALTH OF AMERICA.
>> Reporter: RADIO PRIEST CHARLES COUGHLIN, WHOSE LISTENERS NUMBERED IN THE MILLIONS, WAS BEGINNING HIS MOVE FROM F.D.R. SUPPORTER TO DENOUNCING "INTERNATIONAL BANKERS" AND JEWISH POLITICAL INFLUENCE.
>> WE BELIEVE IN CHRIST'S PRINCIPAL OF LOVE YOUR NEIGHBOR AS YOURSELF AND WITH THAT PRINCIPAL I CHALLENGE EVERY JEW IN THIS NATION TO TELL ME THAT HE DOES NOT BELIEVE IN IT.
>> Reporter: AND IN 1937, F.D.R. HIMSELF PUSHED THE BOUNDARIES OF PRESIDENTIAL POWER, TRYING TO CHANGE A SUPREME COURT THAT OPPOSED MANY OF HIS PROGRAMS. HE WANTED TO "PACK" THE HIGH COURT WITH SIX ADDITIONAL JUSTICES. BUT HIS OWN DEMOCRATIC PARTY REJECTED THE PLAN. RETIREMENTS ENABLED F.D.R. TO REPLACE ENOUGH JUSTICES SO THE COURT'S WAS NO LONGER AN OBSTACLE TO THE NEW DEAL.
>> I ASK THIS CONGRESS FOR AUTHORITY AND FOR FUNDS
>> Reporter: BY 1940, A DEFENSE MOBILIZATION TO MEET THE GROWING NAZI THREAT FINALLY ENDED WIDESPREAD UNEMPLOYMENT. IT'S IMPOSSIBLE TO KNOW WHAT MIGHT HAVE HAPPENED WITH DIFFERENT LEADERS AT THE HELM OF THE UNITED STATES AND GERMANY; IF THE U.S. HAD BEEN LED BY A MORE TIMID, OR A MORE AGGRESSIVE OR VENGEFUL LEADER. AND EVEN IN THIS WINTER OF OUR DISCONTENT, WE ARE FACING NOTHING LIKE THE CRISIS OF THAT GREAT DEPRESSION. STILL, THAT LONG AGO MARCH HAS A LESSON FOR US, WHEN A SENSE OF GRIEVANCE IS STRONG ENOUGH, WIDE ENOUGH, IT CAN SUBJECT EVEN THE MOST STABLE OF POLITICAL SYSTEMS TO THE MOST SIGNIFICANT OF CHALLENGES. RETURNING TO CUBA WHERE PRESIDENT OBAMA ARRIVED LATE THIS AFTERNOON AT THE START OF HIS TWO-DAY VISIT, THE PRESIDENT WILL DELIVER A SPEECH AT THE NATIONAL THEATRE OF CUBA, WHERE HE PLANS TO LAY OUT HIS VISION FOR HOW THE TWO COUNTRIES CAN WORK TOGETHER. WE WILL HAVE MORE OF THE NEWSHOUR TOMORROW AND AS ALWAYS YOU CAN STAY UP TO DATE AT PBS.ORG/NEWSHOUR. THAT'S IT FOR IN EDITION OF PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND, I AM ALISON STEWART. GOOD NIGHT.
>> Captioning sponsored by WNET Captioned by Media Access Group at WGBH access.wgbh.org
>> PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND IS MADE POSSIBLE BY: LEWIS B. AND LOUISE HIRSCHFELD CULLMAN. BERNARD AND IRENE SCHWARTZ. JUDY AND JOSH WESTON. THE CHERYL AND PHILIP MILSTEIN FAMILY. THE CITI FOUNDATION. SUPPORTING INNOVATION AND ENABLING URBAN PROGRESS. THE JOHN AND HELEN GLESSNER FAMILY TRUST. SUPPORTING TRUSTWORTHY JOURNALISM THAT INFORMS AND INSPIRES. SUE AND EDGAR WACHENHEIM, III. CORPORATE FUNDING IS PROVIDED BY MUTUAL OF AMERICA-- DESIGNING CUSTOMIZED INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP RETIREMENT PRODUCTS. THAT'S WHY WE ARE YOUR RETIREMENT COMPANY. ADDITIONAL SUPPORT HAS BEEN PROVIDED BY: AND BY THE CORPORATION FOR PUBLIC BROADCASTING, AND BY CONTRIBUTIONS TO YOUR PBS STATION FROM VIEWERS LIKE YOU. ANK YOU. ♪ The Corporation for Public Broadcasting... Rosalind P. Walter... The Philip and Janice Levin Foundation... Judith and Burton Resnick... The Blanche & Irving Laurie Foundation... Vital Projects Fund... Michael and Helen Schaffer Foundation... The André and Elizabeth Kertész Foundation. Original funding for this program was provided by The National Endowment for the Arts. Art works. The Weinstein Company...
Series
PBS NewsHour Weekend
Episode
PBS NewsHour Weekend : KQED : March 20, 2016 5:30pm-6:01pm PDT
Producing Organization
NewsHour Productions
Contributing Organization
Internet Archive (San Francisco, California)
AAPB ID
cpb-aacip/525-154dn40r4v
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Description
Included: a profile of "Fiddler on the Roof" lyricist Sheldon Harnick, beginning at 00:10:18. You can use the link below to share or go directly to the segment: https://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_525-154dn40r4v#at_619.23963_s.
Date
2016-03-21
Media type
Moving Image
Duration
00:31:00
Embed Code
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Credits
Producing Organization: NewsHour Productions
AAPB Contributor Holdings
Internet Archive
Identifier: KQED_20160321_003000_PBS_NewsHour_Weekend (Internet Archive)
Duration: 00:31:00
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Citations
Chicago: “PBS NewsHour Weekend; PBS NewsHour Weekend : KQED : March 20, 2016 5:30pm-6:01pm PDT,” 2016-03-21, Internet Archive, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed May 27, 2020, http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-525-154dn40r4v.
MLA: “PBS NewsHour Weekend; PBS NewsHour Weekend : KQED : March 20, 2016 5:30pm-6:01pm PDT.” 2016-03-21. Internet Archive, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. May 27, 2020. <http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-525-154dn40r4v>.
APA: PBS NewsHour Weekend; PBS NewsHour Weekend : KQED : March 20, 2016 5:30pm-6:01pm PDT. Boston, MA: Internet Archive, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-525-154dn40r4v