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This blending of traditional and modern elements into trying to ease political system calmness political system a Kongs partly faulty as that ability of the regime to Chinese people and its effectiveness. But why was this political system suddenly plunged into a profound crisis and one of the tentative explanations can be over here in the context of our discussion of the political community. The others will be discussed in its in their proper context. Now one turkey one can begin with the observation that the pattern of political integration contango is contained within itself to be dis integrated forces with which it cannot. Why India Chinese Communist political community and ideology
in the form of the thought of Mol plays an extraordinarily important role in setting the general orientation in bringing about integration of the various functional groups in legitimizing the regime in enlisting commitment. Because of the reasons that I mentioned before because of the operational freedom or because of the operational character of Mao thought and because of the power among role play by Moscow in making moved him most important decisions at least before 1959. There was a particularly close association between ideology and policy. The given this close association criticisms of the regions policy
may easily become criticisms of the ideology differences over policy soon become divergences in ideology and disagreements over policy cannot be resolved on pragmatic grounds alone. Under these circumstances the failure of Mao's domestic and foreign policies since 1959 led to criticism of these policies and more importantly the questioning of specific elements of Mao's thought. For example a formal wise minister of culture is quoted as having said in 1960. In studying the writings of Chairman Mao there is no need to study there specifically. We were pawns
because some of them have lost that time new timeliness and quote. Ditto to us of Mao's thought. Also resorted to the method of verbal a reaffirming its validity but in practice refused to be guided by it. Thus the PARI charge that in recent years there was a tendency for many party members to be overtly left but in actuality following the rightist line and there they were waving the red flag to oppose the red flag. The dissidents put forward ideas and values which were basically incompatible with a fundamentalist interpretation of the ideology but refrained from launching an open attack on it but young
Sheehan Jones theory of two combining into one. A highly abstract discussion of dialectic materialism and historians view that a theory or doctrine emerges from historical data. Cases in point syncretism syncretism rather than purity of ideology may come from this process of development. Did dissidents try to insulate certain areas of activity from the influence of ideology or even to ask the British Baillieu's and gnomes not in harmony with the Maoist doctrine. Examples are the sphere of quote purely academic discipline discussion and quote which must be conducted with standoffs. Different from those prevailing in the areas of political debate and a
strict enforcement of academic standards at institutions of higher learning in disregard of a policy of favoring students of work and present orators which promise a was closely associated with Mao's lawless ideology. And this development EP once reflected and to me a sinner aerated may accelerate the emergence of really terribly well defined and differentiated sectors into society. And in gnomes and values of these differentiated relatively well defined in differentiated sectors may or may not be easily integrated. Again the dissidents affirm the validity of the ideology at a higher level of generality but show reluctance to propagate it. What doubt India
advisability of extending its sphere of up occasion de ma is already Moline group charged that party off issues controlling the propaganda operators put commoners obstacles in the way of printing and distributing mouse work on a large scale. This questioning of well thought at once Reflektor and aggravated the tendencies toward this integration. This orientation demoralization and erosion of the literal illegitimacy of the regime which had been brought about by policy failure. The association between mouse thought and policy failures and a doubt about the applicability aof well thought in many areas of social life raises the question of congruence between
ideology on the one hand and social reality and emergent trends emerging trends on the other. The question of can grew in's between ideology on the one hand and so-so reality and emerging trends on the other. To answer this question one must examine the cut to the stakes of Mao's thought. Which was. The circumstances under which Mao thought he was first he walked and it changed so environment has changed environment under which it has been now applied. But we shall consider the following following aspect of thought. First the idea of conflict. Second the tendency toward polarized sation. Third the
concept of the central ot of men full of the controlling importance of quote politics and quote in final 8 importance of idea over material conditions the importance of ideas over material conditions. You thought of Mao developed out of the imperatives of fighting a guerrilla war in economically parts of China against vastly superior in Japanese forces. It is permeated by d idea of conflict struggle and come back. These ideas have continue to influence the thinking of the leaders. After 1949 there has been a series of domestic campaigns with the great
leave with the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution. Yes the latest but not probably not the last one. At least for all of these campaigns the Egret the agrarian reform movement the two campaigns to set up the agricultural producers cooperative of the lower and higher types and a great leap forward. Show a cyclical pattern. Just as the campaigns against the nationalists during the Civil War showed a cyclical pattern. The idea of combat because of protracted struggle and a series of campaigns have given content and substance to the goal of building a socialist society and led to a revival of the theory of an interrupted revolution in an environment where the popular
desire for a measure of stability and routine a zation has increased with time. That this desire is reflected in the writings of the dissidents and the Maoists analysis of these writings. The Maoist critique of these writings in a while a red broke publishing 1050 sake's funding one of the most popular young writers. Define social history as the history of the pursuit of happiness pursuit of happiness by all men. He wrote I quote happiness in normal life means peace and no war. Good food and fine clothing is spacious and clean house. Love between husband and wife parents and children. There is no doubt about this. And this is
also what we all are sick of you. End quote. In this we was attacked in 1964 as incompatible with a plute proletarian notion that the highest purpose in life is to serve the majority of the peoples in trying to end the world. A former member of the secretariat. After the Peking municipal party of the CCP. Wrote I quote people's attention should be call to treasure one third of one's lives so that after a day laborer a work everyone can learn some useful knowledge both engine and modern in a relaxed groove. And all these talks about relaxation and pursuit of happiness. Indeed this is dence
writing were considered to be poisonous weeds. The Maoists also acknowledged that in the race circles there was a position to the smell of gunpowder. These are in quotes. In other words most of the people were writing about war and conflict. And therefore many writers felt that this was not the thing to do and they want to write about something else. Second there is a tendency toward polarization in mouse thought which accompanies the idea of conflict combat and struggle. The dichotomy between the enemy and the people has become the basis of the political system and recently an editorial of the People's Daily declare quote
Either you crush me or I crush you. Eat at ease when prevails over the west wind or the West Wind prevails over the East Wing. There is no middle road and quote. But this thought pattern found expression in the region's policy toward liberation of an hour which sets the writers tasks as the portrayal of heroic figures. On the one hand and the exposure of evil nature of the enemy on the other while condemning the writing of middle character us. Now this tendency toward polarized sation in mouse thought. It's one expression of the necessity of many ideologies including Mao to simplified social reality in order to serve as a guy to
action that this cut to this day is true of most ideology. Only in mouse case he push it more to the extreme. This predisposition to simplify has become and off they go to understand reality as the simple life of the base area has been replaced by an increasingly complex society. And thus the attempt to apply the thought of all too specialized and technical field of activity areas or by semi educated card raise and illiterate masses to solve new technical problems has impressed the critics as quote oversimplification philistinism and practical ism. End quote. The third aspect of my thought to relate
to d central ity of men imperial warfare popular support is criticise effect. In giving the poorly equipped partisans a chance to survive and to achieve victory. Likewise there has been a tendency for the Chinese communist to overstressed their role of sheer human effort in economic reconstruction in which the availability of material resources makes a Crusoe difference in the rate of development. This emphasis has necessitated a continual ascent to ation on the demand for purse no sacrifice for the good of the collectivity. The last three articles by Mao written in the UN on period which stressed the importance of personal sacrifice and human effort
have. Recently been detonated. The three constantly read essays. In other words you must read it time and again and try to internalize it and let the let the ideas expressed in these essay govern your every act and every behavior. But to demand of greater personal sekret FAEs and human effort it has no longer been made on a population readily realize body party's promise to give it. All by the invading Japanese forces. Rather it has been imposed on a people which desire economic betterment. The dissidents have assumed the role of promoting the interests of the people against the demands of the state and the party. They
constantly praised in their historical writing and historical plays. Those officials in the Chinese Empire who pleaded for their people. In their memory 0 2 if thrown. In other words they want the Emperor to not to air the men too much personal sacrifice too much contribution in terms of tax and labor from the people. And these dissidents commanded highly the engine practice of pressuring the labor power of the people. Don't waste it. Use it. Use it carefully. A form of the thought of Mao justifies the politicise ation of almost all spheres of those who live depend attrition our politics into almost every sphere of social
life may have been a short term expedient to construct new patterns of so-so relationship in a disintegrated society. But it is basically incompatible with long term human needs in a stable community. And these needs are wrong. The preservation of an autonomous area of so-so and private lives into wage. Politics with it emphasis on conflict struggle and combat does not intrude. Han still also doubts Maoists have found it necessary to attack frequently the Bush theory of human nature. Furthermore giving prominence to politics in every spheres of activity requires that proof rational criteria be supported ated to political worms in making decisions
and judging where performance demands for placing politics about expertise was pushed a step further. Since the attack on the intellectuals was intense in the Weber 1065. How the face aspect of mouth thought is the emphasis on the importance of ideas over material conditions the successful use of new ideas by Mao and his followers to overcome objective difficulty and to defeat their opponents during the Revolutionary period left a permanent legacy say in their in their mentality and this mentality is reflected in Lynn Barrows concept of four furrows that is giving fierce plays to men between man and
weapon giving first place to political work between political work and all the work giving first place to ideological work between ideological and routine tasks in political work and giving first place to living ideas as between ideas in bokes and living ideas. The power it is very clear. The Maoist claim that the creative application of Mao's thought well in the long run. Overcome any objective difficulty. In so doing they are in effect standing Marxist materialism. Fun is had by all. That this was pointed out by one of the dissidents. But I also disability criticizing the fall of Ernest Mark. But actually pointing at mo himself done tol wrote
I quote the marquee full of Ernest mark in mention that through reliance on the role of the psychological factor they could do whatever they pleased but the result was that they ran their head against a brick wall of reality and went bankrupt in the end because of the food of Mo was no longer can grew and with reality Mo was attack by insinuation by her by intonation for this for his quote arrogant subjectivist and upper tree way of thinking and style of work off one ban on acting willfully and code and this was one of the dissidents said the tyrant's way. The mouthpiece is in international affair that the East Wind prevails over the West
Wing was obliquely characterized as empty tall by the commission of the Maoist dissidents described by indirection Mao's policy as quote boasting indulging in fantasy substituting illusion for reality and resulting in the total destruction of the family wealth consisting of one egg and quote. It is obvious that failure in policies which were associated with an ideology and a criticism of these policies leading to the question of the validity of the ideology usher in a profound crisis in communist China. Before the proper functioning of the Chinese political system I'm going back to my original point. Depends more
heavily on general acceptance of an ideology then many other regimes due to the unusual important role unusually important role play by ideology in providing the basic principles of the political community in setting the orientation of the regime in legitimizing the political system and in a listing statement and listing commitments. Mao and his followers fear that the developments similar to CRU shelfs denunciation of Stalin and the Hungarian revolution might take place in China and quite possibly some of the Chinese leader may have fear that policy setbacks and Gen Gen generational changes might have some future porn undermined the political system is served. Seriously concerned with the weakening of the ideological foundation of the regime and its future
orientation mahl the NBL and their followers cede a solution India reaffirmation of the regime's basic ideology that is the thought of Mao. They have attempted to dissociate failure of foreign policies adopted and to attribute the failure to extraneous factors in Arrow's implementation. That's a softening up absolving Mao and the thought of ML from any responsibility for failure. They have endeavored to attribute all kinds of successes including the explosion of an atomic device to the ideology itself. Whether or not these had anything to do with it they have educated to study an application of the ideology by everyone in every few. Thus intensifying the program of indoctrination
seeking to enlist commitments of everyone to the ideology. They have sought to link up class struggle with their struggle for production and scientific experiment. Why being engage in political combat with the dissidents. But at a time when ideology is being question and the party itself is divided they have try to emphasize to borrow Professor Easterns to them personal legitimacy say to compensate for the weakening of ideological Chitta Missy and to overcome the problems created by the split between ideological orthography and organizational orthography in these terms pushed the cult of personality to a new height. And thus the Cultural
Revolution in the Red Guards are the expression of a profound crisis in integration. The mowers and the dissidents represented to political forces which the integrative measure of the political system cannot reconcile because the integrative myth itself has become a subject of controversy this time on the most fundamental question confronting the regime may have to Vida to Chinese people in every sector off live into two groups. Although not every sector has been influenced by this controversy to the same extent and the relative strengths of these two groups may be different in different sectors. Freedom a lot of thought of Milo has become a symbol in the power struggle. The rest of the
interests of one group in up hoarding wealth saw and the Western interests of another group in questioning Mao's thought link ideological debates with real polity and have a conduit for the extreme claims made for Mao's thought. On the one hand and the reluctance to propagate Mao thought on another. These link the link between the basic problem of ideology and real politic. What a lot of problems to be discussed. It makes two lectures. You have just heard tons o professor in the Department of Political Science at the University of Chicago and a talk titled The political community. This lecture was the first of three on the topic revolution integration and political crisis
in communist China. Next week's lecture is titled The ruling elite and the masses. Mr. Zolli spoke at the University of Chicago during a year long study of China held by the university's Center for Policy Studies. The last two programs in this special broadcast series China today will present the views of four prominent experts regarding Chinese and American foreign policies and relationships between the two countries. China today was prepared for a radio broadcast by the University of Chicago. This is the national educational radio network.
China today
The political community, part two
Producing Organization
National Association of Educational Broadcasters
University of Chicago
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University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
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Episode Description
This program presents the second part of a lecture by Tang Tsou titled "The Political Community."
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A series focused on current events in China, as well as the interactions between the governments of China and the United States.
Global Affairs
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Producing Organization: National Association of Educational Broadcasters
Producing Organization: University of Chicago
Speaker: Tsou, Tang, 1918-1999
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 67-Sp.13-1 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:29:49
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Chicago: “China today; The political community, part two,” 1967-08-14, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed February 23, 2024,
MLA: “China today; The political community, part two.” 1967-08-14. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. February 23, 2024. <>.
APA: China today; The political community, part two. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from