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The University of. Programs at the university. And now you are Tom Stanford assistant professor in the Utah Department of music and John Fineman. Tom where are we on this program and our expiration of Mexican music. We're going to continue in the area of the program last week in the mystic of Baja the coast of the Haka
with a selection which represents the mestizo version of the CI Laina. You'll recall the peach Alaina was originally quite a chilling you know which miners from Chile brought up the coast as a matter of fact there must have even been quite Kaci Linus in California because at mid-century their final destination was California during the Gold Rush days. There was this Chilean is only some 100 years old or so. Well it's history is older than that it. It goes back probably into the mid 17th century in South America but it is the form which was founded in mid 19th century in Chile was brought up by these miners who were looking for work in California. This dance as I've stated was the Quaker CI Laina and the word itself Quaker derives from a Spanish term like our clue a.. Which means the state of a hand winch is about ready to lay an egg
and she's cackling all over their barnyard and the dance which is a say associated with this music imitates the courtship between the Han and the rooster. This version which we're going to hear however is you might almost say an art form of which Elaine it's not intended for dancing it's intended for singing it's accompanied by two guitars. This is something which is of relatively recent evolution in Mexico and in most of Latin America because during the last century it was NOT be the six string guitar which had a sort of ascendancy it was rather. Well for example in the solo guitar field it was probably the Hokkien which was most popular a five course instrument which could have as many as 10 instruments 10 strings
paired so as to have five different pitches at the time which Elaina arrived in Mexico it must have been accompanied by violins Honasan the whale us instead of smaller instruments of the guitar a family and harp. However with the instrumental evolution which is common in most of Latin America. The harp for being presumably for being a large instrument and not too portable and because it is an expensive instrument and because it's no longer commonly manufactured and therefore difficult to purchase you're referring now to the harp as you and I or the customs are saying well it's not a chromatic harp it doesn't have pedals on it or anything like this is the sort of harp that was used in in Europe in the 16th century which continued in use in. The Hispanic tradition down into the 18th century. Actually the original grouping for the CI lane of the same is for
many types of music in Mexico was a small theater orchestra which included the harp as a bass instrument. Violins first and second violin and some harmonics instruments filling in the inner parts which were guitar of the guitar family and these varied from region to region but very commonly they were the vi way and small quite a small guitar and the heart on the this particular selection we're going to hear now has an improvised text. The first verse which from which I have taken the title of the selection states that this singer has already told told his girlfriend not to go down to to bring water from the deep well because the the boys are down there and they may bother her.
With. I mean I'm not really the Joker nobody here. Yeah dirty joke that nobody outside but I want to voice a love look I'm right I was so close in the. Watergate among them we jog to a book a young mother who juggles live where they're me got a job or movie to look good. Nobody does. I thought yeah I want to go so we'll. Make it up on the dumbass laws are made of the most nights this long
Give me I'll see ya tomorrow give ya more so I will make it up the longest I'm the last home game it was not possible. I'll get Mick was guarded by so very little said Mick was the real thing about all this stuff. Those muscles of both gave him out. More than I will. Part of it why they're going to set it off already by that because they already booked their own bunk in looking at it enough to keep me out enough on this in my mean Nader on the system I mean name it I mean look they got assigned more enough out of the BB yet again. Every book is a
good book. Tom It occurs to me as a frequent questions have as we go through this music. What was the reaction of these natives when they heard themselves for the first time or did they have the opportunity to hear these tapes played back. Yes this is an important part of my own field technique because I find that by playing back to the musicians the recordings that they have made this is a very good public relations act on my part. And it works up a great deal of enthusiasm generally among musicians just hearing themselves in this way because since most of these musicians are not professionals these last we heard are not for example one of them was the police the federal police chief in the pack and the other was a local
blacksmith. So many of these people though they were aware of this electronic gadgetry so they have it in a stand by some supernatural. You know the way you hear of natives in the back country these things are magic box or something like that you know. In my experience I haven't run into any natives in the sense I think these are probably legendary natives and more than anything else. What is our next election going to be. Well our next election is going to be another selection which represents a particular type of song and dance which is common actually in all of Latin America. And Mexico it takes on a generic name which is sawn. Now the word song itself. Is mentioned in 16th century Indian vocabularies for example the Spaniards were concerned with translating it into the Indian languages as far back as then. However it was a descriptive term which really meant something like sound you can say and so
on the LA música The Sound of Music and usually the song was for some sort of organized sound of music. It was not just any of any noise. Somewhere along the line this term came to mean a specific or a more or less specific musical form that is to say it passed from just being a description into representing a real form. No I can't really state when this event occurred but I presume it occurred sometime during the seventeenth century. The song as a form is. Characterized by by number of things The first is the is the verse form which is sung to it because it's sung to the Copeland which he would translate in English as the couplet. For verse stanza in the dance itself it's characterized by the subplot the ABOL very
fast rhythmic footwork which usually was danced on some sort of a platform which would add resonance to the footwork. And this subplot they all saw about the album is should be considered rhythmically a kind of a percussive accompaniment to the music itself it's musically part. It's part of the music and it adds often counter rhythms to the music which would be absent if the dance were not taken into consideration. This particular recording is of a model again you know not a model again you know again we've this is the second time we've had a model again in the series of programs. This is another one of the versions which is current in Mexican province. It's characterized by the high test that you're the voice and by reference to the sea to this girl from my life again you know it's a can this were in this recording is accompanied by two
violins. I would be way less small string instrument a hut on a larger guitar family instrument. And a harp. Thing.
With. The thing with. You're. Three through three three. And three. But what about the instrumental grouping in that recording we just heard. I think you could state that it's a proto mariachi type. Muddy Achi is a term which has been reputed. In origin and a logical origin which is probably not vertical.
It's been stated that it originated in the French term because this was music which Rick Perry played at weddings. I think however that this is not the true origin of the term. It actually comes from the word muddy Yeah. And my idea it should be remembered in Spanish you can say told them hey it is my idea. All woman is Mary. And this is literally true because you can say for example if her name is on Killis you can say my idea than assigning Hillis if she's and telling you you can say my deity and Danya you can say my idea they do a lot it's my duty as a re he not any name you can put my out of the idea they in front of it and it's perfectly correct. And the h the CI the mariachi mariachi and at the end is a diminutive from the Aztec
language and walk. Now this term exists in many forms it exists as Marlene J which is the reason for this being that the Nawab language does not have the r the the nod be now out speakers would naturally interpret this Spanish Rs in L.. So instead of being my idea it would be my Lia and from there you would get money. And this is one of the very common personages a man dressed as a woman in so many Mexican dances. Now the next selection which we have here is. Called La Monte kita. It's about Mary again. And it's the name of the song it says. My my to keep keep that keep I keep them either by myself says this is a nice play of words because he means to take away and it says Little Mary take away my pains. Playing on the last part of the of
her name money kita. It's here accompanied by two violins and two guitars now. This is a stage of the evolution of the instrumental evolution of the mariachi group. Because in me when it has become difficult to purchase harps another bass instrument has been looked for and has usually been of the guitar family recently with the six string guitar the get out of sex to becoming increasingly common and much more commercial less expensive than other guitar types. This is an instrument which has very commonly come to substitute not only the harp but the way live on the hog in the muddy ouchy group and here you have just the two violins and two guitars with the voices. With.
With. With. With. With. Time I think the appropriate English word for that violin artistry would be schmaltzy. Yes I should think so. It is a matter of fact this particular style of violin playing with a Puerto Mendoza's is rather common in me in this particular region and is to be found in other corners where I have not been not felt the impact of more recent styles. I don't think this is an influence from good gypsy music or anything of the sort I think it's. It's just a local style tradition. As a matter of fact this particular style of playing is or is reputed to have been established by a famous harp player by name of
Palmet on in the region the real Boncelles and get her to where where this music is played at the present time however as you can see the harp tradition is dry and is really dying out and just the violins. I think carry on the original style. Going now to the region of Holly's skull we have one song one played by a true muddy where Israelis go geographically geographically it's the state in which it is situated. Get read or you'll remember is the state in which you find Acapulco and I'm going up the coast you have me to a con and then Hollys go. Now this is a mariachi group without the trumpets the trumpets are are quite common today in Motion Picture and radio music but actually a very recent introduction around 1030 9. The name of the song is We Saatchi. We saw such is the name of a bush that grows out in the
fields which was important during the colony for the production of ink. The first verse says how as we Saatchi to be to blame for having grown up in the fields and how is my love to blame for having for having been so very much in love. With the. Yeah.
Yeah. Yeah yeah. Yeah. Yeah. Yeah man I'm hung up on that. Yeah. Yeah. Yeah. Yeah. Yeah. Yeah. Yeah. Why. Not in.
The coming. That. Was. Tom wasn't the temple that Mariotti a bit slower than we are accustomed to hearing. Yes it was and I think that this is evidence of the antiquity of this particular song. I believe that there is considerable evidence in Mexico today to the effect that the rhythm the tempo of the mariachi and of other saunas has been increasing considerably and the frenzied tempos that you find many times knowing in many regions of Mexico are not very very ancient.
So at least probably don't date back further than maybe around 1850. But the text to me seemed from my limited Spanish seemed to be somewhat akin to advice to the love lorn. Yes the last verse that we were listening to before the music faded out sadly the stone that rolls in and rolls is no good for a foundation. And the woman who loves to man what in heaven's name is she thinking about. The verse in there was so many lemons on the tree and so many ripe oranges on the ground and so many lemons on the ground. So many beautiful young girls and so many Katrine's without any money. And what will we explore on our next program. We'll continue with a song on the same regions that we've already dealt with but other aspects of its forms and variance. Is a production of communication center.
The University of Texas at Austin selection of music and commentary in the series are under the supervision of Tom Stanford assistant professor in the Department of Fine field recordings are drawn from the sound archives of the Mexican national of anthropology and the Center for intercultural study folklore and oral history at the University of Texas at Austin. This is NPR National Educational Radio Network.
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Musica Popular Mexicana
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University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
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Series Description
Musica Popular Mexicana is a series of programs which explores traditional regional music and dance forms of Mexico, with a special emphasis given to the history and culture of the Mexican people. Each episode focuses on specific regions and forms, with commentary from Mexican musicology expert Thomas Stanford. The program is produced in cooperation with the Department of Music and the Center for Intercultural Studies in Folklore and Oral History at the University of Texas Austin, and is distributed by the National Education Radio Network. Sound recordings are provided by the Center for Intercultural Studies as well as the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico.
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University of Maryland
Identifier: 69-26-6 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:28:02
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Chicago: “Musica Popular Mexicana; 6,” University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed June 23, 2024,
MLA: “Musica Popular Mexicana; 6.” University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. June 23, 2024. <>.
APA: Musica Popular Mexicana; 6. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from