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A nest of singing birds. Three centuries of English verse with a doctorate from just. Here is our second program on the heroic couplet. What dya fence from Amherst causes brings what mighty contests rise from trivial things. I sing this verse to capital muse. Do this even Belinda about save two of you. Slight is the subject but not so the praise. If she inspired. And he approved my lead. So what strange motive Goddess could compel a well-bred Lord to assault a gentle oh say pot stranger cause yet unexplored. Could make a gentle bank of reject and or. In casks so boat can the two men in the gate. And in the soft bows and arrows so mighty Ray
in the third line. Pope says this verse to Carol muse is do you. He's addressing the muse of poetry in an opening invocation. Carol is John Carroll a close friend of pope's who suggested to him that he should write a poem based on a dispute between two noble families which resulted from a young man being unable to resist the temptation to snap up a curtain belonging to a very attractive young lady the lady in the poem is the building of the fourth line. What offense Amaryllis causes breakings what mighty contests rise from trivial things. I sing this well it's too capital. Muse is you. This is even Belinda about save to view the fall of Troy sprang from the stealing of Hennepin the rape of Helen. The contest was mighty but she was trivial except in her beauty
contest which pope writes about however was anything but mighty and he uses the word sarcastically. But again the cause was certainly trivial. A lock of hair. In English we associate the heroic couplet rather with the writings of brightness with Pope and Samuel Johnson than with drama. There was of course a short period when rhyming heroic plays were fashionable. Not long after Cho's The second came back as King and 660. But the general feeling has been that in English rhyme is too obtrusive for drama. If verse is to be used in sustained passages blank verse is preferred. I think that this feeling is probably justified. It is very difficult to write rhyming dialogue in which every word including of course the rhymes is always a necessary part of the action of the character in relationship with other characters. As we heard last week Shakespeare used here a couple days for one very important
scene. The play scene in Hamlet. Most of these couples meet the requirements made by critics of heroic couplet writing over some 200 years. Listen again to the first exchange between the king and queen. The king knows he is very ill and is likely to die. He doesn't know he's being poisoned. No I believe this is queen but he is convinced he hasn't much longer to live. He looks back over 30 years of married life. Full 30 times hath Phoebus cart gone round Neptune salt wash and tellus all but ground. By Phoebus cart he means the sun. Neptune salt washes the sea and tell us orbit ground the earth. The sun has made its annual circle through all the signs of the zodiac 30 times. Shakespeare was writing in an age which believes that the Earth was at the center of the universe and was circled by all the planets including the sun.
Thirty times have Phoebus cart gone round Neptune salt water. Tell us all that ground and 30 dozen moons with borrowed Sheen about the world have times 12:30 is being borrowed Sheen means borrowed shine that is with reflected light. You may or may not like the variation 30 dozen times 12:30. I do I think we might object to a certain unnecessary pomposity in the use of Phoebus cart Neptune wash. Tell us all be drowned but for the rest these lines are excellent as couplets and as an expression of the king's awareness of all that time passed like a flash. His next two lines change in rhythm and she contemplates the whole history of their love for 30 times have Phoebus cart gone round Neptune salt water and tell us all that ground and 30 dozen moons with borrowed Sheen about the world have times 12:30 has been
since love our hearts and Hyman did our hands unite commute in most secret Ben Heineman is the Roman god of marriage. Here we have verbal skills equal to pope's one unit sins love our hearts gives an expectation of a repetition which comes however with a slight variation and Hyman did our hands. The queen responds so many journeys made the sun and moon make us again count your love be done but were always me you are so sick of late. So far from cheer and from your form a stake that I distrust you. Yet though I distrust discomfort you my lord nothing must. For Women's fear and love holds quantity. Neither ought or in extremity. Now what my love is proof hath
made you know and as my love is sized My fear is so where love is great. The littlest saw fears where little fears grow great great love grows there. Well then good rhyme. After the assurance of love in the first cup of tea the queen expresses our own happiness because he is so ill and that I distrust you means that I have fears for you that I am afraid of what might happen to you. She regrets her emotion. It's not good to let a sick man know how bad his case is. She tries to reassure him seeing that she is so upset only because her love not His him as is so great. Shakespeare gives the queen quite a complicated structure of words distrust distrust discomfort. Nothing must. And the repetition of fear and love in varying positions in
one line may give a little difficulty in one thought or in extremity meaning either in nothing or in enormous exaggeration. The modern eye India can easily come to grief over these lines. Now what my love is proved hath made you know and as my love is sized My fear is where love is great the littlest doubts of fear where little fears grow great great love grows their doubt means fear and fear. And there were good rhymes then. The queen is not trying to convince him of her love but apologizing for her distress. Now what my love these who have made you know and as my love is sized my theories where Levy's great they're based down south where little fears grow great great love grows then the
verbal intricacy inside those lines and the chime in of the rhymes are not undramatic because each word is appropriate to the Queen state of mind and is a valid part of her action. The better the couplet here the better the drama the later Hamlet's mother Gertrude says that in her opinion the lady doth protest too much. We hear the lady protesting protest by the way. Then meant to insist on your ability to do something. Go to it says that the queen in the play is insisting that she can do too much. No woman can do that much. Gertrude knows she was once in the Queen's position insisting she could never bring herself to look at another man so great was her love for her husband. But the player king does not want his wife to grieve and to shut herself up. She will need another husband he wants her to have love from another man to have the love and support and companionship that
he would be unable to give her. If I must leave the lab and shortly to. My operant powers their functions leave to do. And thou shalt live in this fair world beehives honored beloved and happily one of its kind for husbands health are finally found the rest. Such love must needs be treason in my breast. One second husband let me be a cursed nun read this second but who killed the first. You may remember that before this scene is played. The players put on a dumb show in which the Queen. Make sure protestation and to the king she expresses in her silent action her refusal to contemplate a second marriage after his death. Later in the dumb show she refuses at first to accept the poisoner and the dumb show words are the poisoner woods the Queen with gifts.
She seems harsh Ohio but in the end accept his love. Gertrude has been through this. The Queen in this scene has not. The instance is that second marriage move our base respects of thrift. But none of the love. Second time I kill my husband dad when second husband kisses me in bed a second time I kill my husband then means a second time. My dad has been I kill him over again. Second marriages are the result of base regard for base respect of thrift. Earlier in the Play This is how Hamlet commented to Horatio on his mother sent in marriage through thrift Horatio. The funeral baked meats did coldly finish for the marriage table. Now in the place the King insists on his point of view in 30 lines a very good couplet. He knows the queen is sincere in that
but she will change only human beings do. And I think he is more wistful than bitter. I do believe you think quite Now you speak but what we do determine after we break purposes but the slave to memory of violent birth. But poor validity. Which now like fruit unripe sticks on the tree but for unshaken when they mellow bee speak and break were good rhymes then determine means result. Intention is completely controlled by memory purposes but the slave to memory. It is born violently but its strength soon diminishes. Our violent birth but poor validity. Now the King insists that human beings change what is hated all amended at one moment can be loved and enjoyed the next. Notice the repetition of it to
ourselves. Most necessary tears that we forget to pay ourselves what to ourselves is debt to ourselves in passion we propose the passion ending the purpose lose action as a result of grief or joy and with the emotion the joy the king says can be happiest where grief is most unhappy. Only a slight chance incident can turn joy to sorrow and vice versa. The violence of either grief or joy their own act choices with themselves destroy where Joy most revels Duf most lament grief joy joy grieve on slender accident in this world does not last for ever. So it is natural that our lives change with changes of fortune. He becomes more bitter I think the couplets now resemble those satirical lines of Dryden and Pope in style and content.
This world is not for AA. No it is not strange that even our lovers should with our fortunes change. What is a question left us yet to prove whether love lead fortune or else fortune love the great man down you mark his favorite flies the poor advanced makes friends of enemies and here they are to love on for two and for who not needs shall never lack a friend and who in want a hollow friend of tried directly seasons him his enemy. Man now the king changes back to his own attitude. He doesn't want to lose control of himself and so order only to end with his first point what we first intend is not what ultimately happens devices means intentions. Thoughts means purposes when he says. So think at their will. It is imperative. Continue to think but
die thy thoughts. But let your intentions die. But orderly to end where I begun our wills and fates do so contrary run that our devices still are overthrown. Our thoughts are ours. Their ends none of us. So think there will no second husband wait but dive I've thought that when life is a lot these days of course the queen objects and insists that is not protest. You know earth to me give food no I haven't light sport in repose lock for me day and night to desperation to earn my trust and hope and anchors cheere in prison be my scope each opposite to that blanks the face of joy meet what I would have well and it destroy both here and hence
this you me lasting strife if once a widow ever I be wife she asks to be deprived of recreation and rest. Let her confidence and hope be turned to despair. She is ready to be confined to the small space allotted to a hermit in a cell. Finally she insists and let internal violence pursue her in this life and the next. If she ever be a wife once she has become a widow both here and hence this human lasting strife if once a widow ever I be wife. And at this moment she believes it. And I mentioned last week this considerate husband the player King represent Hamlet's dead father for the prince. Here we can see and hear why the prince said of his father and mother so loving to my mother that he might not between the winds of heaven visit her face to reference why
she would hang on him as if increase of appetite had grown by Wanted fed on. And here they are both in heroic couplet for thirty times have Phoebus cart gone round Neptune salt water and tell us all that ground and 30 dozen movies with borrowed Sheen about the world have times 12:30 has been since love our heart and Hyman did our hands unite commute in most sacred so many journeys made the sun and moon make us again Caldor our love began. But you were so sick of late so far from cheering from your former stake that I distrust you. Yes though I distrust discomfort you my lord nothing must for women's fear and love holds quantity in neither ought or in extremity. Now what my love these hooves have
made you know. And as my love is sized my theories where love is great. The littlest down softly where little fears grow great great love grows their faith I must leave the love and shortly to my operant powers their functions leave to do and thou shalt live in this fair world behind honored beloved and happily one of its kind for husbands health and found the rest. Such love must needs be treason in my breast in second husband let me be a cursed none wed the second but who killed the first the instances that second marriage move are base respects of thrift. But none of love. Second time I kill my husband dad.
When second husband kisses me in bed I do believe you think what now you speak but what we do determine after we break purposes but the slave to memory of violent birth but poor validity. Which now like fruit unripe sticks on the tree but fall on shaken when they mellow be the most necessary tears that we forget to pay ourselves what to ourselves is debt to ourselves in passion we propose. The passion ending the purpose lose the violence of either grief or joy of their own an act choice with themselves destroy where Joy most revels grief the most lament grief joy joy grieve one slender accident. This world is not for AA. No it is not strange that even our loves should with our fortunes change.
What is a question left us yet to prove whether love lead fortune or else fortune love the great man down you mark his favorite flies the poore advanced makes friends of enemies. And here the dude of love on Fortune 10 for who not needs shall never lack a friend and who in want a hollow friend tried directly seasons him his enemy. But orderly to end where I began. Our wills and fate do so contrary run that our devices still are overthrown. Our thoughts are ours there and none of our own. So think there will no second husband wait. But dive I thought that's when life first Lord is day. No earth to me give food nor heaven light sport and
repose rock for me day and night to desperation to earn my trust and hope. And there's cheere in prison be my scope. Each opposite that blank's the face of joy meets what I would have well and it destroy both here and hence pursue me lasting strife if once a widow ever I be wife is the place warm sweet leave me here while my spirits grow darker and Faine I would beguile the tedious day with sleep. Sleep rock my brain. Never come mischance tweeners Twain. But of course like Hamlet's father he's soon going to die and I think that shows that the heroic couplet could be used in drama Shakespeare's control of language let him communicate to us the relationship between these
two. Without the rhyme distracting us. Now let's go back to the rape of the lock. What dya offense from amorous causes brings what mighty contests rise from trivial things. I sing this verse to capital muse is you this is even Belinda vouchsafe to you. Slight is the subject but not so the praise. If she inspired. And he approved my love. So what strange motive Goddess could compel a well-bred Lord to assault a gentle oh say part stranger cause yet unexplored. Could make a gentle ballad. Reject it all. In tasks so bowed candidly Menin Gate. And hidden soft bows and arrows such mighty re. I'd like to hear the first four lines again.
What dya offense from amorous causes Springs but mighty contests rise from trivial things. I sing this verse to cattle amuse you. This is even Belinda about save two of you. We have what I call a dance of monosyllables and dissimilar balls in the opening couplet that in one line is answered by 90 in the next. A very satisfying rhythm arises from variations in the positioning of individual words. From amorous causes springs in the first line is balanced by rise from trivial things in the second but monotony is avoided by placing the verb in the first case at the end of the line and in the answering statement the verb comes in the middle not at the end. Rise from trivial things. What offense amorous causes brings but mighty contests rise from trivial things.
I sing in the seventh line of the poem. Pope asks the Muse two questions so what strange motive Goddess could compel a well-bred Lord to assault a gentle oh say part. Stranger cause yet unexplored. I could make a gentle reject. Hear strange in what strange motive is related by sound and sense to a stranger what a stranger cause and could compel is balanced by yet unexplored and could compare all is balanced by yet unexplored. In the second line of this passage we have the words load and Bell in this order. A well-bred Lord to assault a gentle bell. The words occur again to line further on but this time their order is reversed. Could make a gentle Bell reject the Lord so what
strange motive Goddess could compel a well-bred Lord to assault a gentle oh say pot stranger cause yet unexplored. Could make a gentle reject. I expect you noticed the delightful rhyming compelled Bill unexplored. Lord. What dya offense amorous causes brings but mighty contests rise from trivial things. I sing this verse to capital amuse you. This is even Belinda about save two of you. Slight is the subject but not so the praise. If she inspired and he approved my life. So what strange motive God is could compel a well-bred Lord to assault a gentle oh say part stranger cause yet unexplored.
I could make a gentle burial reject or in tasks so bowed candle Menin Gate. And hidden soft bows and arrows so that you might hear a hundred years before Pope wrote those lines. The poet John Bowman and not the Beaumont of Beaumont and Fletcher wrote some couplets of his own on the art of writing rhyming verse. Our Sex and shortness have peculiar grace in choice of words fit for the ending place which leave impression in the mind as well as closing sounds of some delightful bell. All that boils down to a declaration that the short words of English provide rhymes which satisfy not only sound but sense. Bowman's poem came out in sixteen twenty nine entitled to his late majesty concerning the true form of English poetry. His late majesty was James the First. His late majesty was James the First who died in 16 25 when James was King of
Scotland and not of England. He had published in 15 84 a treatise on poetry. So Beaumont flattered him with these lines. Forgive my boldness that I here present the life of Muses yielding true content in pondered numbers which with ease I tried when you were judicious riddles have been my guide. Beaumont himself writes appalling couplets in every language now in Europe spoke by nations which the Roman Empire broke the relish of the Muse consists in rhyme one verse must meet another like a chime but those that join most simply run the best. This is true of pope's couplets in the rape of the lock. This Nim to the destruction of mankind. Not ish to lux which graceful hiding behind in equal curls and will conspired to deck with shining ringgits the smooth
ivory neck La Vendee ZA labyrinths his slaves and Mighty Heart saw her insulin the chain with hairy springes with the birds betrayed slight lines of hair surprise the penny play fair tresses men's imperial race. And beauty draws us with a single had the adventurous bad and the bright locks admired he saw all he wished and to the prize aspired result when he meditates that way by force. To ravish or by or would betray for Quinn's success or lover's toilet and who asked the fraud or force attained his end. Close by those meetings for ever crowned with
their terms with pride surveys his rising towers there stands a structure of majestic frame which from the neighboring front takes its name here. Britain's statesman oft before. For do are foreign Titans and of course he had great whom three realms obey just sometimes council take and sometimes his are the heroes and the nymphs result to taste a pile of the pleasures of a court. In various talk the instructive allies they passed who gave the ball or paid the visit to the last one speaks the glory of the British Queen. And one describes a charming Indian screen. You have been listening to the second of two programmes on the heroic couplet. The lines from the Pope's rape of the lock was spoken by Duncan Ross shot to do it he was the
player queen the player King was Jonathan. This is better than Johnson inviting you to be with us again next week. This programme was produced by Radio Broadcast Services of the University of Washington under a grant from the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. This is the national educational radio network.
Series
A nest of singing birds
Episode Number
Heroic Couplet II
Episode Number
8
Contributing Organization
University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
AAPB ID
cpb-aacip/500-sf2mbf7g
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Description
Description
No description available
Date
1970-00-00
Topics
Literature
Media type
Sound
Duration
00:30:57
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Credits
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University of Maryland
Identifier: 70-3-8 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:30:00?
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Citations
Chicago: “A nest of singing birds; Heroic Couplet II; 8,” 1970-00-00, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed May 27, 2024, http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-sf2mbf7g.
MLA: “A nest of singing birds; Heroic Couplet II; 8.” 1970-00-00. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. May 27, 2024. <http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-sf2mbf7g>.
APA: A nest of singing birds; Heroic Couplet II; 8. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-sf2mbf7g