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I. Believe in success. Lean successes mean Team Dean leading advocate of two vigorous up location of mouse soul to Mo. They must have seemed a vindication of his thought at a time when the policies associated with it brought economic disaster upon China. In retrospect it seems that it is making himself the leading advocate of miles for lean pale follow essentially the same path to PO-R that you showed she had in the late 30s and early 40s. In contrast to the successful reassertion of Mao thought in the Army and the lean balanced leadership of some of the party leaders found it impossible to implement vigorously mouse thought and still carry out their duties successfully. All this became skeptical of the application
of Mao thought in various views and these two SE's apparently were more prominent in the field of literature or art education and academic affair than many others. Deep political development which was symbolized by this contrasts has funnily left lead to the most profound upheaval within the party. The fact that most long it necessary to disrupt the party in order to make his views prevail suggests the strong resistance within the party and the strong resistance in turn indicated indicates that the process of bureaucratized sation and functional defense has gone very far. I took the field of literature and art again as an example. True young devise. Hey Ed Royce the director of the public and the
Department of the Central Committee I became dis secretary of the League of left wing writers of China in one thousand thirty one and became the deputy director of public gender department in 1949. He appointed his fellow writers into 30s two leading positions in the party propaganda operators. This group no party leaders shared the more liberal and critical traditions in literature and art of the 1930s. They were greatly influenced by Western ideas. These party officials were also bound by intimate personal ties developed over a long period of time. This process of bureaucratized sation is reflected in the Maoist as coos ation that quote Joe Young try to recruit the searchers and enlist renegades to
form a clique to serve their own selfish interests to usurp the leadership in literature and in literary and circus. Bureaucrat I Setian leads inevitably to do it in isolation. Ma was reported to have said quote in the revolutionary period those who only knew how to follow routine POVs cannot see the enthusiasm of the masses for socialism at all. They can only travel the well-trodden path that sort of person is always passive. Someone has to give them a poke in the back before he will move forward. And this is more than what he did in the past 12 months. Bureaucrat isolation means control. It was charged that these people quote I'm really accustomed to monopolizing everything themselves
giving orders and reducing the masses to inactivity and quote bureaucratic organizations have their own method of protecting themselves. They control the communications from the top leaders to Young was charged with the era of not transmitting miles into central committee's instruction on little ray and artwork to people at the low level and mount severe criticism of their work done in this particular few. Bureaucratic organization developed there in full mo network of communication through Young was charged with having said one thing at the open session of a large meeting. But to have expressed the opposite view as smaller meetings and outside the meetings. Bureaucratic organizations can try to
sabotage the policies of the top leaders too young and others were said to have put numerous hindrances on the moas policies of staging Peking Opera House on contemporary themes and to have laid down numerous rules and regulations to prevent the effective implementation of other policies. Bureaucratic organizations can resist penetration by top leaders. The Peking municipal party committee was accused of erecting a quote Tari barricade against the Central Committee and quote end off maintaining quote an independent kingdom watertight and impenetrable. Then quote an undercurrent of distrust between Tea Party intellectuals and the party military leaders. It's reflected in Joanna's use of the old
saying that quote It is impossible for scholars to reason with soldiers in code. Thus to re-establish his control over day to day party affairs to reassert the thought of Mao and to preserve the P6 orientation of the regime. Ma was forced by widespread dissidents and resistance to his policies in various sections within the party to broaden his attack until he had heard some of the higher party leaders. How I'm just not permitted us to review in any detail. The events since November 1065. All we can do is to discuss the CA touristic future. After various stages of the Cultural Revolution in order to bring out
in order to substantiate a pull on the party traditions were eroded departed from during this period of time. The first day she lasted from November 1965 to May 25th one thousand sixty six. During this period to main target of attack was the intellectuals inside and outside the party whose writings published in the years between 1059 in 1962 made their position vulnerable to the charge that up to the charge of opposing the thought of Mo in criticising Mao and his policies by indirection or by historical analogy. Even at this time the cultural revolution already had to cut the wrist aches which distinguish it from earlier could use and which suggest miles let go of control
over many of the party organizations and operators first. Most found it necessary to thank newspapers in Shanghai to begin his attack on device mayor of Peking. A secretary of the Peking municipal party committee and its director of the United Front department the so-called three family village. These people Epperly enjoy the protection of punk German. The first secretary of the Peking municipal party committee the eighth ranking member in good standing of the political Polit Bureau and the second ranking member of the secretariat of the Central Committee. Why demolish a mission quote Even after Chairman Mao criticised the Peking municipal party committee. The party leaders
there continue to carry out organized and planned resistance in an attempt to save the Queen by sacrificing the night. Second it was the Liberation Army daily the organ of the army rather than the People's Daily which took the lead in the Cultural Revolution. During this period the second stage span of late May and meet August 1066. During this stage while Fruita departed from party tradition why movie lising the masses to attract responsible off issues of a party unit. On May 25th seven students at Peking University published a big character poster to attack the president and party secretary of the
university. Presumably at the instigation of the mullahs. According to subsequent to Khan's model personally made the decision to broadcast the poster and publish it in the official newspaper. Thus giving it official approval and in effect issuing a signal for others to take similar actions. Within 10 days the Central Committee reorganized the Peking municipal party committee and the Peking University party committee. The propaganda department of the Central Committee the ministry of culture of the government the editorial office of the People's Daily were also purge Harnick Party officials in the field of propaganda literature and art and cultural and educational affairs in every part of China fell by the dozens. Red Guard units began to appear here and there in June and July
during the stage top leaders such as usual CI and don't shop in the pearly equi asked in the purge of their subordinates. But at the same time they took action to control moderate groups training and the action of the so-called revolutionaries students. Truth is told that end the party committees at various levels and in different units follow the traditional pattern of organizing mass movements and San work teams to guide the cultural revolution at the grassroots level. They did this in spite of the reservations of mothers who feared not without justification that the party committees would restrain the actions of the revolutionary students. There was another impasse between the organization and the leader was reached.
The third stage lasted from the 11 plana in Meet August to the end of last year. At this meeting which was packed with outsiders the Central Committee reorganized the political bureau made Bill the only vice chairman demote a loose Archie from the second to the eighth position in the party hierarchy. Right Carson where no organized on a large scale. Their main target the Protect became quote those in the party who are in power and are taking the capitalist road end quote. But under the slogan of eliminating all ideas all culture all custom and old habits. They also resorted to violent actions against some elements of the population.
The Red Guard thus replaced the public security forces as the into instruments of buttons and coercion. The use of violence by the loosely organized and endeavored to collate supervise Red Guards was indiscriminate and nonselective. Well I don't know what this was intended by the mowers the effect of this indiscriminate use of violence was the creation of an end most fears of terror in which the purse note and organizational ties among individuals were cut or lose their expectations. The key step the steps are lies and the activities of the various establishments organizations where hampered and destructor. Furthermore the Red Guards do none some of the leading off issues in war posters or struggle meetings and subject them to public humiliation.
Using some of the techniques which Mao described with high praise in his report on an investigation of the passon movement in Hunan in one thousand twenty seven. But there was actually very little in the way the rampaging Red Guards. Intimidated the population and deter them from rallying too to support of the officials under attack why they undermined the prestige and hostility of the latter. Oh to time the media of mass communication launch an intensive propaganda campaign to discredit the opposition is and any time I always use during to stage the army was used to support and protect the Red Guards in picking alone 100 thousand commend US
soldiers were use for this particular purpose. We know richly nothing about the role of secret police but the right got Tara seems to have served the same purpose as Stalinist secret police terror public security forces or the police were used sparingly perhaps because Dymo is uncertain about their loyalty and reliability. Toward the end of nineteen point sixty six Wendy Cultural Revolution was developing in the factories and the rule areas there were many reports that workers were you sitting there POWs demanded and received bonus and supplementary wages demanded and got better housing recommended accommodations and even went on strike. In some cases
that the peasants wanted to divide up all the year and surplus surplus grains harvested by the production team won't even be re served grains to use up the public accumulation funds and that their students and other urban elements are sent to the countryside where returning to the city. The moas charged that the opposition is using material benefit cuts to bribe the masses to join their side to discredit the Cultural Revolution and to disrupt the economy. This charge can only be partly correct. The basic explanation is that the whole Chinese system of economy relies more heavily on political control over demands and performance of the workers and persons for its affective functioning than many other systems. This political
control was imposed by Tea Party committees at different levels and in different units was some of the party leaders and party committees under attack by the Red Guards. The whole system of political control was weakened. The masses took advantage of the situation to advance the economic demands or simply relax the effort. With that authority political authority Schickel the party officials may have found it difficult to resist these demands. One able to control the behavior of the masses because they themselves were under attack. They fear to take up responsibility and in some cases simply gave up their leadership role. This must be part of the explanation which demolishes did not mention. This
situation both as perceived by the mullahs and as it actually developed demanded the reimposition of political control by the mullahs it brought about a new stage of the Cultural Revolution. The staging of seizure of power in various localities and units by the Maoists from the established party committees. This stage began with the so-called Kenya of Lucian and Shanghai was the first city in which the seizure of power took place. This stage was characterized by several features moco on the Army to support the revolutionary rebels in their seizure of power. The army units paraded in the street to demonstrate their power and in the case of the city of Harbin actually surrounded a opposition group
and its members revolutionary rebels with seized the Public Security Bureau. The mass media of communication first and then took over the power of the party committee and the government organ of a particular unit or at a particular level. The provisional organ of power known in some cases as revolutionary rebels committee was based on the principle of three in one combination. In other words it was to be composed of first the leaders of the revolutionary mass organizations. That is the revolution the rebels of the Red Gods. Second the representative of the Army units stationed there. And third the revolutionary leading countries. That is those party officials who originally supported Mao or were persuaded to join the Maoists to seize power from the
opposition list or their fellow colleagues on the party committee. Since the Army was the only organization which remain relatively unscathed indie Cultural Revolution it was the only instrument which could supervise industrial production and farm work. Army units where order to support the work of industrial production to have with spring work their workers and the peasants were towed to co-operate with them. In need of Monarch the seizure of power at the production team and production brigade level was suspended during the busy period of the busy spring farming season and this is where the Cultural Revolution stands today. This discussion of the stages of the Cultural Revolution is intended to bring out the following point.
Many of the traditions of the party of the party which had developed some new tennis lay with the achievement of the organic unity of licorice matic leader. The ideology and the organization have been shuttled one by one during the culture of Lucian. After the split between the Kurdish matic leader and the organization had developed partly as a result of the process of Britain I say Sion and partly as the result of the tension between the ideology and some aspects of social reality. To model reform of inner party struggle would disappear. One party unit or organ was used to attack another. The 11 plan was packed with outsiders to support the mullahs and to intimidate the opposition has a newly formed none party organization. The adolescent Red Guards and the adult revolutionary rebels were employed to
attack party officials and party committees. Red Guard violence became quite prominent. Instead of being subject to the control of party committees on various levels the Army units stationed there were deployed to support the revolutionary rebels to seize power from the party committees themselves. Deliberate 10 or even troop maneuvers were made to speak to members of a party committee or any government agency in to two groups the so-called revolutionary leading cadre on the one hand and on the other quote those who are in authority and are following the capitalist road. The army was based was used directly to supervise and control production and other economic activities. The level of coercion and the division within the party reached the highest point since 1935. In
sum the great political Rian Cultural Revolution represent a profiling crisis in the institutions of the party themselves. In this sense to present in a party structure is different in nature from all the previous period years since 1935. The organizational legitimacy of the party center was weakened by the circumstances under which the eleventh plan was convened and adopted the decision on the Cultural Revolution. The organizational letter to Miss A of the party operators in various units and different levels was destroyed when the Red Guards were used to attack them in the process of the Cultural Revolution which was justified by the thought of Mao and said to be under his personal command. The excesses of the Red Gods did never even
pay off their actions and the turmoil created by them may have food a call into question the realty of thought and his wisdom. The ideological legitimacy of the regime and the personal legitimacy of the leader have to further weaken at least in the mind of some people. Yes the party is to call of the regime. The political system as a whole has been badly shaken the most victory a president under which the chairman of the party or other charismatic leader may violate the norms and prescribed procedure of the party ignore its regular structure or arrangement that is personal legitimacy may be used to override structural legitimacy. A most rich array will restore their position of the cursed magic leader and
his thought at least partly and weaken the party as an institution. It would be late the process of routine isolation. This subtle but important change indeed enter into relationship of the leader the ideology and the organization will make institutional I say Sion independent of a sphere more difficult than before and the political stability achieved at any particular time precarious. And this president could be notified only if Mao's successes whoever they are implicitly or explicitly repudiate the Cultural Revolution. Every tree by the opposition will make it necessary to revise reinterpret or reject him out of thought. The thought of well
all then or to develop a new doctrine no doubt or doctrines to replace was supplemented. In either case the effectiveness and legitimacy of the regime will not be easy to re-establish. Even if in an easy compromise emerges out of a stay made the author of The End kept pesty off the regime too it will be discrimination and public confidence in it will not be quickly restored. Trying to search for a really integrated political community has suffered a setback. It will have to begin again with a better political system. What is what has happened is the tragedy of a once effective doctoring which has lived its usefulness and a
tragedy of a once impressive political system which rests on different de Sion of a total ideology rather than a consensus or agreement on fundamentals. You have just heard terms of professor in the Department of Political Science at the University of Chicago and a talk titled The charismatic leader and the Rutan izing organization. This lecture was the last of three on the topic revolution integration and political crisis in communist China. Mr Zo spoke at the University of Chicago during a year long study of China held by the university's Center for Policy Studies on next week's program. We will present the comments of two experts on Sino-American relations. First Morton h helper and assistant to the assistant secretary of defense will discuss recent trends in Chinese foreign policy. Then Kenneth T young president of the Asia Society and former US ambassador to Thailand
China today
The charismatic leader and the routinizing organization, part two
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National Association of Educational Broadcasters
University of Chicago
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University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
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Episode Description
This program presents the second part of a lecture by Tang Tsou titled "The Charismatic Leader and the Routinizing Organization."
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A series focused on current events in China, as well as the interactions between the governments of China and the United States.
Global Affairs
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Producing Organization: National Association of Educational Broadcasters
Producing Organization: University of Chicago
Speaker: Tsou, Tang, 1918-1999
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 67-Sp.13-3 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:29:22
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Chicago: “China today; The charismatic leader and the routinizing organization, part two,” 1967-08-28, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed January 28, 2023,
MLA: “China today; The charismatic leader and the routinizing organization, part two.” 1967-08-28. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. January 28, 2023. <>.
APA: China today; The charismatic leader and the routinizing organization, part two. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from