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One plus one you equals three four. You need a gun you still the one I wanted when it was me. Me being there you know. It is estimated that in 16:50 there were four hundred and seventy billion people in the world. It took two centuries for that figure to double. It took only one century to double again. Today there are well over three and a half billion of us sharing this planet. Demographers tell us that by the year 2000 the world population will swell to almost
7 billion. This series of programs is about this problem about what happens because one plus one equals three. In 1967 there were over three hundred and eighteen thousand illegitimate babies born in the United States. It is estimated that at least one out of every three of these children is on one of the results of accidents that cause people about this is about a part of America's problem beyond wanted pregnancies. There are no accurate figures for the number of unwanted legitimate children that are born each year on just under three and a half million babies were born in the United States in 1968. How many of these three and a half million children were also accident when I was. Looking at. This it was. Like it.
Was going to go down. Oh my god the reader just stopped reading. This was. This was. Really didn't want to have a child. Our women love him and do what we can. But I was going to get a job now that there isn't school. It would have helped pay the bills. It would be nice if we could really get the children what they need. But with four already at home well there's so little to go on the doctor said I really shouldn't have been a child again. But here I am and my children don't get me wrong I really like children. But the twins are only a year old. However way they feel about birth control or if you will. Family planning.
It is a fact of life for increasing numbers of American men and women the desire for reliable methods of birth control is ancient and I don't believe I allow any of you Dr. Alan Guttmacher president of Planned Parenthood world population discussed some of the history of birth control Birth Control of course is not new. But the earliest medical records we have dating from the famous presuppositions of the pharaohs. Detail are pretty good methods of contraception not obviously as good as those we have today but they were I would think quite effective and the literature of Greek medicine. The literate your woman medicine is replete with material in this area. Now the only thing that is really new is that birth control was largely confined to the
Court ladies of substance and class and it was not for the wives of the men who built the pyramids. It was ladies of the court. Now what's happened of course is that we've democratized birth control and we feel that every human being should I be equal opportunity to have the number of children that they want and to space them according to their best interests and desires. The democratization of birth control began in England you know 18 23 with a man named Francis place who was a breeches maker but a highly intelligent breeches maker. He retired from this you know order to do things of more interest to him intellectually. And one of his first activities was to trying
to democratize birth control. He made a valiant effort for about four years and this failed. It was revived and failed many times. You know our own country the democratization of contraceptive knowledge dates from the remarkable nurse Margaret Sanger who was born in 1879 died in nineteen sixty six. And they worked on the first birth control clinic in the western world in the slums of Brooklyn on October 16th in the year 916. So there are actually clinics giving democratic type of birth control to people who need it most are relatively recent. I think 54 years you mentioned earlier Dr. good marker that the early Egyptians and the Greeks and the Romans had birth control methods.
Could you give us a brief idea of what these methods were they obviously didn't have the pill. Well they have something like the bill at least. I don't know about the Greeks and the Romans with the the Jews did in the Talmud. There are many references to the cup of roots one of the most interesting is the case of a. Wife of a rabbi who had a very difficult labor with twin sons. It must have been hideously painful. And the poor soul was virtually psychotic for fear of getting pregnant again. And so this great scholar the husband. Made for her a couple of routes he took Alexandrian gum and the bulb of a crocus he mixed these in beer. She drank thereof and never got pregnant again. Now that's the analog of the prologue to the birth control pill. I'm not sure was effective but
almost every fuck off medicine has all methods of contraception. The American Indians used a weed called lethal spare memory to rally which grows on the western slopes of the Rockies and they made a t of it and when the brave in school I did not want children that year they drank it in the spring. I don't know how effective it was. We go to the straight in Bush man. He has weeds and things he uses so that all of the techniques attempts at oral contraception are legendary. Old multiple. The condom sheath which is generally used. Supposed to been made originally of the bladder of a sheep and was used by the Roman dandies back in the days of Imperial Rome. Even the intrauterine device which is this gadget one puts inside the cavity of the uterus not made of plastic. Supposedly was first used by
the Arabs to prevent their camels from getting pregnant because it makes because writing pregnant coming across the desert apparently is no blessing and they attempted to keep from getting pregnant and they loaded a reed with a stone about the size of an olive pit and introduced this reed through the vagina and cervix into the uterus and then they moved the stone into the uterus and then when they went a little camel they milked it out. That's prologue of our rather modern device we no longer put stones in ladies but we do put things that are somewhat similar. And all these methods and have a long history. These comments by Dr. Alan Guttmacher. In the United States it took a long time for birth control information to reach the people who wanted it most of the young the poor the people who already had large families. In the early 1830s Robert De on the son of the founder of New Harmony Indiana
wrote a slim volume titled moral physiology or a brief and plain treatise on the population question. In the quite curiously plain language of the day Robert de allowin sets out to prove that it is not only gentlemanly and prudent but Christian as well to practice birth control. He cited France as a nation whose citizens used birth control on a regular basis. Included in his book are a wide selection of letters both asking for advice and praising the method he suggested for the method. Owen advised is known as Kuwaitis interruptus but more simply withdraw on the part of the man prior to ejaculation. This method gained a certain acceptance even a minor popularity during the 19th century. It has certain advantages. You need no prescription no medical visits for a fitting. It costs nothing. It also has at least one major disadvantage. It requires discipline on the part of the individual who in the short run as the least to lose or gain. By the turn of the 20th century advocates of
birth control were facing severe problems. Many Americans particularly those without certain religious or ethical beliefs or be humanly opposed to the distribution of birth control information or indeed any information regarding human sexuality. Now these beliefs were not held by merely one religion or group. People of many religions and backgrounds held these beliefs. The result was a variety of laws and regulations that prohibited mailing selling or otherwise distributing birth control information or other sex information such material was considered obscene. Among the best known people opposed to such regulation was Margaret Sanger. Her work was discussed by Dr. Alan Guttmacher of course Margaret Sanger was in jail eight times. I've never been in jail. I feel slighted but it shows how things have changed. This opposition has crumbled. Actually
it crumbled really not completely but almost entirely by one thousand twenty one. When Mrs. Sanger was supposed to give a lecture at town hall in New York and when she went to give the lecture she found the police had emptied the auditorium and were standing with arms akimbo preventing entrance and when she asked under whose authority it was said that Cardinal Hayes had given the order. This so revolted the liberal press all the press that the church had this much power over a social movement that it really did a great deal to overturn the whole situation. Planned Parenthood world population is a private volunteer organization. They grew out of Margaret Sanger Stoppard's not a good marker currently president of the organization
described its purpose and progress. The primary purpose of Planned Parenthood. Used to make everyone realize that a basic right is ability to curtail fertility or to have a child that baby should be born not by chance but by choice. We want everyone to share this magnificent opportunity. Now are. We of course were alone in our work until relatively recently and currently their work is being done by Planned Parenthood and by ordinary medical facilities. You see the affluent or non poor get their birth control from the private physician. Our deep concern is for the
so called medically indigent members of the community who seek and get their medicine from subsidized sources. At one time we did this all along. Today we share this with health departments all over the United States and we share it also with the great hospitals. Many of them certainly the teaching hospitals all have birth control clinics so there are really three organizations you know Planned Parenthood health departments and hospitals that are giving birth control subsidized birth control. Eventually perhaps we won't be in business because after all it's an anachronism to have a special organization. We kind of do gooder organization to give a normal health service. Birth control is preventive medicine and as preventive medicine it belongs in normal medical installations. The need for birth control methods to Doctor good marker and Planned Parenthood have work to answer
has risen with a growing population and increased education. Medical research has both adopted old procedures and develop new ones and seeking to find solutions. They I you do me or enter uterine device is based on the methods used by the early Arabian camel drivers the so-called pill which there are many kinds is the development of the modern drug industry. Now let's turn to some experts. Five members of the teaching and practicing staff of the University of Illinois Medical Center in Chicago discussed birth control methods with Jack require the Medical Center Office of Public Information the physicians are Dr. J Al Daskal Dr. John P. Herrick. Dr. Robert C. Steptoe Dr. Robin and Dr. John M. KELLER Well I think to the list the three major forms of birth control and we always put the diaphragm first because I think certainly to Dr. Bloom study myself this represents the
best all around contraceptive from the standpoint of effectiveness of the side of us and so forth intrauterine device which. Has become popular within the last two or three years is increasing very early and of course the birth control pill the oral contraceptive which everybody agrees about. I have to read my Time magazine. When I have to you know I would agree with him except that I mean in private practice by my type anyway by far the most popular so you know I used to fit a tremendous number of diaphragms I almost never fit a diaphragm more. And also getting into the same fact I find more popular and private patients than the diaphragm the jellies alone of the film bring into a show. Probably not quite as affected but a lot more a lot easier to use therefore the result runs have runs about the same. It's very easy for a person not to use a diaphragm because it takes a problem and it's a bother.
And I would also like to forget all five at the even the rhythm method lower population if you refuse. Yeah yeah I mean I mean math and math well any math at all or even Regardless I figure it has any method or population. OK. I think this lists the effectiveness of various forms of contraception. First I think there's no question about that the pill is probably the most has been looked to this point the most acceptable in recent years acceptable one that was associated with greatest effectiveness. Second of course is the diaphragm. Third the foams and jellies and then fourthly the. Condom and certainly the rhythm method. Now. The listing listens of effectiveness. Certainly no.
Pill. Requires a very high motivation. Is denied to be continued to use and this is why I think that your day is certainly going to be. Much more used that it has been passed. The only difficulty is that it cannot be used in all patients just like pill cannot be used in all patients and unless a patient has had one or two babies the IUD is not going to remain and you can very well fit them in patients who haven't had at least one pregnancy. But they think that where we reach the area of greatest control and family planning has been in their early in the vigil trying to family space and child space and the pill in the form of probably the most effective in this area. And these comments from a discussion moderated by Jack Ray Conner at the University of Illinois Medical Center Office of Public Information the physicians were doctors non-school Harold Steptoe Lim Stein and Cal are all practicing and teaching physicians on the medical
center stuff. Birth control information has always been available to the rich. The ones who could afford physicians who could afford to travel to where the information could be had who had the money for the education that would give them the ability to seek out the information. Planned Parenthood world population is a private organization that seeks to give the poor or medically indigent the opportunity to learn about family planning in seeking to apply this principle on a practical basis. The organizations local affiliates have set up clinics in 500 centers around the nation. Mrs May Elizabeth is the executive director of one such clinic located in Champaign Illinois on. In an interview at the clinic with Louise Geissler Mrs. Decker discussed the clinic and its patients. How do you. Patients.
Proudly second largest health agencies in this community. Public health nurses. A. Good job of. People where we are and. At the present time. Through a. Grant from the public health department. We have been and administered through the champagne or public. We have hired neighborhood aides who are going door to door telling people here. And helping them know the times of the clinic and that sort of thing and they aren't. Anyone. Who is interested can find out about it. More and more. Sometimes to be a nurse a neighborhood aide perhaps a television program. Maybe an advertisement. And
then finally you know the person. Besides I want to do this type of thing. Coming. It may be I think probably for the person already. You know I finally found out that I can do something. People here at Planned Parenthood now of course your hospital here clinics individual physicians give birth control information. And what your physician probably in this community. Medically indigent people. And this means that they can have this very great. And
for instance our evening at a time when people can get here. And. Meet at the present time with state grant to give them a pass. Free of charge. We do not charge for the doctors. And the. 50 cents for a month's supply. You are in reaching people. Well we don't feel that we are reaching perhaps would use the service or think about it. And that's really the main reason for having tried the neighborhood approach. In the United States here. Many women would. Family planning if they had it
available. And our community is not any different on the average. Well. Perhaps some of those will be as many as 30 of those. And between 5 and 10 patients a week. We have a great turnover in this community. In one year. In the past before the health service girls we see more girls than we are now we now the wife who is now at university.
Graduate student. We consider these people as soft core and we know that now things are different than they will be in the future but right now when they need help we can give it. Why do patients seek family planning information. Mrs. Grammer outlined five reasons. One of the ones that we're seeing more of now than we have in the past is the young girl who wants to know whether or not she is pregnant. And we do do pregnancy tests because so. Last week for instance one of the school counselors who had missed a couple periods and was very concerned and subsequently she did have her period she was not pregnant. But obviously she needs some contraceptive help. She is running this risk. Of the other type of. Request and I'm getting more than I did previously.
Information with regard to vasectomy. Sometimes the doctors are. Telling the patients to come here for information regarding the gracious and. The psychological and emotional effects. So we're doing. More of that type of thing. Patient wise we're apt to get someone who already has had quite a few children and. She. Finally. Realizes that. She. Just can't. Support. Her. And so forth. On the other situation might be. A person with only one child. Who is going on to school. And realizes that. They. Do not. Want to have. Children and so they are. Looking for. A very effective method. For a couple of years. We do see. Girls who have had.
Children but here put them up for adoption. Again. Pursuing a story like this type of thing. Well. Not be getting graded but I think that we have to be realistic in realizing. There is a risk of pregnancy. That we. Really should. Help that person. Not to have. My pregnancy. The philosophy. Of Planned Parenthood is that every child be a wise child that there. Be. No on 1 pregnancies and so on. We realize this doesn't just happen by chance that it does. Occur only with. Planning. The people Mrs. Drake about her and her staff serve in the Planned Parenthood clinic in Champaign Illinois. I small sample of individuals around the world individuals who usually want children but not what they feel are too many too soon. They share their desire with their forefathers and mothers
for as many generations as human beings have been on this earth. Modern medicine is working to answer this desire. Next week this program will be dealing with what might be termed medicines birth control failures the ones that result in abortion. You're invited to join us then. You have been listening to one plus one equals three four. Five. A series of programs about the problems we face because of our growing population. Your host for this program has been Dennis Corrigan special music performed by Ria Truscott engineering by Edna Haney. On meet with many many many many. And there is little to eat
Series
One plus one equals three
Episode Number
6
Episode
Accidents Cause People
Contributing Organization
University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
AAPB ID
cpb-aacip/500-st7dwm7q
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Description
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Date
1971-00-00
Topics
Social Issues
Media type
Sound
Duration
00:29:37
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University of Maryland
Identifier: 71-5-6 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:30:00?
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Citations
Chicago: “One plus one equals three; 6; Accidents Cause People,” 1971-00-00, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed September 23, 2021, http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-st7dwm7q.
MLA: “One plus one equals three; 6; Accidents Cause People.” 1971-00-00. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. September 23, 2021. <http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-st7dwm7q>.
APA: One plus one equals three; 6; Accidents Cause People. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-st7dwm7q