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Latin America perspectives a series of information and comment about Latin America with Dr. C. Harvey Gardner research professor of history at Southern Illinois University. These programs are recorded by station w s i u FM. Here now is Dr. Gardiner ask a New Yorker what lies north of that state and he will invariably answer Canada. Ask a Texan what lies south of his state and his answer will be Mexico. The man who is himself aware and proud of a regional identification within the massive thing that is the United States seldom realizes at least to the point of recognizing the same for foreigners and foreign areas. We tend New Yorkers and all of those to deny the distinction and dignity of difference to the province of Ontario within Canada. And similarly the Texan joined by the rest of us ignores the
peculiarities of regionalism that give distinctiveness to the Mexican state of Tamaulipas. Most areas be they in Canada the United States Mexico or elsewhere. Striving for recognition of their individuality. It come then somewhat as a surprise to encounter a region that is fighting off the tradition of uniqueness. That however is precisely the case for the southernmost state of Brazil. The state of Rio Grande do Sul in the volume. Brazil South its conquest and settlement written by face veiling spelled the e double l i n h o and published by Albert A cannot. We have a refutation of the idea that real grounded us will is different that it is less Brazilian
than the rest of that giant like some of the problem relates to size some to location some to history. I have said that Rio Grande at OSU was the southernmost of the Brazilian States and so it is. And this gives it a certain peculiarity geographically for one thing about one fourth of its parameter places upon the Atlantic Ocean. Approximately another fourth of its boundary is against independent Gorog Y and roughly a third quarter of its boundary lies against independent Argentina. This leaves about one fourth of its boundary line bringing it adjacent to indeed into the body of the rest of Brazil. This in a sense makes real grounded of soules more separated from the rest of Brazil
geographically. Now let us say the state of Maine is from the rest of the United States. Because after all Maine does have the sympathetic common language that is English spoken immediately to the north of it in a foreign country. This is not the case because that Portuguese of Rio Grande into soules speedily gives way to Spanish in both Argentina and Uruguay. Additionally Rio grounded a school rolling plains but it is by and large is separated by forests from a great deal of that part of Brazil which lies to the north of it. Additionally it is unlike the rest of Brazil in that it is the most distinctly temperate zone of all that massive land of more than 3 million square miles that we call Brazil. And so in terms of geography in terms of climate in terms of some cultural influences there are some built in
differences. And history would also make it the case because this is fundamentally a frontier zone. Indeed a great deal of the excitement to be found in the volume Brazil South is meeting the problems meeting the vigor that is the way of life on the front here in South America. This is a frontier of the Portugese world against the Indian A frontier of the Portuguese world against the Spanish. There are several basic themes developed in the volume. One has to do with those bands of Brazilians who plunge into the interior. Sometimes looking for slave labor force to bring back to plantations and to their ranching activities to any kind of work to which they could train the Indian. Sometimes these expeditions were of course for gold silver or some other get rich quick possibility. The men in these bands became known as a band
and according to our author of old they have been but paraded thinking Lee and immoderately. He says Father Robert studies history of Brazil reflects the influence which such libels have exerted upon Christian trained minds. The English poet and historian accepted it as pure truth. The testimony left by the Jesuits. As in all expansionist movements even those of religious or ideological nature deeds of impulse the violence dotted the itineraries of the bombed out on days nobody could or would dare deny it. But in spite of the brutality and the toughness and fearlessness of their own slights to them are reserved the bringing together indeed the unification the integration of Portuguese America to the whole of its present extent. We have them in part in this volume by
Brazil to solve what amounts to an assault upon some of the prior historical interpretations. Indeed page after page at times he did lights in trying to rectify the record. And one thing is to do with this. The assessment of the nature the behavior the place in history that these wandering men of the South the boundary around to should have. His is a kinder. Interpretation of judgement in reference to them. At the same time you will note he is hinting at what becomes a denunciation. Maybe a little meant another change devaluation in reference to the rule of the Jesuits in that area is to be remembered in this region. The Jesuits set up Mission Systems and there were seven mission cities as they are sometimes called our towns in which they tried to bring these wandering gluttony
Indians and teach them the ways of Agriculture make of them sedentary peoples. We have these words again straight from the vending ya'll. The success of the missionary enterprise was not as assured as the annual reports composed to impress the old world favorably tried to make it seem the truth is that the great experiment suffered from inherent evils that profoundly endangered the viability of the Jesuit dream. What could result from the way of life imposed on the Aborigine whose cultural tradition his modes of living his nomadism were all abruptly cut short. Bound to the soil the neophytes had to submit under fear of punishment to new types of labor and new modes of living. Their timorous respect for the witch doctor priest and medicine man of the tribe was crushed
by violence. Such radical measures even go for the best of purposes could not lead to good results. The human material in this experiment being of the lowest grade of the area in South America was not such as to become that out of which a leading civilization could be mowed. The Jesuits themselves were convinced of this although they were often impelled to say the contrary and documents intended for publication. It is known that the intelligence of the Indians progress satisfactorily under the father's teaching up to the age of 12. There it stopped or even began to regress. Indeed father money well no but I had reached the discovery decon conclusion that our Aborigines were and these are the Jesuits own words the sorry yest and basest heathen in the whole world. It was easier for the Jesuits then to utilize the
Indians for war actually than it was for work. According to the Navy's cultural tradition agriculture a domestic sedentary occupation was for women only the men reserved for themselves activities that they considered more noble as warfare hunting fishing. When sent to the field the men showed stubborn if mute resistance sometimes behaving in a way most upsetting to the economy of the missions. They broke the wooden plows they built fires the pieces of those wooden plows and then roasted and ate the oxen that had been long them by the priests for the cultivation of the fields. In war on the other hand they saw themselves returning to the laws and way of their tribes to their culture their aversion to labor their dull irresponsibility their instability of character their inclination devices all represented a constant challenge to the father's patients and
hope. And yet the Jesuits incomparable overseers gradually maybe unconsciously allowed the spiritual Modi's that took them there in the first place. The motives spiritual preach Bailo you're allowed to give way to a rash temporal design. The point was reached when it was no longer certain whether it was a religious enterprise running one of these mission centers or a vast economic organization that in church hands was exempt from taxation. In addition to extended consideration of the bands of men who went into the area and the Jesuit system which had a great deal to do with peopling the area we have out of the generalized treatment and occasional note that is a case study and one such has to do with a very able bodied man called him sod
buster called him trailblazer. Call him pioneer. A man named Ted ate it up and out of the generalized statement of the history of grounded a school we meet on such an occasion. Be strong and interesting. A forceful personality has the rights of his native state and the author is a combination lawyer the politician and man of letters a man approximately as old as the twentieth century. He does so trying to put down the suggestion that his area has been a haven for the cul de ja from real grounded a school via the US went to the presidency and went to a 20th century dictatorship. Benigno insists that this man defied his nature that he picked up his subtle his dictatorial his negative ideas elsewhere that what he did fought the dictatorship of
Brazil was picked up outside his native state. We have been in this volume. The study of the clash of the Spanish and the Portuguese the role played by missionaries and Jesuits the outstanding personalities the contrasts Indeed studies even of the purity of literature. This is Brazil South by Vinnie Neal published by Alfred A. This was another program in the series Latin America perspectives with Dr. C. Harvey Gardner research professor of history at Southern Illinois University. Join us for our next program when Dr. Gardner will comment on another interesting aspect of Latin American affairs. These programs are recorded by station WFIU FM and are made available to this station by the national educational radio network.
Latin American perspectives II
Episode Number
Episode 27 of 38
Producing Organization
WSIU 8 (Television station : Carbondale, Ill.)
Southern Illinois University at Carbondale
Contributing Organization
University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
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For series info, see Item 3544. This prog.: Brazil South
Global Affairs
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Producing Organization: WSIU 8 (Television station : Carbondale, Ill.)
Producing Organization: Southern Illinois University at Carbondale
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 68-31-27 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:13:29
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Chicago: “Latin American perspectives II; Episode 27 of 38,” 1969-03-17, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed December 4, 2023,
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APA: Latin American perspectives II; Episode 27 of 38. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from