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Where are you going to put them. Who is going to teach them. And after they graduate if they do not know what kind of a job they can. If you add to that the fact that in total Latin America has a rate of three point two or three in port 9 according to some people in increasing population. And according to some people too you need only to keep up the pace so to speak and feeding the population an increase of about 7 percent in agriculture and food production. You have the answer for 1998 is almost impossible according to some estimates not even the United States going to increase 7 percent annually with all the facilities and all the technological and scientific
advance. Therefore you have the struggle of those who are hunger hungry the struggle those who. Are trying to improve themselves through education. Those who admire or respect the United States and those who detest the United States those who are pro Russia and the ones who uproar multitude and those were probably the Castro all of them fighting at the same time and very few of them knowing exactly where they were going and read God bless all who wins. And I don't care what political system or what economic system prevails. Right now the problem is the same lack of training people lack of educators lack of buildings and lack of means of production.
What is then the answer. Many leaders in Latin America have been Legionnaire's many lose in this country. Have had a vision and one of those great nations and into American life has been and it is yet the Alliance for Progress. I mean in spite of the fact that the alliance has been criticized and sometimes correctly criticised is the only way that Latin America can come up at least to keep hope for the future. I was talking not long ago was the president of one of the national banks and
Latin America and he was telling me that by the year 2000. The pro-capital the annual per capita income in Latin America the average will be seven hundred dollars. Right now in the United States. It's close to twenty nine hundred dollars close to 28 something. My reaction was let's keep it a secret. Let's keep it a secret because if we tell the masses of Latin America and they don't like the book that the angle per capita income by the year 2000 as a present of the value of the bearing in mind of the value of the dollar you know who knows what's going to be in the year 2000 I don't. Yes this is what they can expect after 25 or 30 years of
struggle. They want to wait until the year 2000 to bring them to the store in despair. They'll do it now. And some of them are doing it now. Of course this is short of some new invention some new planning some new interim American or some new interim American program or the strengthening of the existing into American programs such as the Alliance for Progress and the interim American Development Bank. But at the time. At the time when the United States had reached 20 years of experience after the Second World War 1946 up until now 20 22 years of experience
at a time when the American universities had graduated enough people to understand and to love criticize help Latin America. The funds available have been cut and I have already seen the results of the funds being cut and the money projects worthy projects eliminated. People a lot of jobs in agriculture in education itself. In the New Year we know where you'll find the most primitive conditions such as the Amazon basin in Brazil and our very advanced cities such as Rio de Janeiro or Brazilian or Sao Paolo or when the site is.
It is indeed encouraging to see that institutions such as the into American Development Bank are helping with subsidies and grants to change the situation in Latin America. The contribution of the Inter-American Development Bank has been tremendous in the fields of education industry public health. In creating new roads in helping to build new buildings for universities except what there is need of something else might work. Not only the fact that there is less money available
now less than before but also all the wealth and the realisation that Latin America will continue to live within the framework of democratic government. At the present time. There is a new left and you're right and the new center also acting together against each other in Latin America. But there is need for capitalization for construction for train people that have nothing to do with as I said with a political or a social system. The important thing in my judgment is that if this changes and this preparation is not done
in the common market including North and South America a common market of talent and intellectual common market. If this is not done peacefully by increasing productivity the capacity to grow an educated it will be done in desperation by other means and someone in American can and is beginning to happen. And this will lead only to two different roads in my judgment. Eva on Archy and the destruction of everything that has been built or worse perhaps a stern military dictatorship. To keep the balance is the most difficult task of any honest Latin American Statesman.
The free flow of ideas the free floor of appraisals of contradictory systems. Fine be blowing dust pression full of frustration where ideas sometimes seem to be completely meaningless or unless they are translated immediately into practical ways of feeding them grabbing them and raising their hopes. Thank you very much. Following the presentation by Dr. Roberto Espinosa Mayo a moderator Professor Minos generalise at the Institute on world affairs two questions from the floor around what issues the Catholic Church split in America.
When I say that this division of the church or not is not exclusive of chilling I think it's much more clear in Brazil where if you want a few bishops about to reach a goal signed a statement saying that the situation is such that in Brazil specifically I mean generally in Latin America in fact there is a Congress that goes together with the visit of the pope to Colombia Eucharistic become friends and the document presented what the most important document is precisely the study of the economic and social situation and those people buy and read the younger priests and some of them are going to young become financially. Cardinal come out out of Brazil. This about 60 Excedrin claim that the church has not paid attention enough attention to relieve me of the population and there is a BAD.
As soon as she too Asian on the run they do go over the church and get one church last week. I think it was last Sunday if I don't remember well in Santiago Chile it was due and they had a banner and so forth and they passed around leaflets demanding that something be done for the masses. The Chileans and this isn't the case may see to that. No wonder many of the writers in Latin America up until recently have written about make sure that America is is there is heating you constantly. If it isn't the a dictatorship is an earthquake. If there's an earthquake it's a drought. If it isn't then the drafters of all Kaino like in Costa Rica. If it isn't a small candle as rain sweeping away as it had been in the car last week the whole town into the Atlantic City. So this is a constant struggle against nature and against the
ill will for some people. How much help to the Soviets give in contrast to the Americans. Luckily so far there is nothing of the sort in Latin America. But there are trade agreements and their ballet boys going to Latin America. Right now they are of all places. There were two weeks ago in Quito from Georgia not from Georgia USA. The Soviet Union. They are inviting writers to go to the Soviet Union in July at the end of July when they saw a man who was one of the outstanding Colombian writers who received the lending prize because it was really President of Colombia was present. Even though there is no diplomatic you know people make relations between the Soviet Union
and Colombia at least in the ambassadorial level there are other kinds of help. But don't quote help the guerrillas. And this is something that I didn't discuss not because it's not proper or pertinent to the theme is extremely pretty not impertinent. The guerrillas have increased tremendously in love. Only three weeks ago the government of the room the night that the gorillas had been fighting in Guatemala the novel which is in the border between believe and Peru but not knowing that the Bolivian government was saying at the same time will kill all the gorillas. One of them was saying there is nothing the other one was saying will fight against them in the in the highways of
Venezuela. I saw it. Certain spots are checkpoints for safety purposes. Not that they have increased I don't think so but in Guatemala right next door they still fighting a very successful. In fact some members of the church are fighting with the guerrillas. How many of them are there. I don't know. This is also part of the Soviet Union or coming through and how many of the countries in Latin America's Communist League communism legal and word is legal. Which brand of communism is most popular. So I would have to write a treaty about it because you do have. Again from A to Z all over Latin America in Ecuador for instance where the Communist Party is illegal.
It was in all of the newspapers the Communist Party just held a Congress and there was nothing anybody could do. Mexico is legal. I believe the Truscott's are legal but then again in my judgment I see it in terms of Latin America. I'm not judging Europe now or Asia in my judgment. The brand of communism is of little importance because the aims are exactly the same. Whether it's Fidel Castro whether it's much at home or whether it's the Soviet Union I think the difference is in the eye of the French would say somewhat fair the way of
approaching things. The subject Union has much more has mellowed a bit and they know their way around a bit more. Possibly although at least they think so anyway. And they approach the whole problem differently. Trade back and trying to fill the gap that possibly the United States will leave behind if there is a contraction in cooperation between North and South America a gap that. I would hope that some of the Western Europeans and possibly Japan would feel but not to the entire satisfaction and to fulfill the needs of life. So in my judgment the brown although. The type of communism in itself that is not one thing because all of them are saying the same thing. Whether it's you I or he did reach out to take over to sort of nationalize socialize the country and get
together with us albeit in the finals. Of course there are difference in temper and temperament and approaches in tactics but the aims of the US. Could you comment on the effectiveness of the reform legislation which is followed. The Alliance for Progress in Latin America. Again I would have to go country by country. I think that by and large it has been successful. It has broken down old patterns and in the cases of Chile and the gazes of the rule specifically of Peru where the army had it all very strong all around the country.
But then again all Costa Rica France too. Well you do have the means of production and distribution and ministration sales tax income tax and the implementation of all these measures. But it is not easy looking at the problem from here or even sometimes. Unless you go right there that can fray do now in Chile when a great deal of the National Resources will have to be used to take care of the disaster left by the UN. That all kinds of help growing Iraq for instance what just happened in Costa Rica. Well according to some estimates about
100000 heads of cattle words either destroyed or died will have to be killed because of all the cane in those situations in countries where to begin with the resources are limited. The implementation of certain reforms by almost by definition even where the revolution very slow there. Unfortunately very soon because I have cites as I have said everything is urgent the building of the road is your urgent just us approach and it is the building of a hospital or feeding families or creating crop success. So again I think the responsibility of that the Latin Americans were required. Two sure that all the alliance for progress since 1960 has been shown satisfactory not entirely not entirely I mean many said
years and many disasters but is that we might judge the soul is the real rebel within the framework of democratic to what degree is the a given Latin America abused and citing a couple of examples for a good example that one of the dam being built in the wrong place. All may start by saying that the Alliance for Progress as you know is not a foreign aid program. It's an interim American program managed by all the Latin American countries and the United States in my judgment the greatest waste in foreign aid has been not precisely what you mention but the aid to the military in that manner. There have been mistakes and corruption indeed.
And that's if we were to study the history of each country we find wonderful examples everywhere. The important thing is that since the 50s was also when you mess with what is called by the economists the geographers disability right. Well not everyone no. I mean they were what concerned knows better how to use them. For instance in a few months not years and a few months only one of the Amazon Basin will be met with the help of the American Air Force of course so they know for the first time what is available what can be done without it. I think you could find it if you report
especially some projects that are going on there right not by successful I some other projects but I'd venture to say almost without any without any reservations that. The project is financed under the Alliance for profit by a log specifically under the Inter-American Development Bank have in seven years since 1960 have resulted in excellent projects and have created new hope. Actually the element that we must sustain in Latin America with all this is not immediate solution. They mention population explosion has been a great problem in Latin America what hope do you see that for birth control in the near future in the light of the pope's declaration.
The newspapers and magazines all of the world than specific in Latin America. Well all of the Tauriel articles comments about. The pope's and sit in cyclical about human life. Man you say that in Latin America. Again I'm using the term Latin America as if it were a unity. I should do that by and large in some countries in Latin America the upper classes have practiced birth control one way or another for ages either version. What has been the problem is with the Lord that even though they're the opinions of their divided what each
sect actually what actually in practical effect the pope's words will because the church is divided. That quite a few bishops in that in America who have made statements against the ball not exactly games but we've watched bear in mind the situation itself points to such an extent that as you know the player. Has moved since he has made up at least four or five public statements about his original decision. Then again there was a news item in a Columbia newspaper last week to the effect that the pill is the drug that has the most sale in Colombia. That means something I don't know what our uncle MBA is a very Catholic country as you
know. Like many may say this to some extent I think as a rule of the Catholic Church all over Latin America has been over emphasized. It's quite true that by and large the gasolene church except the section has by tradition. Established since the 15th century and so forth. But there are many Protestant missions in the U.S. the middle place in Colombia in Venezuela in Costa Rica and Brazil everywhere. And you wish to make a shape to that in Latin America with many more Catholics done in the United States. There are many less priests than in the United States. What that means I don't know but mean something it does mean something.
The practical effects. I don't know we'll know it a year from now. Possibly if you have men like New York money in Puerto Rico who had the stamina and the political strength to face the church and challenge the church in this issue and get away with it and win it. Then the problems but not in itself. Mary you say you want to be this way because you do have a problem this for 15 years since it's both children born now etc. but we do have the problem right now of the children were born 10 years 15 years ago and were being born right now and being fed in the streets of wartime to Lima and living under conditions that I haven't seen anywhere like beasts of burden holding refrigerators on their backs.
Revolution: 20th century phenomenon
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#5 (Reel 2)
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University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
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Identifier: 69-13-5 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
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Duration: 00:29:06
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Chicago: “Revolution: 20th century phenomenon; #5 (Reel 2),” 1969-02-11, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed October 23, 2021,
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APA: Revolution: 20th century phenomenon; #5 (Reel 2). Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from