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Voices of Europe today Milton mair American author and lecturer broadcaster and professor in the Institute of Social Research from Frankfurt university interviews a man in Helsinki Finland who taught himself English. He has her own lobby Arnie 33 years old and the late Turner in the silver factory as his father was before him. At the age of 13 there are neo left school and at 15 went to work. At 22 he was called up in the Finnish army at the time of the so-called Winter War. The Russian invasion which began in December 1939 for three years he fought in Russia against the Russians and returned home at the armistice in 1904. After a total of five years in his country's army. Here is Milton Mayer. What should Americans now about. Send one. First I'd like to say that. I like to say that they know that Finland is a small and poor country.
And even if it is a near earth asteroid it is a free and independent one. It is also necessary to know some up of Finland history. For example we have been a part of Sweden up to eighteen. Eighty nine. Then we learned the worst connected to it are some up door. 19 17 when we caught our independence. During Second World War War. We had to tour separate to wars against arson. I haven't time to explain all to all the different sects about the situation but.
We lose loosed during the winter we're a bird or a country and we wanted to get that. But Beck. And there were we was fighting with a German against dresser in 1941 to 19 for the soul. It was room idea to just went to help of the big countries. And I had irony now. Is Communism in Finland. It is communism in Finland stronger or weaker today than it was say in 1940 at the time you left your job to go into the Finnish army.
It is difficult to say because I was too but. Will. Communism in Finland now is stronger. Than before war and a reason for that is that communistic party is now allowed to operate and they have. They have had. Good. Material after the last war. Is there any chance hair Arni are in your opinion. Is there any chance that. Finland might go communist. Maybe if our economical life will be very hard and the standard of leaving will get low. Because in taxes situation the
communistic will ideas will get troops to pull out of communistic system. Here are Arnie are. You yourself are I take it against communism This is why. Now because to communist system is built. The diktat. Not on freedom. And are most fans of your opinion of the same opinion that you are. But of our current DS people opinion is not the same that I have. But do. I. Yes perhaps most of they have same idea. How do you feel. Here are nay are about Russia and the Russians after.
Fighting against them in Russia for three years. Well. I haven't anything against the USA people. But as I said I don't like the committee's pick system and I hope the rest. I don't know. I hope some don't want it to worse us to accept it. Pardon me Jess. I like to say more. You asked when I was in war and how I feel just now afterwards. Yeah War is war and we must go on. I would feel that building under present conditions and the we must forget the war. And.
It. Is your opinion that Finland. Can remain free and independent without joining either the east or the West. What should Finland policy be. It must be. Just the note Noto Yes. Because we're so small country. And we must be friend friendly and we must cooperate. In economic and. Or on political life with both of them. These Eastern countries and Western countries. Well now well now I have Arnie all some of my American friends.
I would say that the Americans and the English and the French and the other Western countries are united to defend democracy against communism and the Finns are certainly famous as a democratic country. And they cannot defend themselves. Four million people. I think there are about 4 million fans is that right. Yes. Cannot defend themselves against 200 million. And so I think many Americans would say why don't the Finns join us. Since we the Western countries are trying to protect the democracy which the fans love. And will. I have this idea that we have two people to. Go we're going to make it the American or
like country we have to stay on our own. I can't explain in English who would feel that I know that there is a international problem. But we like to. Will we like to make 0 0 0 problems and not to get mixed up with fights over the peak. Well of countries. But do you. Do you think you can actually remain outside of this kind of thing which this in the modern world. Everybody seems to be caught up. By this kind of thing by by this division of the world. How can the Finns as a small
people write on the very border of Russia. Remain independent. And why is it that you would that you feel so strongly as you seem to. Be against allying yourselves with with any big country. No. We have a very bad experience and the line says that with big countries there with Germany 1941 example it didn't it didn't help our problems. But UPS's do. The Americans have an idea that all who are opposite to communism or to be allied with them. But it is. Imperial used to go imperialistic assisting and I don't like it. I don't
like the communist communistic arrestor mate that are imperialistic anti-capitalistic USA. And do you believe there are any of. That. Then one small and poor as it is can solve its own problems in the pan and Lee. And how do you think this solution can be achieved. What is the solution are Finland's problems. Oh well. The. Social justice. It is social justice. And how is social justice to be achieved if you yourself are a social democrat Are you nervous. And is. Social ownership. Which after all you all of it
also exists in Russia. Is social ownership the way to achieve social justice. Has social justice been achieved in Russia this way. AR Do you think that there is. I take it you are not in favor of capitalism. And why not. Because Capitalism is not so good system for any countries. Why not. Because it is for our own. Like I could explain it in English. It's in capitalistic system and it is going to up so
fast some day. Yes and Levy's very good. Yeah but we need to go to top. It is moving it down and workmen don't like these because they they haven't worked they haven't. Let it go. Yes I see what you mean they have insecurity and unemployment near us when there is a depression there's. And then my last question here Arny all is do you think that in Finland you can achieve a better kind of economic system with out falling into the danger of what has happened in Russia. Do you understand me then and say I don't understand exactly. Well do you want this the same. You say you are anti communistic.
Yes but you are a socialist. Yes I am. And you think you can build socialism without communist Yes with the other way. Come on is this why is herbalists seem way. But do sincerely Democrat Dick's way is the best. The Ripper mystic way you understand. I do thank you very much. Hair on a bench. Now also in Helsinki Finland Milton Mayer interviews another Finn sitting across from me is Dr. Farley a farmer and forester by profession now engaged in research in Hellas inky university in the Finnish capital. Lying between me and doctor of art
is a map both Finland. And on this map in the southeast corner of what used to be Finland I see an ist in the US lying between the Finnish Bay and Lake Lago GA connecting Finland with the Russia. And in this is most I see a town which is now in Russia called Veet Gori and southeast of that. Along a lake I see a cross marked which was Doc der Vaart as families farm. Dr. Marty of this area we are looking at
is part of the province of the former Finnish province of Kerry together is it not. Yes Korea. And you are right Kerry again. Yes I am currently am I your home was the parade. Yes it's my school town. And will you tell us what happened in NZ Burry. And in the Caribbean is the most. When you left. Yes it was a really bad situation and all kind of aliens. When. In Hungary. They had to leave so soon I supposable because they didn't like to stay there. But I wanted. To come in the other scene on the part of Fremont. But all ways were crowded.
And. The population was a great many hundred thousand. And so the situation was very difficult. I saw it once the situation. When cleaning a highway that the whole way was full of cow shit she sheep and all animals wait people and horses and they were sleeping on horses. On cars. And walking. Even if. You do us a very sad. And. CVO situation. But now they are happily living in. The other pocket of Fame and I think there are hearty out. Dr. Wright. I'd like to set the time as well as the place for our
American audience which is a long way away from here. The time was December 1939. I think you have the warm began. That time and this was the war between Finland and Russia. You did. And the Carrie millions of home you are one the people of this province. What is I care really and who I care really and where do they come from. Where do they belong. They are all the same race as the other teams. And they have lived in the eastern part of the main land. Which is called Karelia. The most eastern part. Has always been in Hafsa belong to the end of us.
But. This box. And these Carillion East has been long. Into Sweden. And in progress. And now we had a very good hope to be. In Finland. But only a part of Korea. He's now in Finland. Because the bat water. And. Because Russians need Karelian East most. You say because the Russians need the Korean is the most. If I remember correctly this had to do with the. With the Russians feeling at that time that. The city of Leningrad had to be protected. Yet it's very near the finish area only 100 miles from out 100 miles from the border. My home was only 200 miles from
winning that band. What happened to your home and what happened to your family. We all moved into other parts of England. And my home was. Completely destroyed because it happened to Pete to me after that and. And the pound. For a long time. Later on I had the opportunity to. Stay in for a while. We Lohse to that part of Fremont again too fast. The second time you lived in 44 in 1944 you again lost Korea. Yes. Meanwhile we had a. Back. Doctor of our time. What proportion of the people of Korea of this part of Korea which was taken by Russia. What proportion of them left their homes.
Practically everybody left and they came into the other part of Finland. Yes. How many Koreans left in this emigration. About. Three hundred thousand. And moved then into northern Finland which has a population of what 4 million. Not enough and you know about that. But the other part mostly the other part though. Oh south of England didn't they own the land. Better to call for equality. And they moved they moved almost the whole population of Korea. Moved into South Finland and to what extent have they been absorbed by the rest of
Finland into the economy. They had a great part of them got new land because many of them were farmers. And I think the advantage I went to mend was very good because now they are working hard. And. They like to have land. And. To have the same as. They had. In carving Aliah. But the you told me Dr. r ty that the. Carried Ians had been taken by Russia before this section of your country had been taken. From Sweden by Russia at least once before twice I think at least twice I remember. And on those occasions the people stayed where they were. But on this occasion they left. Us. Why was this great
mass emigration. I think that the. They wanted to keep. The promise. Or at least in the same way to live. And so they had they had an opportunity to get a new piece of land in the other pocket of Greenland. But it would be impossible in the US because what. I say has quite different economic system. And they had no private land owners in the US. Now. Dr. VI. How do the Koreans these 300 350000 people who have lost their homes and their land and their province. How do they feel about Russia and the Russians. Do they represent an
anti Russian influence in Finnish politics. Do they feel especially strongly about Russia and the Russians or perhaps before you can answer that question you would have to tell me something about the Caribbean character if if there is such a thing. Yes Karelian can act their character is patient and happy. In spite of the serious experience and they have had. And I think they are flexible so that they can add just themselves into in the situation. And of course there is some bitter feelings against the assonance and. Against the War. But. Many of them. Live happily now. When they. Go to new land a little
piece about the land. They can get the living. Are they different I think Koreans in any way different from the rest of the thins and do the Finnish Koreans represent in any way do they have the Finnish Koreans resemble the Russian carry guns. Yeah I said they are. Because millions in general are more lively than the other things. And they're used to seeing and. I think they. Would rather intelligent people in spite of the fact that they are they have been poor. For instance or. The week following called I was ordered see Nate's in Korea I think at least. You may know. It Well certainly. And the.
What do what do you attribute this character which you as a scribe to the Carrie Lee as their patience. And happiness and liveliness in spite of their historic poverty. I don't know what's the reason. Maybe. There is some racial differencies as compared with other teams but I think the point. That the differences are not very great ones. All things are either home or gene. But they have different dialects and little. More lively characters. Carly has the courage and experience lying between Russia and Finland and being traded back and forth over the centuries had anything to do with molding the character.
Yes it may be so. In what way. They have seen. That more. Than the other themes. Dr. Wright to you. Now I want to ask you a last question. Just very briefly. Are you yourself as a carrier of the end. Was lost his. Home and his homestead. Are you in favor of a thinnish policy of neutrality. Yes I am and why. I think it's not only way. This case. Is being of a two little concrete and smaller population. I think that there are no other way. To go to. Keep any independence.
Thank you very much Doctor of our time in this recorded program. Milton Mayer has been interviewing two men on the situation within Finland today. This program has been made possible under a grant from the fund for adult education an independent organization established by the Ford Foundation. These programs are prepared and distributed by the National Association of educational broadcasters in the interest of better international understanding. These programs are introduced by Norman Mekhi and this is the end E.B. tape network.
Voices of Europe
Olavi Aarnio and Dr. Olli Vaartaja
Producing Organization
National Association of Educational Broadcasters
Contributing Organization
University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
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Episode Description
Interviews with Olavi Aarnio and Dr. Olli Vaartaja about issues in Finland, particularly during World War II.
Series Description
Interviews with noted Europeans on a variety of subjects, conducted by Milton Mayer, American author and broadcaster, lecturer and professor in the Institute of Social Research at Frankfurt University.
Broadcast Date
Global Affairs
Russo-Finnish War, 1939-1940.
Media type
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Interviewee: Aarnio, Olavi
Interviewee: Vaartaja, Olli
Interviewer: Mayer, Milton, 1908-1986
Producing Organization: National Association of Educational Broadcasters
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 52-37-52 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:28:42
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Chicago: “Voices of Europe; Olavi Aarnio and Dr. Olli Vaartaja,” 1953-01-01, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed June 21, 2024,
MLA: “Voices of Europe; Olavi Aarnio and Dr. Olli Vaartaja.” 1953-01-01. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. June 21, 2024. <>.
APA: Voices of Europe; Olavi Aarnio and Dr. Olli Vaartaja. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from