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The following program is produced under a grant from the educational radio and television center and is distributed through the National Association of educational broadcasters University of Michigan proudly presents one nation indivisible. Self-determination independence. Sovereignty. These are the catch words of one of the most powerful forces on march in the world today. Words which symbolize the desire of people everywhere. To be masters of their own political destiny. This is our story.
The story of nationalism in the twentieth century. Told in a series of 13 radio documents created by the broadcasting service of the University of Michigan. And now. One nation indivisible. It is a fact that North Africa is a unity. It's covered in history culture and traditions not unlike today it faces government problems needs and aspirations. We believe that the future of Algeria exists in an Algerian state incorporated within the North African Union working for a coordinated economic and cultural development of the Maglev. The governments of more going Tunisia have also reaffirming their hopes of establishment of a not happy configuration. I want this genie is linked together in the future as it was in the past.
The voice is that of Mr. Abdul Qadir Chandan a representative of the Algerian front of national liberation. He is one of four men representing the principle interests in North Africa. Well you will hear from today the others are Mr. Mansour cut out a concert of Tunisia and member of the Tunisian Permanent Mission to the United Nations. Mr. Muhammad L. Cohen the consul general of Morocco and acting representative of Morocco to the United Nations and Mr. Robert Van our first concert out of the French embassy in Washington. The sense of common destiny expressed at the beginning by Mr. Chandan Abe has led us to consider nationalism in Morocco Algeria and Tunisia as a unit in this program. The people of these three countries live almost literally between the devil and the deep blue sea to the south and east they face the hot rainless to Herat to the north and west. The Mediterranean and the Atlantic between these limits of too little and too much water stand the Atlas Mountains highest and most rugged in Morocco they
decline and simplified toward the north east and finally subside in Tunisia the coastal plains and valleys running back into the mountains have served to accept surplus population. And I was currently in Algeria to provide a refuge for those at odds with the lowland government. The cities of North Africa have seen in their time Phoenicians Greeks Romans vandals Arabs Turks and more recently the Spanish and French with each wave came customs language laws and religion much of which was incorporated by the local Berber speaking population into its own culture. In the first centuries after Christ for instance the peoples of Tunisia were more Roman in culture than was the case in any part of what is now France that these people now speak Arabic rather than some modern derivative of Latin such as French or Spanish and are chiefly Muslims is due to the Arab invasions principally in the 8 and 11 centuries armies administrators and urban elements came in the first wave country populations mainly herders came in the second and
since that time the mass of the population has had cultural ties with the east rather than with Europe. With the decline of the Ottoman Empire and the rush by European nations to acquire colonies in Africa during the 1980s. Algeria was entered by the French in 1830. Tunisia in 1881 as late as the first decade of the 20th century France and Spain began the occupation of Morocco. Along with new languages farming and business techniques. The Europeans brought with them their own political concepts young men from Tunisia Algeria and Morocco sent to Paris for an education were exposed not only to engineering and economics but also to the ideals of the French Revolution liberty equality and fraternity. It was only a matter of time before the native North African was inspired to apply these principles of
independence and national sovereignty to his own country. Today Tunisia and Morocco have gained their independence. The fate of Algeria hangs in the balance. The physical tie which links the three countries of North Africa is the mountain system. But in many instances the mountains come down directly to the sea and there is no band of arable land to provide easy contact and communication marked regional subdivisions of existed in administrative form at least since Roman wrote Morocco itself was never under the control of the Ottoman Empire. But the greatest difference which history has imposed on the three countries lies in the length of time each has been governed by European colonial forces. The background against which the drama of these imagine independent nations is played includes a basic disagreement between the Arab nationalists and the French government as to conditions in the area at the time of French entry and the nature of French Polish say after Andrei here
is Mr. L. Cohen representing the American point of view. There are very high and she moved and the occupation by France doing 45 year must be in the US too as a path to a vast system. We keys in the car in the car and you can probably see by Saturn last in the 19th century. 80 20. Algeria was compared in 80 80 It was the Tunisia as term in 1920 and that of more coal. We deplete he called the protector of 1920. You demand the start of trusteeship of them all. We each Why keeping is traditional institutions
made with governments and some of them will be administered by the letter but on their home or friends. In fact to keep up appearances the French care is to have a home and welcome home. Google members of seekers called nationals and in the country called cunts back these are the city you are penniless was manned for international council Constitution only humanity or one of their governors and DS Malcolm Graham Hyde Nori power and deceive for example were fired by the governor supposed me to advise him as the director next to the PYNE minister for hire. Families can see expression being we do is highly functional
then you set off yes yes. Where people buy maybe if you try to be competent. It was a necessary condition for the function in believe. One way or saying yes yes we actually the athlete who is now representing the French point of you know Mr. Robert Gallo fresh counsel to the French embassy in Washington has this to say. We're going to cover him when the president and it will
come when the plan. Remember the country right. Algerian nationalists disagree. Here is Mr. Chandan a again the time of the country and we are with an independent nation with many nations including France and I think from being the blockade was by the plans known of where and money and no one with friends
and going to make this a vital element in the problem of nationalist development in North Africa is the very apparent difference of opinion concerning the actual advantages and disadvantages of French occupation. The French position is praised by Mr valor. Justice. In the Mediterranean. Highway robbers. One in broad daylight. Then the fencing got used modern methods of agriculture modern industry and modern transportation. Have been actually that good. Cost 3 billion dollars have been gutted in the US a week in the life of Mr. Woolston out of the pockets of the French taxpayer in metropolitan as it is out the
standards of living of the Muslim world will feel inadequate if we improve that. Up in dissent we have Mr. Chandan way of Algeria as you know Fred Astaire's widely publicized her work of construction and whether my session in a jail these improvements however were undertaken for the benefit of the fam circus and the organ population of Algeria for example in a country where most of the population is Muslim and does not use wine. The best areas that is to say one million two hundred thousand acres are owned by 90 percent by Europeans and are devoted exclusively to continuation of Vimy arts and from Morocco. Mr. L. Cohen you advance incertain might be a
way of doing the French occupation. That ours that is the case in our family in occupations of national technical means. These things were not a dime for the benefit from the aftermarket bet to found an administrative and economics touch on the basis of the exploitation of the riches of the country. I came here to the same current economy have. Define blessed many more socially politically and education as we suggested earlier. Many of the basic concepts of nationalism spread from Europe to North Africa. France has been proud of our Westernizing role and their influence in preventing the spread of communism to North Africa. Mr. Van are
good friends. To the north African nationalist However colonial practice is hardly consistent with French ideals as Mr. heard at a concert of Tunisia. The main building as matter of fact that our country received from France. I think it was better and the standing of the high principles which contribute to create and build the French Republic engine is yeah that's. You'll find it. I mean all of that is in there. You find that we have the deepest respect for France tradition for French culture and civilization. As a matter of fact most of the denizen speak French unfortunately. These are
principles will not apply to our country. When did nationalist sentiment arise in each of the three countries of North Africa. How did a tree of its present status Mr. Candidate when the nationalist sentiment was exactly it was just after the first world war when they did it in students who have been sent to France or Europe coming back to their country where amazed by the difference of living which exists between Tunisia and Europe. They decided to put an end to that creation and to create a party in order to work for the benefit of the country. They pledge to put all their energy into the service. Of. This party which I think created the
new party. Which means the Jewish. It was headed by happy people in Cuba who is now the president of our timid of that innocent Republic but givers her problem. Oh well I was a simple and logical one. Well it is a rights to succeed ingrained into Tunisia constitution which will govern the country and another to reach that goal. He chose the peaceful way the negotiation with the French officials. Now. What about Morocco Mr. L. Cohen. Read the national mood there I think from. The beginning of the French occupation I had a first even reading this moment where I'm very willing to face the 901 of them and don't even any war which ended in 1925.
The people in the mountains in South Milwaukee where the last two Sundays in the 995. The mother national movement which started in 1980 very dirty. You see its independence last year and finally Algeria wended nationalist sentiment arise in that country. Mr. Chattaway. It is well known that nationalism has always existed in NJ area. The French invasion in it in Furry was faced by the arm of the resistance will be injuring people in a struggle which continued for 17 years and has been continued in sporadic uprisings ever since. Immediately after World War 2 in which many NJ areas fought with the Free French forces the Algerian people's demands that the principles of the Atlantic Charter be extended to them were met with immediate and harsh
repression in less than three days in May 1945. 45000 the Germans were killed by France troops in the Constantine ranging in 1954 all Algerian political parties and probably Belgian factions united to form one only clues able guys in the group. The engine front of national liberation. On November 1st 1954 the engine of evolution began activating the army of national liberation which is the military arm of the front the executive body of the FAA and is the National Council of the Algerian revolution composed of 17 members of the military a miracle taking place in the jail here today is due to one fact that Jane resistance is not limited to the Mandan arms. But is there is a sense of an entire people from the foregoing. We may conclude that as far as the North African nationalists are concerned true
nationalist sentiment was triggered by the actual entry into their countries of the colonial forces of France. Furthermore the nationalists agree that Prime's perhaps unconsciously aided the cause of national aspiration by educating important segments of the population to what we have learned to call today the principles of Western democracy. In the 20th century Morocco and Tunisia resisted their colonial status first by force of arms. But the eventual resolution of their struggle was accomplished through negotiation. The General Assembly of the United Nations played a large role in these negotiations. In the case of Tunisia the UN passed a resolution on December 17th 1952 expressing its confidence that the government of France would pursue its about policy of endeavoring to further the effective development of free institutions of the Tunisian people with a view to bringing about self-government. A similar resolution was passed two days later in regard to the question of Morocco. The successful conclusion of these negotiations
is a tribute to the goodwill of all parties concerned. But the future may hold more questions than the past. Until these questions are answered the true pattern of North African nation hood may not reveal itself and the true character of each country within that troubled area may not become apparent at least to Western eyes. In viewing the future problems and difficulties are envisaged by all parties. Since independence the governments of Tunisia and Morocco have made many advances particularly in the field of legal reforms. National armies must be created new ministries installed. Order and Security achieved after the disruptions of revolution illiteracy health unemployment an economy out of balance. These are problems common to all countries in North Africa.
The most pressing problem today however is that involving the independence of Algeria. There is obviously no meeting of minds between the colonial powers and the revolutionary forces in Algeria. The official attitude of France is stated by Mr. valor. It would be really good to country when circumstances move. We have considered and will consider lifting National's positions are from King Newton element
suspect. These extreme nationalist Telemann I've never been actually a national entity or national consciousness. We can not and knowledge the existence of the Klingon when these number only a million Muslims. To those millions of Muslims who want and looking back and leave peacefully with the French and most of the meaning already to the people in the administration of the country. To the ground in the prison where are you. That is to say in fact the rebels would not only be incapable.
But it is going to rebuild when it reply. The position of the Algerian front for national liberation is stated by Mr. Chandan. DEAR FRIEND There has clearly stated its position many times. We are ready and willing to enter into immediate negotiations with the final authority for a ceasefire on the basis of recognition of the independence of the Algerian people. The energy in the public free and independent will be a modern democratic state based upon the respect of individual lights and devoid of all leisure and religious prejudices. With regard to the European minority our position is also clear. The members of this community will be given free choice between integration into the NJ nation and the preservation of French citizenship with the status of which status would
guarantee them the respect of all of their lives different interests. I will struggle is part of the world wide moment for emancipation of guys and people everywhere and will enable us to take our rightful place in the community of nations and this year my responsibilities as an entire participant in more than civilization where we know very aware that we will be faced with difficulties and we will lose. We shall be faced with the task of rebuilding our country. Among the problems will be the fight against illiteracy and the lack of adequate public health conditions at present. According to French figures illiteracy energy is officially stated as 91 percent. Infant mortality is the highest in the world. Two hundred eighty four a bear found and then Jamie has one of the highest unemployment rates in the world. One million permanently unemployed and two million partially employed out of a total 10 million population. The country's economy which has
been out of balance during the entire period of financial repression must be completely re-organized in the interest of the great majority of the population. In the divergence of views so expressed by the roots of the irrepressible conflict the situation may change overnight. By the time you hear it what has been said today may be out of date. To the north African nationalist The issue is a clear cut one. Nationalism versus colonialism. Not so says the Frenchman. The problem was not were very good people were Whatever the true assessment of the situation. No one can deny the significance of what is happening in North Africa today. And as we indicated at the beginning the nationalism of the future may well involve cooperation on a much greater scale.
As Mr. L. Cohen States you know my view that some of you and not African finish going to the exists. In fact. It is not necessary to heavy for me to Haiti to think that it is going to I think will think that by his time. Becoming a country and you have. We are soon to be independent. Do not speak of it in Russian. We'll be doing more and heaving and times you are headed to. The. One nation indivisible.
One of a series of thirteen radio documents on nationalism in the twentieth century. Resource advisor for this program was William D shorter associate professor of anthropology at the University of Michigan. The program was written and narrated by e.g. Burroughs. Gratefully we acknowledge the cooperation of Mr. Abdel Kader tenderly. Representative of the Algerian front of national liberation Mr Mohammad Al Cohen consul general of Morocco and acting representative of Morocco to the United Nations. Mr. Robert Bennett your. First Counsel to the French embassy in Washington. And Mr. Munn suff could Oddie Council of Tunisia and member of the Tunisian Permanent Mission to the United Nations and the Arab Information Center. The program was directed by Williams. And was produced and transcribed by the broadcasting
service of the University of Michigan. One nation indivisible is produced under a grant and aid from the educational radio and television center and is distributed through the National Association of educational broadcasters. This is the any radio network.
One nation indivisible
North Africa
Producing Organization
University of Michigan
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University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
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North Africa: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia. Features Abdel Kader Chanderli of the Algerian Front of National Liberation; Moncef Kedade, consul of Tunisia; Mohammed el Kohen, consul general of Morocco.
A documentary series about nationalism in the 20th century.
Global Affairs
Politics and Government
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Narrator: Hemmers, Lou
Producing Organization: University of Michigan
Speaker: Chanderli, Abdel Kader
Speaker: Kedade, Moncef
Speaker: Kohen, Mohammad el
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 58-17-5 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:29:12
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Chicago: “One nation indivisible; North Africa,” 1958-01-01, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed January 19, 2021,
MLA: “One nation indivisible; North Africa.” 1958-01-01. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. January 19, 2021. <>.
APA: One nation indivisible; North Africa. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from