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The shadow of the lawyer. Emerging from a memorable immovable past. Britain today faces the formidable task of defining our future. And this is our story a story of truth for no longer stands can tell a lie and this is but an apparition of Cupid's yesterdays. His profile. Mrs.. Temple transition. Heard in London's comedy street in Coventry in Oxford and. Rhythm. Of a new revolution in Britain.
Programme 6. The place of the public and. Indiana University Radio a documented essay about contemporary Britain. We present the shadow of the lion with William Kinzer as your net writer. The sound of a horse's hooves break the silence of the night.
A creaking stagecoach rumbles to a halt. Weary travelers into the warm congenial atmosphere of an english. Public House. And often. History records the event and the hope characteristic of British pop as we call it because they just become a focal center in our national life. You listen as John and Slater talks of pubs. He's the sales executive with Greenall Whitley and Associates Ltd one of Britain's leading breweries and he tells you how they have changed until the end of the last the Pabo public as we know it was almost the exclusive demand of the head of the family of the man and some opt out I feel he has before the wall any woman seen in a public house in this country. Unfortunately
it was known as a lady of doubtful repute. But of course since the war two major changes have happened in British national life and it effects the bubble in the first thing we have had the developing of the motor car. The second factor that has been in my view on what I would call for want of a better term to tempt emancipation of the woman. Over the central personalities of fact into fiction have assembled in timbered low ceilinged rooms to lift tankards of nut Brownie. And discuss affairs of Green's importance and whether politics or policy or particular actions to alter the course of man. The
public house or him has played a prominent role in British history. And literature. The search for treasure island began the Admiral Benbow in Robin Hood and his men frequented the blue book. Sam Johnson Boswell and Oliver Goldsmith talked the night away at the Cheshire Cheese and Charles Dickens Pickwick Club and met at the leather bottle. If you go back ultimately in history of course probably the first public houses all in there then we know where the monastery is so he never led tied up with the early beginnings of Christianity in this country. And I developed over succeeding centuries with travel the in set up by enterprising individuals who felt there was a compelling need to provide rest and refreshment for those travelers throughout the country. The development of an English institution the pub as described
by John and Slater sales executive for green all Whitley and associates. Now probably the real development. All the public house in this country took place in the 17th century. And in those days the tendency was for every end to brew it ten bell individuals on the premises. And this system prevailed in this country and there are remnants of it right up to the to the last war. I mean keep the Brodies and the consumption on those premises. Well in the 17th century you've got these enterprising people who were brought around more than one in and of course they then brought for two or three and and it's from those early roots of the present system that even as we know it today has developed and today the position in this country at the moment is that there are about 300 operatives contributing about 60000 to 70000 licensed in Britain.
A pub that is licensed may sell beer or other intoxicating beverages during certain legal hours to be consumed on the premises. And while these hours may vary in different parts of the country pubs are usually open from 11:30 in the morning until 3:00 in the afternoon then from 5:30 until 10:30 at night. On Fridays and Saturdays ours are extended until 11 o'clock. At pub closing time the publicans familiar cry of tolling Gently gently is heard above the din of the customers conversation and. There were also some 30000 off license establishments in Great Britain where beer or bottled drinks can be purchased taken out but never consumed on the premises. Almost a third of these are controlled by brewery companies. Now when really it was the word controlled what we mean in this country is
that the brewery owns the houses concerned and they operate very often on a system which is called a tie which usually means that the house is released at a rent below the economic rent for the ending of the time and in return for that benefit on rent the tenant to alter that public house by his bed his wind in spirit and certain other items from the opening brewery company almost an eighth of Britain's pubs some eighty five hundred of them are controlled by him organisation that is are typical of the present day trend among burgers a giant created of mergers and called and night burgers. Other big names include weapon e courage with Brit Cherington in United. Griego Whitley Mr. Slater's group is seventh among the nation's leaders controlling just under two thousand pubs.
He proudly points to the fact that his organisation is independent although he acknowledges with regret a tendency for more and more breweries to forsake family origins under the pressure of economic considerations. When I'm nervous I go to being in my particular company for about 20 years. My father before me and I have a company for just under 60. My grandfather I don't know how many hours exactly but it is going on now before that and I'm very proud to say that my son Jeffrey age 26 in following me as the fourth generation. There's nothing unique about this is traditional in the brain world in Great Britain. Even so few descendants of original family owners today sit on the board or otherwise take an active interest in the actual operation of the company that still carries the prestige of a family me. For all the breweries try to personalize their product and strive
always for local quality high pressure economics mass production marketing and branding have removed the business from our precious proud family concern. This is an age of specialists of advanced education of experts and efficiency and the brewing industry of Britain not unlike other industries of the United Kingdom is being swept before a tide of 20th century proficiency and competition. And I do assure you that as far as the brewing world goes in Great Britain that competition is not. Yes indeed. It must be said nevertheless that even in the haze of high prices modern methods takeover bids and technology beer in Britain still remains a special commodity and no brother
in Great Britain can such an exalted position going to this competition and you will too. They intend to and I think you know that the average British public would on their preferences about it is a very dangerous course indeed. Try and inflect what you think is the right to the average Englishman. A pretty sacred thing as small as the I love Britain may be geographic distinctions can be defined in the taste of beer and each Brewer is bound by their traditional preference of a given area. What makes the difference. John Slater tells you that brewing skill and the water of a particular area accounts for the variance in taste. In the case right Amber it wanting to do that in fact founded on a Roman site. When the archaeologists are not this moment working trying to find certain new Roman remains and what we were based originally on these Roman
wells we still draw water from them. But of course with the enormous growth in trad we have had to draw water from other sources but it is very often a matter of the skill of the head Burma and it is equally a matter of the water from the area of concern that has a very big influence on the flavor and the quantity of beer. You ask about the beer manufactured and consume didn't Britain. Now there are two main distinctions of that is one type which is brewed and served in wooden casks. And it may be of interest to our friends in America to know that a lot of the 10 most birds in Great Britain used today California oak and John Slater will remind you that these casks each holding 36 gallons of beer are handmade by special craftsman called Coopers. This bed is then delivered from
the brewery in these wooden costs to the pub or public house all in. It then goes in the cellar where it's left to condition for a period of about up to 48 hours. It is then connected up to the dispensing unit in the pub it so and it is soda known as Dr. Death. Mr. Slater also tells you there are two categories of draft beer. Mild and a bit briefly the characteristics of each other is usually very light in color and has a better bit of flavor than the mob which in contrast is very dark in color usually. And it tends to be rather sweet on other types explains include ordinary ale and stout. Both normally bottled in both being carbonated during the brewing process. Some English patrons prefer their beer mixed together as a combination of mild and bitter called huff
and puff or with other items such as ginger ale or tonic water. The only tradition of war meal or beer has since passed us. They used to drink very strong bear in that it was much stronger than we do now and in the winter months they preferred it warm to being cold and then put a heart on was put into the bag and it was known as mild as a few drinks. Even today are served with ice in England Wales or Scotland. But pubs these days cater to a wider dimension of taste. Some even stocking American bourbon but it's quite expensive. Scotch is of course the most popular site from beer and as for beer and neatly sleeper may drink an average of two hundred twenty five pints a year. And you influence in our daily lives in the brain world its continental holidays more and more people over recent years. I want classes of all age groups. I've been taking the holidays on the continent of Europe and
they come back with a new outlook. New conceptions new tastes in drinks. For the first time in their life they now want to parity. They become very conscious of how pleasant wine can be with a meal and all that. Of course having its impact on drinking obviously drinking patterns are changing. Going back to your I suppose 30 years ago or possibility more 40 years ago I was part of my brain group that our two principal or brother is located in every industrial area. We replace sweat. While the men worked in manufacturing mining coal mining arduous jobs and came off work under a refresh refresh themselves I replaced that sweater with Bell. But today it's different. And so the purpose of the pub has changed.
Now I've mentioned the influence of the woman in our daily life today and of course now with mechanize ration slowly taking place in this country and therefore they amount to a sweat diminishing. The reason for the public house is rather changed. It is very much not entirely a recreation center where entre days work. Amanda and his wife come out and spend the evening. Many pubs particularly the large ones in urban areas are developing a night club atmosphere with a special emphasis on entertaining variety artists featured along with rock bands and singing groups and some pubs have been turned into discotheques. I would like to emphasise the point that the distinction in the character of the public. It is not brought about by the bra. It is usually brought about by the comes to mind. And you're getting these affinities for certain types of houses by certain types of people.
It's based on geographic convenience. Some people we have what we call our local pubs. There are problems that I have for years sometimes generations center the whole activity on catering for the people who live immediately around them. The urban problems are much more diluted trade where people come and go and may have an element of local trad about which very often this is super imposed when what we call a passing trade where people come and go and those same people may use a variety of pubs and in fact today in this country. A large percentage of people do tend to migrate from one pub to another. The most obvious diminution of traditional character in the British public lies in its inability to preserve its narrow neighborhood dimensions. And while even today the pub is often referred to as the local its clientele is seldom entirely of home for the magic has brought about a
dramatic change because those people who prior to the motorcar were imprisoned in smoky murky. Industrial top I have now about a new found freedom Great Britain is small of course. So a short ride into it some time is rolling countryside will likely reveal a historically quaint and pleasantly quiet public house and interesting with its brass and prints and timbered interior. Or in the same evening one might enjoy the modern grandeur and gayety of a Metropolitan Club. Most true pubs traditionally have two rooms a tap room and a lounge bar. Perhaps its primary object was class distinction in the days when pubs were more isolated than genuinely local. Today it's a matter of character and of price in the taproom usually gathers the gay carefree working crowd mostly men and there
prevails a lusty atmosphere of coarse jokes and loud laughter drinks are cheaper in the tap room for their purchased direct from the bar usually pint mugs of dark foaming beer. The place hangs heavy with cigarette smoke and men engaged in games of snooker darts or dominoes. Sometimes this room is called the saloon bar or the vaults. The lounge bar on the other hand is frequently referred to as the cocktail bar or the snug or sometimes simply the best room. It caters to a more sedate clientele and is likely to be carpeted and comfortably furnished. It normally offers waiter service and its prices are a bit higher. It is patronized primarily by mixed couples and women. Women is John Slater tells you have made a big difference in the character of the British Pub.
It just brought us possibly to some extent to modernize and make our pubs more attractive. Knowing women are using them and knowing that women have a massive influence on up knobs and the trade we do in those and that we are very conscious to the requirements of decor comfort seating competence lighting a lot of that change that's come about through the influence of the woman. And there's also one interesting shade in the northwest in this big industrial belt of the country where years ago. A man came along straight from. Anywhere king over and came in on his own. I just ate the rest of the night or Eventually he went on elsewhere I know with the influence of a woman the change that has come about is that the man
very red in comes in to finish work and if he goes. He changes he puts on one of his many suits the day and the need for passing up complete with his wife. The names they have of the historic signs that identify them. These are interesting aspects of folklore surrounding the British Tavern in your public house. Yesterdays are yet to live in these places of pleasure and familiar are the ornate signs along the route that signal sights of rest and refreshment and the Pub Sing to the public with Great Britain just as much. A part of our life was a puppet show. But it did emerge from those medieval days when tradesmen hadn't been taken
aside and when you had a boss and a literate population and you had to indicate to the privateers by some illustrated mean it was in 13 93 that Richard the Second compelled publicans by law to exhibit a sign though the law was not made compulsory for other trades or professions. The law simply stated that whosoever shall brew Elim of the town with the intention of selling it must hang out a sign. Otherwise he shall forfeit his ale as the practice of displaying signs became popular tradesmen try to outdo each other by suspending bigger and better signs in London in the year 1718 a sign in Fleet Street was so not arge ornate and heavy it dragged down the front of the house and killed two young ladies. There followed Acts of Parliament in the writings of Charles the Second and Charles the third which restricted the size and placement of signs. The pub however has
perpetuated the intern practice of illustrated signs even to this very day. You'll see them wherever you travel and when it comes to names there's hardly a subject untouched. There are those of a religious flavor in the Pope's Head. The Bible and the crown. Good Samaritan angel. Adam and Eve. Of course the most popular are the heredity sign those pubs that bear the names of royalty or items associated with a monarch the crown Kings Arms Red Lion George and the dragon. And then there are the Petri outgo the commemorative sign this the Admiral Nelson the Wellington Waterloo the Shakespeare so well to Scott Robinhood death of John. There are even names devoted to sport and to animals. Dog and pheasant. The cricket is footballers arms. The Bull. Some signs defy origin and classification altogether. Take for
instance the goat and compass. Originally this was a religious sign which said simply God encompasses us generations of mispronunciation produced the goat and compass. No sometimes the sign painter made a mistake. Sometimes it was due to a community misconception. Sometimes the sign was purposely made whimsical look humorous or or even without any sense at all. But most signs reveal means rich in history and the pubs themselves offer a link with the past. Of course there are fewer and fewer of them. The public get out some of the fortunate they already have gone into a stage of decay. I was on the fortunate have been removed from the scene through development and that all this is part of our national heritage. It's all well and good to speak of historic values quaint customs and
atmosphere. But Pugs are still business. And the cold hard facts of cost and profit come into play in the daily conduct of maintaining this cherished British institution. Mr. Slater and his colleagues will tell you. To cope with present date economics so much affected by the weather by the government by competition by the changing modes of modern society. Demands tremendous business agility pubs in Britain are having to adapt to new pressures new influences which in turn tend to change their basic character. Mr. SLATER reminds you that there are many different types of pubs available today and they're part of this enormous flexibility. Today with the British pub to provide night in some extent with heating and providing just not growing in the old fashioned way but attractions and diversions.
But go better next day with the president drinking. So food and fun have now become intricate parts of the British Pub. Licensed houses are adopting again do modern specialties embracing a wide range of services and even nurseries for small children. For anyone under 21 is not permitted in the pub yet despite a multitude of changes despite a growing number of types the public still remains a memory of interment oaken being ceilings the prints and brass and congenial charm of wooden handled taps and pint pots of foaming beer and Britain has found in this heritage and exportable the spirit of the British pub is spreading and complete with dart board. You will find one in Dusseldorf Madrid Florence even in the USA.
What else. Fascinating from out of. The Park. It's early beginning. It. Atmosphere. Its impact. As told by John insulators sales executive with Marina Whitley and associates Britain's seventh largest bird. But I see no reason. Why did the British public would not remain the focal point in the day to live the country. The public tells us. It has cast its influence through the ages. In times of yore in the days of the empire or even into the proxy ism of the current crisis and changes. Its to form. The meeting place the pleasure haunt the focal point of British life. Today tomorrow and for generations yet unborn.
From NPR university radio we have presented the place of the public and program six in a special series of documented essays about contemporary Britain entitled The shadow of the law and has written and produced by Le Roy Bennett but when the writer was William concert the voices were Jack she and then Rita Haskett production assistant was Charles a conspirator the engineer Bill Murphy program consultant David canard. This is John Dimmock speaking. Low shot of the lion has been a series made possible by an Indiana University faculty research grant. And there's a presentation on Indiana University you really. Going to. Long. This program was distributed by the national educational radio network.
The shadow of the lion
The Place of the Publican
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Indiana University
WFIU (Radio station : Bloomington, Ind.)
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University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
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For series info, see Item 3300. This prog.: The Place of the Publican. The history and tradition of Britain's outstanding institution, the public house; the changing character of the modern pub as influence by women and the motor car.
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Producing Organization: Indiana University
Producing Organization: WFIU (Radio station : Bloomington, Ind.)
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University of Maryland
Identifier: 68-14-6 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
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Duration: 00:29:23
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Chicago: “The shadow of the lion; The Place of the Publican,” 1968-01-01, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed May 29, 2024,
MLA: “The shadow of the lion; The Place of the Publican.” 1968-01-01. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. May 29, 2024. <>.
APA: The shadow of the lion; The Place of the Publican. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from