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Thank you. I must go down to the seas again. To the lonely sea in the sky. And all I ask is a tall ship and a star to steer her by
and the wheels kick in the wind song and the white sails shaking and the grey mist on the sea's face and the grey dawn breaking. I must go down to the seas again for the call of the running tide as a wild call and the clear call that may not be denied. And all I ask is a windy day with the white clouds flying and the flung spray and the blown Spielman of the sea gulls crying. I must go down to the seas again to the vagrant gypsy life of the gulls way and the whales way. When Michael where the night. And all I ask is a merry yarn from a laughing fellow and why it's a long trip. So.
This is the first in a series of 13 programs titled down to the sea on these programs we will take you word in sound and music into the world of Oceanography into the fascinating world it is the ocean the ocean that covers more than two thirds of the earth. We will follow giant herds of migrating whales descend into the depths and research submersibles visit ancient wrecks and explore underwater parks. And it is betting that we begin our journey down to the sea with an introduction to this relatively new science of oceanography and with a visit with one of the true pioneers in this field of study. Captain Jack I am struck by the fact that people are generally not that hard to write. There are titles by the sea shore by swimming but attacked in the media by as being a new source of inspiration. Not yet. The history of mankind I
think is a long history of action from the sea. And. If you Sailor have traditionally been hired illegal ways for example by drinking with them and having them signed out. And all meant when they are drunk because it would never have done so sober and. Back as you see the legends and history and people have been terrorized by my passion and tell. Me that this is partly motivated it was motivated by the fact that there are not I say that the storms make to see a very rough highway and that mankind is very uncomfortable on a shaking box living on a ship
and not even speaking of seasickness which is a terrible shock to to tell intro work it seems even beyond that those who are not sensitive to do that nevertheless do not work as comfortably and as well on board a ship as they do on the land. It's fashionable to speak about the sea because because it's gummy. But the basic approach and has not yet been eliminated so we have to work at that because it is. And I typed here and I own that you should forget the surface to surface is not and I typed in and filed that below the surface. It is quiet and well balanced and well get me it is very likely that in the future most of the songs will be sent Marines independent from the surface waves as well.
It is very likely that the batteries in the bottom about ice and workshops will be and when Concord all accounts next and it is also likely that. Soldiery within 50 year turn out to be NS. So we will witness a chance. You know if he doesn't teach you that it is not done yet. It's an interesting. Point that you brought out Captain custom about the your efforts in trying to inform the public at large about what the sea is do you find that the public is largely ignorant of all the SI means to them. Yes I do because they are fed. By information media with stereotyped I date.
For example every time I listened to a lecture on Oceanography I came back with the idea that with the explosion of thought predation only hope to feed the world to harm the world is going to turn to the sea and expect to see such nonsense because of course the sea may come to that to that. But it's not clear that purpose of pushing our feet on the problem of feeding a hungry world is much more political than anything else. I don't want to be you know food for everybody if we could distribute it public. But nevertheless the contribution of the sea into feeding can be only going to reorganize. But people are misinformed about most of the things because they think that the increasing methods of fishing in proving the message of fishing for example we can increase indefinitely
the tonnage of fish that can be bought back. It is now increasing and efficiency of fishing the pleats this very naive childish approach by example that in case of nuclear danger. Man kind of really tweaked and all the protection as I see it. Generally speaking the public is coarsely misinformed about the CND. When this guy said to you it is obvious that the revolution in beatings and the use of our sensors in a world where a guy vity is apparently eliminated and introduce new attitudes in the field of arts. And particularly I
would say in the field choreography of dance. It is obvious that the day that badly organized. When you think about what can be done with human being's way nothing bad music will also have to be adapted to those and her face sums and the dean Tozan of the sea into entire artistic world is going to be tremendous. But I would say that this will need. 20 years.
Possessing at first only the ocean belonging to the shoreline year by year and century by century man followed the horizon into deep water. And with each venture the ancient mariner could honestly claim to be the first that ever burst into that silent sea. The seamen of early days certainly had no idea of the vastness of this ocean that covers roughly two thirds of our earth. We know little of the mariners of the ancient world of their journeys and of their vessels. Perhaps in unrecorded antiquity there were migrations and voyages that would change the shape of history if we but knew of them what knowledge we have of early geography comes from the Greek and Egyptian cultures. Even with their admitted skill in mathematics and astronomy It is amazing that they pictured the world as accurately as they did. Venturing farther and farther into the Atlantic Ocean from the more familiar Mediterranean these mariners in their tiny
vessels reached England and Ireland circled Africa and sailed far into the unknown of the open sea. Five centuries before Christ her out of this. The historian pictured the earth as a sphere and divided it into temperate zones. In the fourth century B.C. the contemporary of Alexander the Great. The remarkable navigator and geographer Pythias sailed well beyond the limits of the known world to chart great stretches of the European coast and part of the Arctic region adding immeasurably to man's meagre knowledge of the earth. There are indications that the Chinese traveled far from their homeland in their sea worthy vessels and we know of thousands of miles of open ocean covered by Eskimos and Polynesians. But there are no records of these early journeys and so the travels of Pythias form an important part of the history of sea exploration for there are at least some accounts of his voyage. He circled England travelled into the Baltic
Sea and then as far north as Iceland. The system he developed for determining latitude based upon the hours of sunlight was not improved upon for centuries. We know virtually nothing of his vessel though the research of oceanographers of more recent times. Picture it as being well over 100 feet in length fitted with square sails and perhaps more than 150 on. By the third century B.C. the circumference of the earth was pictured as being approximately what we know it to be today. And cartographers were using line for latitude and longitude. Referred to as the last of the classical oceanographers the Egyptian Ptolemy prepared his famous map of the world in the second century A.D.. This map was to remain the standard for a very very long time. Hundreds of years were to follow. A man who had the power to encourage explorations scoffing at the theories and opinions of
adventurers. The earth was flat. They insisted ignoring the still preserved ancient knowledge of the Arabia during this time. A few great sea voyages were undertaken especially those of the daring Vikings. The Greenland and North America. Eventually the ideas of the early Greeks were revived and resulted in the historic fifteenth century voyages of Columbus and the Gama and then in 15 20 to the completion of the first circle navigation of the earth by the Magellan expedition. Each voyage filled in gaps in the map of the world. Then the eighteenth century expeditions of Captain James Cook changed the maps of the world and revolutionize the art of seamanship. But even though he navigated greater the expenses of unexplored ocean than any other man the ocean was still looked upon as being a highway and man had yet to look into it as an integral part of the earth. He had yet to visualize the unity of. The sea and the influence upon
every living thing of this vast world. Told. Us. There is no one founder of modern oceanography but many English naturalist Edward Forbes was certainly one of the pioneers in this relatively new science and the truly organized and systematic study of the ocean is generally thought to a begun with the American naval officer Matthew Murray who in 1855 published what is considered to be the first textbook on oceanography
titled The physical geography of the sea. His work in developing detailed charts of the sea brought him international attention. Murray Nance and Odyssey are only a few of the other major contributors toward the development of the oceanographic sciences. The United States exploration expedition of 1838 to 1842 resulted in greatly increased knowledge of the Pacific. The first world wide comprehensive exploration of the sea was the British challenger deep sea exploring expedition a journey of some sixty nine thousand miles in the Atlantic and Arctic and Pacific oceans over a three and one half year period from December of 1872 to May of 1876. This venture organized on a massive and unique scale gave birth to the term oceanography and the ship HMS challenger became the first true oceanographic research vessel with really very little
known about the ocean before that historic cruise. The contributions of the Challenger expedition to man's knowledge of the sea and the world can hardly be exaggerated. The leading scientists of the world devoted years to the results of that cruise and created a massive series of volumes still referred to today. Around the world centers of oceanographic research came into being one of these centers is the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in San Diego a part of the University of California in the years around the turn of the century the universities then tiny Department of Zoology conducted summer oceans study programs at various seaside locations under its chairman William E. Ritter. Eventually his travels brought him to San Diego where he found not only excellent conditions for the Study of marine life but just as important the kind of backing in the community that could ensure the successful growth of a biological research facility the laboratory was established in 1903 in the boathouse of a resort hotel. The Scripps family of
newspaper fame was instrumental in the early development of the Marine Station which soon moved to its present location in the San Diego area called La Jolla. Ritter thought of the location as virtually perfect for marine biology as the plankton were rich and varied as was the bottom fauna. And here the abyssal depth of the sea could be reached at a short distance from the shore and there was clean ocean water and rocky shores for collecting grounds. When asked just how big he thought the biological research facility would eventually be Ritter said. How big is this station likely to be. My ambition for it is that it should be great rather than big. At the same time he was fully aware of the growth potential. One cannot adopt a baby elephant for a pet without sooner or later having a big elephant on his hands. If he treats the creature humanely the practical point is that the institution is bound to become rather large if it does its work at all. The institution did do its work earning a worldwide reputation as it grew and
as it became the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. During the years before the Second World War the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Massachusetts continued its growth and important work. The oceanographic facility at the University of Washington in Seattle made contributions as did growing ocean research laboratories in Florida Texas and other states. And of course the centers of ocean study in Great Britain and on the continent after the war. The area in La Jolla which had been largely barren save for the few buildings of the Scripps Institution blossomed with construction as a new campus of the University of California came to life. And as the institution itself to giant forward strides where visionary scientists had once probed the shoreline looking for just the right place to establish a center of ocean study. Now Scripps operates a fleet of modern research vessels roaming the world ocean providing vast computer information on the seas condition history and movement collecting samples of marine life. And in short making available vast new stores of knowledge about the ocean that is still largely a mystery. Nearby in
San Diego Harbor is the large and active naval undersea research and development center with its fleet of specialized research ships and the Bureau of Fisheries. And a scientist now at work in these centers and others like them around the world are the pioneers in this relatively new science of Oceanography. To get some idea of their working environment we visited Scripps and the naval undersea center the laboratories and the workshops that we talked to a number of the men who are so active in the field of ocean study at Scripps. Our visit began with a walk out the long pier that juts into the Pacific Ocean. USA. Besides being confirmed here walkers we wanted to find out just what sort of activities took place on the
pier. Thank you. Walking past the surf line the sound of the crashing waves below gradually diminished. Until we reach the grain in the lower small boats into the water for research of one type or another in the immediate area. Thank. YOU THANK YOU. Thank.
You. Thank thank thank. And there is a shed where daily tests and measurements are taken. Oh.
What is it that you actually do out here early in the morning. The end of the pier series of standard meteorological or or oceanographic observations which include. Measuring the maximum and minimum air temperatures. Wind direction swell direction swell height the. Temperature of the water on the surface as well as the temperature on the bottom. Make two measurements of the temperature one using a bathroom a graph which gives a temperature profile from the surface to the bottom and this was the instrument that you saw lowered that. Had the glass light in and the temperature is recorded on this glass slide. There's a very thin gold film on the slide and there's a stylus that records or makes a line and the line is calibrated to be able to be read on a. Small instrument that will convert this line slope into temperature. The other method we have is. Taking water samples from the surface as well as from the bottom and taking the temperature directly with the monitor. It's a procedure that's been carried on for
a great number of years so we have. A backlog of information on water temperature and air temperature. The value is that we can look back and detect any changes in water temperature. What other conditions that we're measuring we also take a water sample from the bottom as well as the surface we determine the salinity. And that's why we have a set of standard records that we can compare any changes with. Just today we're. Not sure when the stats and then again. It's possible that we can show some type of relation and changes in. Temperature surface temperature. Say to the direction of when something like been arrested. Reporter Ken Cramer was talking with the curator of the Aquarium Museum of the large Aquarium Museum at the foot of the pier is a favorite place for all ages but particularly for the children and their pleasure. Hardly disguised.
Thank. God. There. The pioneers in oceanography are apt to be on the young side suntanned easygoing and
ready to admit that there is a great deal of work ahead of them before we all really began to understand and truly live with the sea that is around us. Dr Robert F. till now with the Navy's undersea research and development center told us about one of the extensive ocean going cruises out of San Diego. This is the Capricorn expedition of some years ago. The Capricorn expedition was one of the first major efforts of Scripps Institution of Oceanography and the Old Navy electronics laboratory. The purpose of the trip was to explore the far western Pacific. We started off in San Diego. I went on to Hawaii this was a rather short leg because we were interested in getting on into the far Pacific. We then went on down to watch it on. And from Squadron we met a few other scientist on on these particular legs we were interested in obtaining some of the first eco soundings
of the island change and also taking long cores of the sea floor. In fact this was the first time we had really taken long piston cores in the Pacific. These were up to about 20 meters long about 60 feet and taint samples of both red clay which is really not red it's sort of a deep brown and also which is sort of a white chalky milky mud made up of the. Small shells that are formed up in shallow water and then gradually settle to the sea floor. This allowed us to get back in time to on these particular tests and then these cores for about almost seven to even in some cases 100 million years ago that we stopped in a quadrille and we made some of our first dives with scuba
equipment. This was a new tool back in these days and we obtained pictures of coral reefs and then went on to in the weeks to come on down to the sea. We'll be talking to a number of oceanographers about many different voyages and discoveries in our effort to present a realistic picture of Oceanography today. Thanks.
Down to the sea
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University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
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Identifier: 71-1-1 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
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Chicago: “Down to the sea; 1,” 1970-00-00, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed February 2, 2023,
MLA: “Down to the sea; 1.” 1970-00-00. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. February 2, 2023. <>.
APA: Down to the sea; 1. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from