The march of medicine; Dr. Joseph Goldberger: A simple kind of medicine
Mark you have medicine a public service. The American hospital supply. In human history. Hunger is an old story and the plain people of old times and places remember it in their bones and the struggle against hunger. The tragedies and the triumphs is all in their histories and legends. And the proton is seven years and the corn being bound up in tissue was gathered into the barns of Egypt. And there was so great abundance of wheat that it was equal to the sands of the sea. And the plenty
exceeded measure. Now when the seven years of the plenty that had been in Egypt were passed seven years of scarcity which Joseph had foretold began to come. And the famine prevailed in the whole world. But there was bread in all the land of Egypt. To New York City. Around the turn of the 20th century. Came people of many countries and many pasts who were alike remembered hunger. People who knew better than the scientists and doctors of the day that food was health food was life at night but endure Joe I know you like to joke but I thank you. I notice what a lot of us seek he told Madison he did not. I said you don't eat right. Don't go read the Kapoor star. Eat more you really love
the Gouda cheese the sausage. Now we know the past that is a way to live makes a coup the Red Rock remakes of following the five babies monkeys eat lots of the good stuff makes your legs and ass my kin as a basis. So why you don't eat for a little tired bird you don't eat enough. Maybe maybe you should eat a belter do a steak so you grow strong and big and then venture. So you must eat and get there and it is quite possible that these last words were spoken to a little boy who was then growing up on the East Side of New York City. A boy who would be concerned about the hunger of others all his life. His name was Joseph Goldberger.
The American hospital supply corporation presents as a public service march of Madison. Traumatization some of the great moments in medical history. Our story for today a simple kind of medicine. This is Paul Byron speaking although ordinary people have known intuitively the value of good food proper food in keeping well and strong. This knowledge has become part of medical research and general medical practice. Only in recent times today fortunately for all of us Dietetics is a large and fascinating part of the whole field of health research and health care. Dr. Goldberg in his research to relate food as a possible cause of polygraph was one of the first clinical nutritionists the science of nutrition grew as a result of research done by men such as Dr. Goldberg. It becomes more and more evident what effect diet had on the individual and groups of people based on the science of nutrition and food. Dietetics developed into a profession.
Now here is an aspiring past president of the American Dietetic Association and consultant to the diet division of the office of the surgeon general of the American medical specialist Corps. At first the dietician was only concerned with an invalid's diet. Later dieticians taught patients medical and dental students and nurses in hospitals and other organizations. The need for another specialty came into existence which was called administrative Dietetics Dietetics today has many other specializations. One of the fastest growing areas is that a public health nutritionist. The profession of Dietetics offers many opportunities to young colleagues men and women interested in the aspects of nutrition and how its application can improve the health of people in the world. Thank you. Let's turn now to look at a little of the history of Dietetics as a special health field. I have some witnesses standing by to tell their stories.
The first is a British army doctor period World War 2 and after excuse me Colonel in 1945 I understand you were placed in charge of some British prisoners of war who had been kept in prison camps in the Far East. What was their condition and the dreadful result of lying bad food on speakable living conditions and of course the usual tropical diseases. It was a wonder the poor fellow survived the usual tropical diseases. They would be no malaria of course and a great deal of Betty Betty. And how did you treat these men Colonel standard treatments are familiar to any doctor. But Betty Betty said the men yeast and wholemeal bread standard treatment in 1945 perhaps but the importance of good diet was I knew when the exciting idea when the great Captain Cook returned from his long sea voyage of discovery. Over a century and a half earlier Let's listen to what he said and you'll know the greatest thing I discovered how to keep men healthy
along the sea voyage. Dare say you were called that in 1740 Anson took six ships to the Royal Navy around the world remarkable explode of course but tragic tragic. Well how so Captain. Surely he was successful. Three fourths of his crew died of scurvy man gum swearer teeth dropout debility death. But then in 1753 this fellow really and wrote a book said to feed the man green vegetables fresh fruit lemon juice. Odd things to come by in a long sea voyage but I did it I did it and the men stayed well and there were others. Dr. Christiaan I came on working in the Dutch East Indies in the 1880s and cousin Mia Funk who in 1911 extracted the element which cured berry berry and called it bitumen. And in 1914 there was a one time immigrant boy named Joseph Goldberger. Now an employee of the United States Public Health and marine
hospital service in his office in Washington Dr. Goldberger listened patiently as a Georgia doctor gave him the news of a new plague which was sweeping the south. I don't know I just don't know. I've heard of this beleaguered before but mostly in the old country. I've even treated sick folks that might have had it but I have never seen anything like this and never was like a plague. Folks seem to think it might be a plague. People get a lot of ideas don't they. Yes and sometimes the folks that ought to get the ideas don't. I'm one of them that often didn't. So I took my foot in my hand and game north so as to get some. Now what do you say doctor. I do. Ideas are no good if you don't know anything. Tell me these people with the leg they have all the regular symptoms the way the books say. Well they get a little rash at first it looks a lot like sunburn rash turns into solos and they complain of pains weakness. Some of them go right out of their minds and die. Yes I reckon you'd say they have all the right
symptoms but what causes it and what can I do. Go home doctor go home where the trouble is you know I'm glad you came to see me. I don't know anybody in your state and now I have you to talk to when I get on there. What I'm the most happy to welcome the doctor didn't realize I've got the orders on my desk I'm to go south as a representative of the United States Public Health Service in charge of pellagra investigations. Once again here is Miss Fern geyser past president of the American Dietetic Association 25000 professional men and women today are in dietetics throughout the country hospital that head expressively is best known hospital dietitians fall in these categories administrative therapeutic clinic teaching and research. Let's take a glance at the administrator dietician such a person is versed
in management which includes organizing planning and directing food service departments. This dietician uses the principles of nutrition in menu planning and decides upon equipment and layout purchased. Next let's glance of the therapeutic dietician. This individual is a member of the health team of a hospital who adapts menu patterns for patients requiring diet therapy. She participates in physicians and patient calls and counsels patients. Then there's the clinic dietician who assists patients who are not hospitalized in understanding the diets prescribed for them. She too works closely with the physician. In the extensive educational program of hospitals affiliated with medical centers and universities and the educational director coordinates the nutrition education program within the hospital. Research is a fifth category of hospital dietitians. He or
she plans in determines the exact food intake for patients in research units. For him. To go. An order to. What Paul Barnes speaking. The year 1914 is less than an ordinary lifetime away but the knowledge of diet and health which Joseph Goldberger took with him to the American South in that year in his mission against playground seems as remote and improbable as the pyramids. True he was an expert in some fields of medical research but most of his expert knowledge did not apply here. Fortunately he was also expert in looking and listening. Now tell me Doctor where does play grue occur usually last. Most anywhere. I reckon if you want to look at some You've gone to the right
place. We have some right smart trouble here at the state sanitarium this year. Good now who gets delayed by the patients who else. Not the nurses not the doctors. Now that you mention it no so they don't. And yet you treat the patients who have the disease. Yes and the nurses. Sometimes I even sleep in the same areas with playgrounds. But you know that is mighty curious. Thank. You. How is his dining room doctor. Folks just send out a dentist can be a cat I'd like about him. Oh I know I beg your doctor I was thinking about playground and you're right Doctor. Maybe we should move on. This is interesting. Tell me doctor. Does everyone get the same food staff and patients the same way but I see the staff gets better helping
more me. Well I reckon that's just human nature. Yes and Dr. look at those two patients John carefully carefully by that scoundrel. Please don't say anything. Look one poor fellow was dull he hardly makes a pretense of eating. So the other one much more alert he steals what he can. Immoral of course but wouldn't you do it if you were hungry. Plan I would realize. Sure you would and I tell you doctor if you succeeded in eating all the good food the right food. Doctor immoral or not you'd be the healthy one. Are you the superintendent here. That's right. I was talking to the children here and I wondered about the food they get milk for example.
Well they don't all get it I'm afraid. Not that we wouldn't. So who gets it then. The young children. That's right Doctor. Children up to six. They need it all right. They do. And the older children say from 12 on you know that they steal milk and fresh meat. Oh come now I'm talking to them you know. Well well suppose they do. It's hard to prevent. I only wish there were enough for them all. But look here the children up to six are given milk and maybe other good foods. The children over 12 managed to steal a little. What happens to the children from six to 12. You mean they are the most sickly. I'll tell you what. I'd like to do some gambling gambling so in a religious institution yes. Gambling with government money. Would you care to be able to feed your
children for the next few months on fresh milk and fresh meat every day at the expense of the United States Public Health Service. Well Dr. Goldberg set against Cameron. It's a sin. But if you want to put up money to feed our oftens fresh meat and milk well so you can name your terms and I'll abide by them. Well Mr. Superintendent I've come to collect my bit. Thank God Doctor I believe you can. Now in the last year one thousand five hundred thirty five persons died of pellagra in this state. How many deaths where they are and you're often age none. Not one how many cases of pellagra. Not one. And praise the Lord Brother GOLDBERG Oh oh excuse me man go on I praise him too you know. You know I don't know how we can ever thank you well no
no no no please. It's research. I told him in Washington it was research and they should pay for it. But it's also a personal luxury. You know I've always like to see kids eat. Here again is Miss Fern geyser a consultant to the diet division of the office of the surgeon general of the American medical specialist Corps a nutritionist is devoted to helping people live fuller and healthier lives through an understanding of the right kind and amount of food needed each day. Because of her background she can interpret the science of nutrition in terms a public can easily understand. It is interesting that positions held by nutritionists are quite different. A nutritionist may be a professor in
a university and other may conduct the nutrition program of a visiting nurse association or a local health department. While others may prepare informational material used in nutrition education programs in schools. Often she gives instruction in the home and helps the homemaker with buying and preparing food. Then there is a public health nutritionist in the city county state or federal health program. Her counseling involves groups rather than individuals who need information for their health and welfare. She works closely with public health nurses and social caseworkers. Patients who come to special clinics such as those for well babies die batiks in weight control. She serves as a consultant to hospitals nursing homes and children's homes who do not employ dieticians weekend thank you.
Dr. Goldberg or went on his somewhat eccentric course staying away from laboratories looking listening more and more he became convinced that the secret of polygamy a lady in diet in the orphanages where he had worked. He had succeeded perhaps in preventing polygraphs by providing a wholesome diet for the children. Now he had to reverse himself. Could he induce pellagra by providing a faulty diet. He got around at last to talking this time to the governor of one of the Southern states. It's a necessary experiment governor but it seems dangerous politically dangerous doctor. I mean even working with called Dixie you're going to give them. Governor I'm going to feed them what poor people eat hominy grits molasses white pork. Nothing wrong with that doctor. I grew up a little there's nothing wrong if these prisoners eat that diet for say six months. After all if their governor grew up on it will serve politically speaking.
I can deny all Mineo grits. Don't you reckon it'll give him a leg room. The prisoners were delighted. Six months on poor folks diet and after that a free pardon of course they volunteered. Doc you tell me something Doc it's alright God he's a patient of mine. Let him talk. You all Northern as crazy doc and you may be my friend. Here's what I offer you eat hominy grits and sow belly for six months. If you get sick I will try to cure you with decent food. Sick or well you get a pardon at the end. Well you accept X am sure you accept that even sounds good to me.
In a. Good morning. A little queasy Doc I got a misery in my stomach. Indeed let me examine Oh no no sir. I ain't sick it's just feeling a little lonely today. Doc I ain't proud. You can look at me today. I don't have to make an examination you know. Doc don't fool me. I got this knot in my stomach. Listen I heard some talk going around Doc. You think I got that pull a grown up. Does he or do they have playground.
Well they ask me Dr. Goldberg you know you're the greatest living expert on the disease and because I must know Dr. Goldberg you were probably the greatest living expert on polygraph but I couldn't diagnose it. Yes. I'd say that your convicts have it six out of 11. If you have tried to give it to them. Well I would say that you were successful terribly successful. Six. Out of 11. Six out of 11 and I gave them. When they were allowed to go free I said to each of them stay a few days longer and I think I can cure you. But they wouldn't stay. Freedom was too much for them sick or well. They passed from my observation and I reported it so. That I'd like to
think that when they are free they will find the good meat and milk the good food that will make them whole. Room. Joseph Goldberger had a wife and although his work in the public health service made him a wandering man. His wife was never really very far from him. Now Joe you might as well explain it to me again. Really really. I know I'm not a doctor but if you are public health experts they aren't as pretty as you are and pellagra isn't so pretty there. But. All right I thought of a name for it. It's a deficiency disease. I think if you don't eat the right things you get playgroup. I think the difference between the league rule and no play group is whether you're rich or poor I think. I'm just a bum Doctor what do I know. You know enough for me. So all right
tell it to the public health service. But. But what if playground really does spread through contact from the scales of the rash or what if it's an infection in the blood suppose I'm wrong. Joe you are going to die. Oh I know what's bothering you. You just haven't been able to face what you have to do to find out. Once again Mr. and wise are young men and women eager to enter Dietetics first complete a bachelor's degree from an accredited college or university during which time courses are taken to meet requirements for the profession to become recognized dietitians they continue with further studies after graduation. A dietetic internship of one year including additional courses and clinical experience has taken
better health and a good disposition are greatly influenced by the food we eat and the dietician is very aware of this in closely working with people as she informs them about better eating habits. The many years of schooling bring rewarding experiences after graduation and you can choose your specialisation from a diverse assortment of areas. The demand is there and you will find it in hospitals business industry schools universities research and teaching. We encourage you to obtain further information about the profession of Dietetics by writing to the American Dietetic Association 6 20 North Michigan Avenue Shi CA Illinois 6 0 6 1 1.
What. Joseph Goldberger knew what he had to do to find out about pellagra and he faced the necessity with courage. He had demonstrated that the disease probably had to do with diet with an obscure hunger for some food element. But what he didn't know. But suppose that police after all and in spite of his careful observations was an infection. I suppose that it spread through the blood of the infected. After all there was only one answer. There was no question that the patient had a leg or none of dough. There's a deceptively good Ali. The poor woman died. It's really looked up to Goldberga. I don't like this. If she didn't and I've got a quarter ounce of her blood in this just so so know what injected into my arm.
Gentleman some time ago I came to a turning point in my investigation of palavering. It seemed clear that the disease was related to diet but how could I be certain that I had not been deceived by a microbe of contamination in the blood let us say I. I was made to realize that I must face this I am certainty. So you had me inject you with death from the disease. I suffered no inconvenience. It is the food we eat or rather the food which we do not eat which causes this affliction. Gentlemen with the proper diet will simply disappear. Mankind will no longer be plagued with this dread disease. There is proof positive that diet is the answer not only to plague but to many of the ills which we heretofore have had no cure.
Dr Joseph Goldberger a man brought up from childhood in the understanding that good food meant health meant life. A man whose greatest achievement was his investigation of one of those hidden hungers which destroys health and life. A man who exposed himself to self infection in order to learn the truth about diet and health. His medicine against disease was indeed a simple one. But it is one of the most affective we know. March of medicine. Promises ations of the great moments in medical history. March of Madison is brought to you as a public service by the American hospital supply
- The march of medicine
- Producing Organization
- WMAQ (Radio station : Chicago, Ill.)
- Contributing Organization
- University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
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- This program focuses on the story of Dr. Joseph Goldberger.
- Drama series highlighting important moments in medicine. Each program also includes a public service announcement related to medicine or hospitals.
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Producing Organization: WMAQ (Radio station : Chicago, Ill.)
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University of Maryland
Identifier: 67-4-10 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
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- Chicago: “The march of medicine; Dr. Joseph Goldberger: A simple kind of medicine,” 1967-02-03, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed September 21, 2021, http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-wd3q115h.
- MLA: “The march of medicine; Dr. Joseph Goldberger: A simple kind of medicine.” 1967-02-03. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. September 21, 2021. <http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-wd3q115h>.
- APA: The march of medicine; Dr. Joseph Goldberger: A simple kind of medicine. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-wd3q115h