The story of education; Progressive education
You're Pacific University program today and in the broadcast the follow is based upon the story of education published by took in books in June 1962 co-author with your narrator was Dr. Eugene Moleski an assistant superintendent in charge of teacher recruitment for the New York City Board of Education. By presenting these excerpts from my book The Story of education we are hoping that you listening audience may be better able to understand the whys and the wherefores of our own American schools. Our topic today progressive education. John Dewey credits Colonel Francis Dudley Parker as being the father of the progressive education movement in the minds of most people do it he himself deserves this distinction. But actually it was Parker who first extended for barely an idea's from kindergarten to the elementary grades. And seizing upon the idea of self activity he did not restrict himself to formal are symbolic patterns as did Fry bell. Self-expression was developed on his own account in a variety of
forms such as clay modeling drawing music painting creative writing. Nicely second emphasis on motor activities booms the traditional conception of quietness and schoolroom order for if motor exploration is to be trained. Obviously a certain amount of apparent this order must result. When a child commits a crime by breaking the routine of the traditional classroom immediate punishment ordinarily is effective in setting the disciplinary case and in restoring silence. Parker didn't believe that such a discipline educates a child deprived of choice under compulsion the fear a youngster acquires no habits of learning how to rule himself. For three years starting in 872 Parker had studied in Germany and thus came under the influence of European educational theories. He later became superintendent of schools in Quincy Massachusetts where his education reforms
attracted nationwide attention. This work in Quincy foreshadowed many of the changes that have since taken place in modern elementary schools and to a more limited extent even in high schools. Broken down with the hard and fast lines between subjects. Parker was interested in correlating arithmetic history reading writing so that each would make its maximum contribution to the experiences of the child he held that subjects were not ends in themselves but they merely existed to promote the development of each individual pupil. The school should provide an environment where children enter into activities because they desire to do so rather than because they are forced by external incentives in the form of marks awards and prizes. Although Parker remained in Quincy only five years his new methods and curriculum attracted attention even in Europe. Reading to him meant accusation the meanings and
techniques of oral pronunciation memorizing a textbook facts received less emphasis because real things were being studied. Lessons in geography and science were based upon first hand information gained outside the classroom. Nature study had seen a new importance with sand tables and classroom and sand ploughs and schoolyards being used extensively for the development of concepts of structure and essential skills were taught in connection with other subjects oral and written use of language replace grammatical analysis summer school and institute classes for teachers spread the fame and use of these methods. To park where the center of the educational process was not objects in nature as they had been for pets a lot see our history and literature as they had been to Herr Bart. But the child himself. Faced with such a revolutionary education approach it was not long before Quincy parents were criticizing their school superintendent for turning elementary schools into
natural history museums and mud pie factories. Serious doubts were expressed that the three Rs could be matter where subjects were so incidentally correlated to the central processes of reading and writing. In fact so many protests of this type were being made that the Massachusetts State Board of Education conducted an examination of quinsy pupils and subject matter the results completely vindicated Parker's new methods by showing that Quincy Jordan surpassed those in other cities trained in the traditional manner. But fame of this work induced Mrs. Emmons Blain in 1899 to give Parker a million dollars to endow a private training school for teachers to be known as the institute. It was her announced intention for him to have an opportunity to build his work free from political turmoil unhampered by the conventional and financial limitations of a public normal
school. But before construction of the new building was started President William Rainey Hopper's suggested that it be made a part of his new university as Chicago. So it was Parker as the first head it and three other institutions were fused into a school of education which opened in 1901. Colonel Parker died the following year and John Dewey succeeded him. School had previously been established in 1896 by Mr Mrs Dewey and several neighbors so as a private school changed into a part of the campus. This continued for seven and a half years closing in the spring in 1904 when doing became convinced that its creative independence was being endangered by the dictation of President Harper. That experimental school was so far in advance of its time. Not until years later was this true significance understood. Only a few of the thousands of
visitors remain long enough to study its theories to the point of understanding them. For those brought up in formal schools where quiet had been the rule such noisy activities seem little else but pure unwarranted licens the impact of the Dewey school with this apparent lack of order in organization administration curriculum and teaching came as a distinct shock to most school men of that day. However within a quarter century at least 50 new schools have been started as a result of the Dewey influence. Rising so to speak from the grave of the experimental school did it come to its end in 1904. Especially noteworthy was the elementary school a professor Junius Myriam at the University of Missouri where for 20 years he experimented with new curricula. Mary met first about a school subject altogether developing a program a study without academic compartments in time schedules school life was a continuing series of child activities in which construction
discussions excursions field trips occupied central roles practical problems of administration finally led him to create a four fold organization of curricular activities and work observation play and stories. This allowed for retaining flexibility in the school program how giving an improved sense of organization. It was not until 1910 the Deweys books began to be used widely in the study of education. As students today can testify. His writing style is quite difficult to read. Needed were interpreters to express in simple language the Master's thought. And these did not appear until after World War One. The most important was William heard Kilpatrick want to do is colleagues at Teachers College in one thousand eighteen Kilpatrick began writing and lecturing on the project method an attempt to rescue Deweese problem method which conservative educators had tried to fit
into their traditional formal methods of teaching. The idea of the project was not altogether original with Kilpatrick as it had already been used in teaching courses in agriculture. The project thus had previously taken the form of application of principles learned at school. Using them on the farm and at home the vitality of this practical instruction encouraged Kilpatrick to make a much broader application of the project as a general method of teaching. In doing this he stressed motivation. His critics claimed he overstressed motivation. Here Patrick described his project as any unit purposeful activity where the dominating purpose fixes the aim of the action guided process and furnishes his drives its inner motivation. However the progressive education movement had really begun to catch fire about nine thousand nine hundred twelve during the next 10 years continuous protest especially in the northeastern section
of the United States are being made against the adequacy is after additional education. That was the time it should be remembered when Woodrow Wilson was stirring people with his idealism and building a new freedom as a product of this dissatisfaction the Progressive Education Association was organizing 1900 bag group of educators. We had the traditional school practices were not founded upon sound psychological and social theories. These are as individuals confine their efforts largely to the creation of a school environment in which needs and purposes of the child would be paramount. With a teacher a sympathetic guide rather than a taskmaster. That was the object of their first attack. The Progressive Education Association began working first on the reconstruction of elementary schools. It being felt that high schools were too strongly dominated by the inflexible college entrance requirements. The initial attack in
reconstructing secondary education was the creation of a commission on the relation of school and college. What is known as the eight year study freed 30 high schools from conventional college entrance requirements. These 30 were permitted to experiment with their curricula and three hundred colleges agreed to accept their graduates upon the basis of recommendation at the high school principal. The college registrar in addition to information on the applicants personal interests and activities was also present in scores on his achievement aptitude diagnostic and intelligence test. A followup evaluation study was undertaken to see how well the whole group did in academic subjects college life personal development its progress each student had been paired with one from a traditional high school of equivalent age sex race in college and scholastic achievement in high school and general economic and social background. The analysis of the evaluation staff showed
that progress the students earned a slightly higher total average of grades in college. And had gained more academic and academic honors than the traditional students. They likewise were judged as more frequently possessing a high degree of intellectual curiosity and drive. And as being precise systematic and objective in their thinking and more resourceful in meeting new situations. In fact progressive educators at that time pointed with pride that nearly all the controlled experiments comparing the newer less restricted methods resulted in an increase. Rather than a loss a proficiency in the so-called fundamentals. In 1944 the Progressive Education Association changed its name to the American education fellowship but retained the title progressive education for its official journal. There are bitter controversies developed between the progressives in their critiques. No one now seriously
doubts the tremendous influence this movement has had in reconstructing educational practices. Almost every American school today gives at least lip service to a deep concern for the physical mental emotional growth of the child. Respect for the pupils personality identification of curriculum with life on the level of child maturity and cept the tuition of democratic for autocratic procedures in school administration. Even Yet years later we hear numerous criticisms of progressive education as being the chief cause for transgressions or inadequacies of use when ever we may become unhappy with our modern schools. But gun fights and they are the bitter recriminations and recklessly wild accusations that were so common a few years ago. Progressive Education today they say has matured to the point where it is accepted for what it is worth. John Dewey many years ago stated that the school is not a preparation for
life but is life itself. The school curriculum therefore must be made up of the activities of real social living. The school cannot be a preparation for life except as it presents the conditions of social life. This point of view has led to the present emphasis upon the activity or project curriculum consisting of exercises and problems drawn from the fields of actual social conduct.
- The story of education
- Progressive education
- Producing Organization
- KOAC (Radio station : Corvallis, Or.)
- Contributing Organization
- University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
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- Episode Description
- This program presents an overview of progressive education.
- Series Description
- This series presents various excerpts from the book, "The Story of Education," which traces the evolution of education. The excerpts are read by the book's co-author, Dr. Carroll Atkinson.
- Broadcast Date
- Media type
Narrator: Atkinson, Carroll, 1896-1988
Producing Organization: KOAC (Radio station : Corvallis, Or.)
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University of Maryland
Identifier: 64-38-18 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
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- Chicago: “The story of education; Progressive education,” 1965-01-01, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed June 5, 2023, http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-vh5chf3x.
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- APA: The story of education; Progressive education. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-vh5chf3x