The next fifty years; Creating a New Standard of Life
It seems to me that the challenge we face in our urbanised in urbanizing areas is really not the future image of our cities whether viewed as Serbs in Harto cities in gardens or as a Buck Rodger a skyscraper Futurama but rather whether the city can continue to fulfill its historical role as the crucible of change and the means by which human aspirations can be fulfilled. Charlie said this so much better than I. I read this into his comments and had the pleasure of reading his paper in advance. But it struck me that this was the thread of his comments that we were really talking about just not urban form. We're not even talking about statistical recitations about the future. We're rather talking about whether the city in the urbanized area will continue to fulfill the needs of people. Now having said that and I suspect that there would be unanimity with respect to the comment I would suggest that our national policies with respect to housing and to cities generally are not only doing little
service to this as a goal but may as a matter of fact be doing considerable damage to this as a goal. And let me very quickly I've been asked by the chairman to be brief and I will attempt to be and I have a feeling much too brief. Let me do a little more than recite a series of issues which I hope will provoke you into some discussion. After the panel has completed its presentations. I would contend first that most of our programs really attempt to reinforce the status quo. That planning generally and programs national programs reflect this fact are tied to issues like stability are tied to questions and to programs which pivot around slogans like Save our central cities and the resulting tendency is really a challenge to mobility and a challenge to movement which is a matter of fact is what most of our populations depend on. Certainly our disadvantaged populations are
disadvantaged populations depend on mobility and movement. And it seems to me our programs are directed toward stability and status quo in this connection and I know I'm moving much too quickly. But in this connection to most of our programs are structured around absolute notions of housing condition of environmental conditions of community condition where as a matter of fact people improve their circumstance in stages and over time. And our programs do not reflect this fact. And as a matter of fact challenge it and do it damage. A second point that I would want to share with you and Charlie touched on this through a series of very specific suggestions which he passed on to the group that we have to begin re adapting most of our public activities in the housing feel so that they're directed at enhancing and extending the role of consumer within our society instead of beneficiary of public large Jess. I would suggest as a consequence that a whole variety of our public programs are essentially
entrepreneurial in nature. Public housing welfare programs and as a matter of fact a large part of our urban renewal programs when they ought to rather see to make consumers out of the pool or to extend the base of that capacity to consume to permit the maximization of individual choice. And as a matter of fact evidences are now we have evidences of attempts to really deal with this through such activities as the rent supplement programs guaranteed annual wages and so on and that all of our activities all of our housing programs and activities ought to be directed. Towards there being refashioned to expand that particular character. Thirdly I would suggest that we might have to begin reconciling this continuous battle between city and suburbs that we must begin to deal with this issue and dispose of it of the continuing warfare that seems to exist both in the scholarly work as well as in the general press and the presumed battle that exists between the city and the
suburbs that if we look at population growth and change that we're really talking about population spread over a given geographic areas and that we ought to begin to recognise that we no longer are talking and this kind of adversary situation but have to begin addressing the total question which is confronted in a metropolitan area. I would suggest simultaneously that as we begin to attempt to deal with our problems in a large number of our problems that have to be dealt with on a metropolitan basis that we best also re-examine the character of participation within our cities itself. If there is a case within a metropolitan setting for suburban areas for example to continue in existence to influence certain aspects of their day to day active activity without doing disservice to the Metropolitan needs of the area in which they find residence. So it seems to me that neighborhoods and communities within our central city itself ought to begin to do to be provided with the same kinds of opportunities. Fourthly. I would suggest
that we have to begin substituting for what currently is almost a competing series of thrusts as we attempt to deal with our public problems. It almost has a kind of a magical phrase each of these thrusts the family approach the environmental approach the educational approach and that what we have to begin to somehow respond to particularly as planners is to begin recognizing some kind of a horizontal response in lieu of the current domination of vertical responses in professional jurisdiction. Fifth we have to begin transforming our whole approach to relocation. Bill Sladen who is on the panel with us wrote some years ago and I think very much to the point that we have to begin transforming our current approach which views relocation as a necessary act in an operational setting to begin transforming that occasion of displacement into a positive re housing program on a metropolitan basis. And finally it seems to me we have to begin making peace with ourselves. I'm
struck by a tremendous amount of ambivalence which exists within most of our housing programs as well as in other public activities a kind of an ambivalence as to whether we are dealing with what Galbraith called the influence society or with what Michael Harrington called The Other America. In our mission to furnish the facility investment demanded by the majority which for certain activities can only be provided by the public. We respond as if we were dealing as art with our tax the influence society and this kind of emphasis is likely to give heavy weight to environmental ingredients and to physical facilities. On the other hand we act frequently as if our mission is to concentrate our resources and programme matic effort on the disadvantaged population which is likely to result in a de-emphasis on environment a substantial reliance on social welfare and related measures and solutions which will demand economic social and emotional accommodation on the part of the majority population. I would suggest that our thesis ought to be
back to my point of beginning that what ought to shape and determine is not necessarily any precise forms the kind of thing that Mr. Abrams talked about in his basic paper which I had the privilege of reading but rather to put the public in the position constantly of testing all of its programs all of its techniques and all of its proposals against the degree to which it facilitates change reinforces aspiration and even if this then means more population movement more training so be it. We're called planners but frequently are tied more to plan than planning more to product than process. And frequently and I conclude with this we often it seems to me resolve our dilemma. By measures at half throttle as a means I think frequently of buying time goodwill and civil Amity pending the political and social sanction necessary to make our programs truly relevant and fully operate. At best we push the implementation of legislative enactment as far as we dare at any given moment in time. But nearly always short of our capability and almost always short of the need.
And by this device we endorse a process which seeks to achieve sanction by imperceptible changes and I'm certain that this war longer due to the continuing story of the American political and administrative system and within that system we therefore face conceivably an impossible task and seeking to plot our future. And given this failure we rely on fanciful visions of the future and the full knowledge of the games we play. Thank you. Those were the remarks of city planner Jack Meltzer director of the Center for Urban Studies at the University of Chicago. You're listening to another in the series the next 50 years. I lighting the 50th year conference of the American Institute of planners held in the nation's capital. The topic for this program is the next 50 years in housing and urban form. One of the world's most
famous experiments in urban form is known as the tapioca project a Fenlon heading that project for the past 16 years has been administrator and president of Finland's housing foundation. Mr. Heikki von Hertz and included in his presentation before the American Institute of planners conference was the story of the famed Tapio le gardens. Here is Heikki von Hertz and. First I don't think you can approach a difficult problem like urban environment and housing only on the base. You cannot solve the problem problems and you cannot personally add people by the by talking you have to do something not only plan but also realize you know dangerous if you can. I think that the best way to tell you
what I want is to tell you the story of the Garden City in Finland a city and our capacity for about 20000 and have a tent that they started up in 1968 tape they started to build up a lot as a protest as a protest against their way of town planning in Finland. They didn't accept. Before I continue I want to say you one thing you possibly think that Finland as a socialistic can't remember a place to send a child thinks they've been copied a lot as a private entreprise extreme hot economic conditions. Secondly they get less government and they ate in
Finland than you get here in the United States through S H A and so on. We wanted to build a. And you Tom according the new atomic concept on the show at least in Finland and your new way of planning and building modern communities. What we want it to have a modern Tom around a sense I would call a town center administers at many started a business and cops are sent to follow live not only in daytime but also by Secondly evidencing and that's what our community needs. How serious might this starving high rise in this garden at bottom and spawn
of family units so. Mighty Mouse. Same us and pools movie houses library music conservatory the exhibition building for modern odds on the science of factories transportations of bases schools kindergartens playgrounds cell. What we did. As I mentioned they've been copula mostly as a protest. Our first step was be moved outside the boundaries of the city of Helsinki. To a root of a community. Want to get the freedom of planning and to get rid of the bureaucrats. Thank you.
We had to purchase the next temple they have to purchase the landfall this Saturday. But there was no bank all no bank in Finland that would be put out the back. They scanned the enterprise. The idea was fine I was told it was splendid but but I looked around the most to to utopia to be realized at last they succeeded to get the money from the private sold us. They had to under sign a bank draft of 200 million bucks. They had an interest right. I was seven the Hoppa sent to be paid back in two months time. That money be purchased. That is how we start dating. That's how it was how
we purchased that land. The most watched hoping and planning a sit in after that to be had during the bank draft for another three months. Then off to hoffer later for us. And so only had short term credit for five years and the later 10 10 years so I'm all. Hot Time. I sued but they needed more money because we they aren't building a city in that route out. They got the freedom we wanted but we had to pay a heavy price for this freedom because we have are told by the minister that if we wanted to build streets for all its water props she plans on hating sent us on
solid plans and so on they could do it but they had to pay every mock said she would not be in the case in case not to be engaged in any way in this enterprise. So we really baited downfall 1:50 and it wasn't people from scratch totally as a private entreprise told us by the help of short term credits without any help of taxation founds paying all the time interest of 7 1/2 percent. The RE had only one income that we could get by selling the sides and in the buys of the size we had to include our cost price of
the land that during their period of 15 years as a become the one our administration costs and the cost of all of these technical facilities like roads water pipes and so on all these expenses had to put in the land and high prices in spite of that. Thank you. They did in fact see. In spite of that the side prices have been much much lower than in our next hour. Every year a huge amount in their budget and the budgets for streets and water pipes and all these things and and has kept it out of interest at their disposal.
The next problem. The sociological one. Because we wanted to build a cross section community. Why. Because it's not difficult to build a rich man's town if you have a lot of money you do what you want. But this condo realize say anything you want to town for every man and show that idea of the new found concept in practice how the money stat be established nonprofit making private entreprise called a finished house and foundation this foundation has £6 our member organizations. We would want to have a broad background so we picked three of these organizations from right and three of them from
left from the right. We took the central society of civil servants from the left the comfort and a sense of fairness to aid you us from there aren't finished Phemie develop fell a leg from the left the center Association of candidates from the right. The Child Welfare League. I'm on the one hand from the left the center aisle Association I was in a well it's so. But these six organizations only back morally and politically not economically. But that is how it has space that we really have succeeded in the creation of a cross-section real cross-section community because the proper scent
is a blue collar blue collar people in Tapia law is something like 22 percent to 42 to fall 45 percent and the white collar people about 55 percent. This is I had made it most easy at thing to do and then it might be to do in the United States but I want to add one very important aspect in this operation. The main idea behind the success is was that we from the very beginning wanted to call her out and they had the progress and then insides of every social groups know that they are progress and none progress. People in all social groups. You how to evoke the progress of ones
to give you an example. The first 10 days that moved into this new town copula December 1953 10 leading men of the Confederation of Finnish trade unions and their families laid as gave a sign and a mosque face fallout. Shot after we had a good collection of University Professors. They love businessmen. Intellect to adults living in their same area sometimes in the same street and getting happy that. All these people have something called their They're out of the program kind of people they can live side by side in a modern
community and really feel happy. It's almost train experience in town planning from the sociological point of view I want to tell you. The next approach was architecture under the sun. We wanted to put on man and his family sold the house live south of us and copy a lot of that is never a larger distance than maximum 250 yards to walk from the doorstep to the nearest Neighborhood Center never more than 250 yards. That's just a first level all of us said this. We are also planning for pedestrians residents and con sumus.
To give you a figure at tomorrow we are going to have a 6000 show up what you need 4500 beds. I repeat 6000 jumps 4500 relics. No doubt a majority showed no bedroom city of the 600 jobs statehouse and already completed a. One more example of. The main shopping street in downtown has to take up at the city of Helsinki is called Aleksandr strait. When we are planning the town center. That this plan to cater to a population of 4 8 thousand because the ultimate goal of growth are Tapia last 8000. So one day I'll have a slogan everything you can buy in
Alexander Street you can buy in town center copy but not only shopping. They're down some to shall be as liable in the evening and by night as eat it by day. Day time we are going to have more than the 50 grand guy and even in evening activities going on at your church. It's excellent. So some Send for adults and young people. A swimming pool yard a library and a music conservatory. The rest around us bars bowling alleys even sports and public health. Send us to us send us an SOL. But one thing I want to add still is that we have all the time. Hired the best
plan on us and they think it's very important that also the residents architects of high quality. Because you can see all that in the good examples of how the residential architect actually has totally destroyed our high standing in the US. But even if those first cross architects of services and shadow architects we have. Architectural control very important this board to this board. We have pointed to independent architects engineers construction electric and heating. But as to that sociologist one
ex-pats and a professional expert on housekeeping and that what's important one experienced housewife and every such s edited is signed by our high standard. Argh X has to go through this control bought before I accept it. THANK YOU THANK YOU THANK YOU. You've been listening to the story of Finland's experiment in urban form tapioca gardens from the man who's been the guiding force behind tapioca success since 1951. Mr. Heikki von Hertz and. This week you've heard leading architects and city planners outlined the future in housing and urban form thoughts on creating a new standard of life with man as the measure. Next week the element in this 13 part series the next 50
years presents the idea of some of the youngest authorities in the field of planning. The subject the context of the future youth technology and the world. Particular attention will be given to technology and the underdeveloped world with comments by young Italian architect designer Renato Severino. Mr Severino is major research has been and prefabrication and simplified design of building components. Then in opposition to Mr Severino his remarks we'll hear from architect planner John Turner at present. Mr. Turner is a consultant to the United Nations on urban settlement in developing countries. Teacher writer and strand who helped form the national teachers corps has thoughts on the hope there is in people and Schrans background includes work as a Peace Corps volunteer in South America and experience as a teacher in the Harlem ghetto concluding remarks next
week come from an elder statesman in planning Mr. Buckminster Fuller whose recent designs include the United States but villian at Expo 67. We hope you'll be listening again next week when any are you FM Washington bring you more of the stimulating ideas of the experts in planning for the next 50 years. This is NPR public affairs director Bill Greenwald reporting from Washington. This has been another program in the NE our series the next 15 years expressing a variety of opinions on the future of the democratic environment. These views were given at the 50th year conference of the American Institute of planners held in Washington in October of last year. As there is going to lose my mind how it will Greenwood and John Burns and I when you am you Af-Ams American University Radio in Washington D.C..
This is any are the national educational radio network.
- The next fifty years
- Creating a New Standard of Life
- Producing Organization
- WAMU-FM (Radio station : Washington, D.C.)
- Contributing Organization
- University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
- AAPB ID
- Series Description
- For series info, see Item 3455. This prog.: Creating a New Standard of Life. Charles Abrams, George Candilis
- Social Issues
- Media type
Producing Organization: WAMU-FM (Radio station : Washington, D.C.)
- AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 68-26-10 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
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- Chicago: “The next fifty years; Creating a New Standard of Life,” 1968-08-13, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed December 5, 2023, http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-tx355r2k.
- MLA: “The next fifty years; Creating a New Standard of Life.” 1968-08-13. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. December 5, 2023. <http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-tx355r2k>.
- APA: The next fifty years; Creating a New Standard of Life. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-tx355r2k