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National Educational radio in cooperation with the Institute on man and science presents a series of talks drawn from the institute's annual conference held recently in Rensselaer Vale New York the Institute on man and Sciences a nonprofit educational institution chartered by the New York State Board of Regents. The annual assembly of the institute is designed to focus attention on 20th century technology and human relationships resulting from its application. The speaker for this program is Dr. John director emeritus of the China Institute in America. His topic is creating a climate and building bridges. Here now is Dr. mung in my first lecture on U.S.-China relations. I'll Cline the changes in the balance of power and you Station the struggle and the economic dominance among the communist nations and the non-comics nations. I pointed out the necessity
also to comprehend the real emergence of China as a world power. And her behavior was used mainly due to her reaction to our century and our restraint. European and then later Jappy SEC rush. Other powerful forces include China's revolt against our own traditions the injection of modern nationalism and the revival then to some dream realize its past glory as a leader of a ship if not the entire communist world. There are important reasons why the United States has maintained diplomatic relations with Taiwan or the Republic of China and why she has not recognized communist China. I have also called your attention to the fact that among
the people integrity and patriotism and also among the people of knowledge no hall regarding last night in this country your own people do not agree or not agree today. To have controversy surrounding past issues. Because of the U.S.-China relations. Therefore there is no consensus or strong consensus. Well solidified public opinion to guide your own people who are in power and that is why it's in the open society like the United States. You are much more vulnerable to being misinterpreted. Not only in your own country it will be misinterpreted in countries across a line of tablets on the blackboard for you. And also do you. Understand because of your long background as an open society life
long background as a parliamentary democracy you are internal controversies will not be interpreted in the same light and the same way I brought your nation. So keeping all this in mind we have to we have that. Then I'll go out today to survey for you briefly to people to people's relations. They last a few months. There's a thirst for this in this country are very much interested in presidential candidates and others in the party and leaders talking so much about the change in U.S. policy because of the child not this aspect will be dealt with. I'm quite sure
more fully than a former ambassador. To Taiwan what the Republic of China ambassador drawn right Thursday evening here. I've merely ventured to suggest that a better understanding will have to proceed and you change your policy especially at that policy. The troops have to be backed by solid public opinion. Understanding better understanding and the change process. Not today permit me to call your attention to a much elected. Part of the U.S. China relations and that the people to people's relations we are in the habit of studying wars treaties and crisis. Much more. Interesting and. Perhaps equally dramatic people to people's relations.
The first 100 Chinese selected emigrants the United States case study today. It has been conjecture but just how early the Chinese have have been here started to come to the to the new continent. You'll find that some historians will say that the Chinese had been here long before Columbus. You'll find one archaeologist. You haven't produced. Evidence that long before the. Vikings who I suppose have discovered the new continent before Chris of a compass. The Chinese had discovered the new world. However that's beside the point.
We won't know definitely the purposeful emigrants with a purpose. I came here in the middle forties of the last century. Larry briefly let me say to you that this is one of the most interesting people to people relationship that has occurred between the two great nations. During the turban then the use which reached his height. During the Opium Wars. A graduate. Very dedicated to the Christian cause was sent to China by his own church to be a missionary. This young Yale graduate Samuel Robinson went to China there in the Chinese language. That's all
Yale men usually do. Very dedicated. And the tenth time convert the heathen Chinese. And he went there. You went there just after the opium wars and tried to. Tell the Chinese people we all must believe in the Father for the cob and brother for the man and he is different from the Englishman insist on importing opium of China but the import your shells in the shoes of the people the common people of kind. How could they tell him. Apart from the English. What is this all about. On the one hand the English navy the youngest troops have. Have thousands of miles to invade China with force and impose upon China upon injury. Now here's a man who looks just like an Englishman telling us that he's for
reconciliation for peace between the white people and the Chinese people. He must be a spot. Must be a subversive element. Anyhow after years of earnest work that they listen to him. On the other hand on the contrary the Chinese people regarded him as a great hostility. He almost got this very brilliant idea that the only way the communists the Chinese people that he's not a young Englishman and his country do not sympathize with the British pilots in China is to bring some Chinese over here. No the American people know that Mark and we have a lot. Finally he managed to bring three Chinese boys 1847 to this country. He is from in Massachusetts. And you put
the three boys in his father's Academy the months in the academy near Springfield. Why one of the tiniest mis students have to be sent back to China because he could not that accustom himself to the harsh climate and because of health he was sent back. The other one wanted to start this surgery at that time there was no recognised at the Department of high standing so he took up a collection and sent him to Edinburgh he later became the first modern surgeon in China. The third one was made of sterner stuff. He asked Mr Brown he said Now which school did you go to after the preparatory school. He said I went to Yale because I want to but he said we could not support your year is very expensive even in those days. Expensive school to go.
But this boy said how could you our son the minister so he was I worked my way through Yale. So this boy his name is this is I want to work through this. This is very interesting Chinese one of the three that remained in this country worked his way through Yale university and graduate from Yale University in 54. In the history books of my country in the history of your country no mention of this nor of this person. However gradually you 54 got the idea that China needed modern educated men. When he went back to Yale in the four he noted in his diary this very interesting entry I noted that my country needs its
modern educated men and the modern us very quickly. I could not get he was more interested in modern education. He went to China to advocate that we should send more young men to the United States to be educated. Nobody would listen to him in the middle of the last century. The Chinese people are deeply in deep living their ancient traditions said modern education. Have you asked how the Confucius classics. What authority do you have to say that the modern education is better than our education. However this young man is very very clever young man he appointed himself a committee of one to advocate American education. So finally he did this Roof's he says he finally said Now everybody in China
at that time interest in modern guns because the first awakening on the part of Chinese that are guns and not. Good enough to defend ourselves. So he said no. Finally after after written after I've submitted Marder memorandum of the memorandum to the Chinese imperial government. He find us education find us up in the memorandum. He's in now I graduate from Yale I knew. I have lots of friends in Sheffield quite graphic of Sheffield. They know how to make modern guns. So let me suggest that we should send young men to the United States to learn how to make modern guns. This becomes apparent for some story. Finally his memorandum reached the year reached Iowa the year of the most powerful statesman of the time and he said All right we need a modern guns. All right. I appropriate a lot for a large fund for you to send 30 boys
each year for a period of four years to learn how to make modern guns in the United States. I must not indulge in details because this is my hobby I've been doing research for almost 30 years. In this particular field. But. But you should know more. The first hundred to four years two hundred twenty boys beginning with he did not succeed. You should know more about this wonderful story thanks at the start of the state of the first hundred twenty boys to this country as a very they are wise in placing this young boys who did not know a word of English in American homes extending from Springfield to Hartford and horn I stopped my research about 10 Year of people 10 years ago. I had. I was fortunate enough to meet many families in that
Connecticut River Violet who had been to school with this hundred twenty boys. I've been collecting material that not to make a long story short. These boys had their headquarters and puttered connected and they are compelled to study at their own classics and at the public school education. And after some months the Imperial Government sent to send a message to a wing inquiring what kind of guns are learning how to make them American guns. You know what to do if you try to put all my answering the question directly. And finally the Imperial Government sent a special envoy to check on him. I wish God how do you use it then. Well the confrontation between the envoy and the
boys. But I. Must defer that pressure and have to say the grade in my chart of the hundred twenty boys. I've become quite that if not the a zone personalities between your culture and our culture and their influence still going on today. For example example when the when the first audience to help between the Imperial envoy and the boys the NY noticed certain things among the boys he did not like and that of the first audience he got the young as a commissioner and got a side He's invaluable I reported what I had over served among the boys and reports of the Imperial Government. You know you will be severely punished and the whole group will be recall you want to see the whole plot play his dad noticed one boy did not need another boy cut off
his pic tail you know I had to wear the pick that sign ups objection to the government not I give you a chance to let this boy claim otherwise. Otherwise I'm going to report to you that the government. Voice to have a private interview with the envoy and explain but the explanation is very interesting. The boy that cut office is now I intend to study even to study how to make guns to build a great navy for China. I've not noticed this kind of thing is in Peterman to modern technology and that special middle through tactics so I picked it didn't mind that. But by the special time I point out that the boy you know you did not have an explanation that could be a death penalty because I'm representing the throne.
This boy had the even the better more a better explanation that's why I said now permit me to explain. About three weeks ago the governor of a connector that invited all of us boys to his home for our tea party. We got there we tried to use all three stone and then full with sat down and the cookies and passed around he himself went around the pass of the cookies and the governor of Connecticut did not want us to kneel down and personally walk around while we're sitting down the pasta cookies this time. I did not know before. Wow this next place sufficed for the fortunate but eventually when after so many years still they're not making it learn how to make modern guns. The mission is recall. But
once more the people took people corporation help to keep more than a hundred of them behind like the president of Yale University the governor of Connecticut and many other friends young Wings former friends of Yale got together and now the imperial government noticing that they're not making guns their recall to go back to China. Too bad they haven't really gotten the American education yet not too much. How are we going to get around that. There's no getting around petitioning the government to reconsider. Sol the president of Yale University governor and others. Cooked up this scheme. The medicals medical certificate by physicians saying that so many of these boys they're sick for one reason the other they are NOT see where they can possibly go back for reasons of health. So Black who can cook. American educate whores and friends of China how to
keep 100 of them behind and most of them have become a US asset that does it again agent between our two cultures not only that so many of them had become leaders of the Republican movement that brought about the establishment of the Republic of China in 1911. The the the history book on US-China relations should have a chapter not only of this and should also underline that does not send the George Washington of China visited the mainland. How are you. But you've been to the mainland and came to New York in 1896. There was only a handful of times through the not more than 100 in New York City and he got them all together someone from nearby a Princeton and he forgot to go there. He won them over to the Republican movement and in that little
church the first Chinese prophet there in a church located two hundred twenty nine Thirty first Street New York City. There's an attic is an entire supported by Chinese students and Chinese people. That's why it's called First Presbyterian Church in the attic that disenchant St. There and Back to want to see it's one of the first Chinese students who got a law degree from Yale Law School and many others in that little attic they sweated out the first draft of the Constitution of the Republic of China which at that time still a pious dream 1896. Important they're not subsidized subsidized by nearby that they're not paid by. And the great fun to do all of this. There's on the spontaneous movement on the part of a young Chinese. Now what happened to this
movement of students the first the first four groups of the hundred twenty Chinese do it then you might say. Apparently ended it ended in failure because the missions recall and they did not fulfill their function of making guns more interest in education. And as far as the imperial government is concerned its written off as a political loss. But the difference this hundred twenty and not for those of you who are interested in going over all the newspapers. You'll find that the daughter of Tommy away was the leader of the constitutional monarchy reform in 1898. His daughter had bound feet. I thought I escaped because both the father and herself are under arrest by the imperial government because of the failure of that constitutional monarchy
movement. She is the first Chinese girl landed in New York City with bomb feet and studying modern medicine and she started immediately with her fellow countrymen. New York a few of them plus the laboring people in China. If you must have patients of Bon feet movement and laid her out where she graduated from at that time in medical school one fiftieth Simon street on the west side she was a sensation because with Spawn feet she was. She volunteered ambulance services which she was serving as an intern in New York City. Now all of this is very dramatic very interesting and the influence of far reaching the immense pace in my support for women. Have a great deal to do with all this. Sondra problems were discussing the message women
necessarily will have something to do with the limitation population much more so than pills and Miss Conklin with daughter and some others. Later I became intimate friends of Margaret science and they have done more in the Planned Parenthood well planned families in China than any other technical reasons. It's because women have come to their own in China and today May I tell you that in Taiwan women have. More place in the affairs of the nation than women the United States because our national legislature is based on regional representation as well as occupational representation as well as representation by sex. As you know that so much so 15 percent of our national not just a top women. You should be very much more proud of that. Many of the other good things I have done for China
not following the same following the same case are related. Details of this same case. You remember ox box or upright box art rising is the perhaps it may be regarded as the climax of China's violent reactions to the west. Keep in mind you're. The common people of China 85 percent of times people could not greet it a 5 percent of Chinese people were farmers. You couldn't manage to put yourself in the shoes of the common people of China masses of people in China we will find your own country being invaded and conquered. You find no reason all these investments should come thousands of miles making us open ourselves to British trade with force. Your action would be. Now we must arm ourselves to defend ourselves.
So always the reactions like that is pure BS. Very simple very understandable. Spontaneous reaction on the part of the common people for China because it was the world. So buck stop rising pure and simple. The common people became desperate. They believed their country could be saved by massacring all the foreigners in China. So the sold out this up to the boxer uprising very heavy indemnity is extracted from the Chinese nation and America's Number five largest in time to accept a Russia seconds Britain. Americans rated number five. Out of this tragedy that's one of those traumatic experiences. They're heavy on the times people out of this tragedy. A very interesting stream false
came out. The American missionaries many American way went to China on our own. We we went to China for our own god's sake. We do not want to be. We would get killed our property get destroyed not being dominated I don't like the indemnity. So they refused to claim indemnity and there's a U.S. transfer unclaimed surplus amounting to twenty two million dollars by the 908. So the mission has been agitating. This money must be returned to the Chinese people. We don't want them again. Very simplified terms. The people. Put the enough pressure on Congress this is a joint resolution between the Senate and the Congress and the House of Representatives authorize President Theodore Roosevelt to return this portion of the
market. Boxing them that they will chime without in the strings and the same group commissioners and their Chinese friends in China but is also putting pressure on the Chinese government. So when the Chinese government received the return of the surplus to China we want to use this money to prepare and to send China students from the United States. This is one of the most far reaching the most. Apt. Breaking president breaking international relations not very much emphasized in history. So I conclude this part of the discussion by saying history books discussing international relations must not neglect. People to people relations. I don't pay too much attention to crises wars and treaties. After all unless you
have up and lighten public opinion that can put pressure on the government you will also be able always a subject on your predation by governments and politicians in the absence up very solidified public opinion and the crisis or any war. You have heard Dr chime mung director emeritus of the China Institute in America as he discussed the subject creating a climate and building bridges. Dr Monk spoke at the annual conference of the Institute on man and science held in Rensselaer Vale New York on our next program author Bettys will speak on the topic. Chinese people in the United States. These lectures are recorded by the Institute on man and science. The programs are prepared for broadcast and distributed by the national educational radio network.
The Institute on Man and Science
Creating a Climate and Building Bri
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For series info, see Item 3566. This prog.: Creating a Climate and Building Bridges. Chih Meng.
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Chicago: “The Institute on Man and Science; Creating a Climate and Building Bri,” 1969-01-13, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed June 23, 2024,
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