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The story is about the pastor told under interview circumstances when such stories are told we make a prediction of what will happen later in the interview situation. Ideally it would be possible to report the frequency with which these hypotheses have been confirmed or disconfirmed up to date. If the frequencies of specific experiences involving adults and children is to be established other observational standpoints must be utilized. The developmental theory formulated in the analytic situation and operation defined within it must also be applied with different operational definitions in other standpoints and our scientific knowledge is complete to the extent that we can reliably predict the result that will be maintained will be obtained at all stand Wyatt's from the data that are obtained in any standpoint. Thus it may turn out that psychologically interviewed politicians are largely recruited 95 percent from persons who allege that their exposes children to a certain set of experiences data may confirm this prediction of a lower percentage 90 percent among those taking projective tests to lead similar experiences or get evidence of having happened. Further research may confirm the prediction that a
smaller percentage than the five it say will testify to experiences of the type when interviewed by less intensive methods as a standpoint they evolve. Now these figures of course are entirely hypothetical since a little systematic work's been done along this line. However we have enough accumulated experience to justify the formulation of hypotheses that concern the developmentally significant experiences in the present discussion I cannot go further than to say that the most comprehensive proposition is that power centered personalities are developed by individuals who come to rely on power practices or roles as the preferred means of maximizing their value position. This comes about in response to deprivation is received from persons who are also regarded as sources of great indulgence. Strong rage and President responses find outlets that are successful in mitigating deprivation and reinstating full induction not of the meaningful such formulations must be specified for each period of development receiving operational definitions for each scientific up standpoint of observation.
We may find in modern democracies for instance that power oriented personalities are becoming exceedingly rare. But in conducting the research to demonstrate such a trend we will be kept continually informed other personality systems that in fact prevail among those who play conventional political role in our own and in other parties politics. That might be supposed that cycle analysts possessing a tool for the Study of man in context whether from an early day have adopted standard methods of reporting every case for the purpose of obtaining a comprehensive picture of the incidence of specific patterns of behavior according to the culture of the subject. European Chinese saw the position of the subject in the social structure upper middle or class in terms of distribution of such social values as power wealth respect enlightenment skill rectitude affection it will be the role of the individual an organisation member official leader. The
exposure of the individual at different years of his life the social crisis the war revolution the oppression of our prosperity and the personality structure of the subject. That is the ordering of the social values and the mechanisms chiefly relied upon to cope with problems. Twenty five years ago I quickly discovered that the records kept by practicing physicians were scattered and comparable with the exception of a few hospitals like say the lives of those at Washington. And on such documents as were on hand rarely showed how the subject was related to the social context. The psycho analysts were few and though they were inspired with a protean vision they were so overworked with training therapy and research and so defensive about their methods that there was little interest in marginal questions. In the mean time the growth of psychoanalysis has been tremendous observational standpoints adapted from psychoanalysis have gained in procedural clarity and the theoretical relevance. Although to this day own case history is taken by psycho
analysts and others are not centrally abstracted in a way that brings out their socio political significance. Some steps have been taken to bring this about in the past expansion of scientific talent in our civilisation. It's conceivable that in another 25 years in 1980 we can report on more substantial results connecting personality with politics. Thanks to the creation of the social institutions appropriate to continuing self-observation. Mr Richard Christy of the Research Center for Human Relations spoke before the convention on the same subject psychopathology and politics. Here are his views. Richard Christy. Terry how do you view the spectrum. Say several. Other reasons for this. Restriction. First I defy anyone. To cover all the problems within the space
of a human. Suddenly Holland the chapter and the land of the social psychology has a very nice cover everything aspect of the problem and I would like to bring up probably a very extensive. And finding a need to mark a perspective of what is frightening and abided during or into your research or are there are the sort of stuff and some of my remarks. I really like the virus and by this position. I'll let it be clear then that pattern is not being directed toward validation or disapproval of psychoanalytic theory they have a seminar every year for the problem and not. The focus of interest on contributions which psychoanalysis can make or possibly lead to a more adequate oversight and I qualify this more and with good reason. There's the president and one of the
reasons for the lack of a nation of psychoanalytic. Social psychological There are criminal fictions eating meat all in the document. The lack of pointing out the exact. Psychology in the social order was printed almost 20 years ago. No social psychological fact is that a little more current record. The current works across they offer a number of interesting and valid reasons for this. One of the reasons of the offer is germane. The predators they know that academic psychologist have rightful grounds for reserve of hostility psychoanalytic theory for psychoanalysts like concern for character and for very good evidence for the absence of adequate definitions and frequent statement of relationships in such a manner that they are not subject to prove or disprove. For one consider the training which fighting so it was like others were exposed about the logic training is not surprising.
There's good reason for them to. Release those are probably not related. To regarding scientific status of psychoanalysis or some skepticism. What did you psychoanalysis from Mark the viability as evidenced by the fact that even as most writers acknowledge its importance. My own suspicion is that the writers from the sometimes writing reverence for our own personal life some of our own experiences fit neatly in the cycle of interpretations are we may know a college or a hospital supervisor was a full blown classical character. And you've been dating for hours and hours tables in which American at least were East Europeans West Europe in the South Europeans sort of Europeans are broken down by age sex with its affiliation region the country is yes it's all very very different combinations. It's no wonder that sometimes on the U.S. have an encyclopedic history or by a psychoanalyst sometimes
frights was a little more interesting. Whatever the cost however it is clear that most social psychologists are in the one or psychoanalysis they are repelled by everything this day. The ordinary can do scientific procedure but attracted by sometimes frighteningly relevant to what you do in science. I'm not saying what the psychoanalyst you know social psychology might be I can only deduce from the writing or social psychology and sociology that they're not very familiar with the relevant material. Otherwise they would less frequently. Playing complex social phenomena. So in terms of assisting person I would carry barriers and social cultural barriers provide an equally parsimonious not a reasonable explanation. The truth or as near as we can get to a line or some where in between. Before returning to the point of this relevance it was Weldon's and some of the deficiencies in social psychology from the standpoint of one social psychologist from the parent. Let us think
what purity is really prominent not out of contemporary research approaches academic social psychology. There'd be a little deliberate exaggeration here for your risky purposes but let's talk about social psychology and apply the general psychology as my courses the other smaller group research practices or as they do the survey reserved matters field research. Now. Let us assume that detention represented practitioners of various fields were as Moses or soldiers like others are interested in political events. Let us further assume they are familiar with the story of ex-senator everything the state wants this done. As most of you remember was one of the distinguished group of frightened senators elected in nineteen forty six as a group whose party was ever served. Jenner of Indiana never really distinguished gentleman. Senator
Kaine distinguished himself and Congress had a conservative voting record was youth was quite widely spoken of the real estate lobbies and was a well-known supporter in the car and the 1952 elections and Republican sweep which did not do the former senator from Washington. One of the group for one reason or another didn't return to private life but became a member of the subversive activities control board. He served his capacity for some time for the doomed summer of living if you're not as he said a time to think for the first time in many years. The result of these patients the speech to a group of his former supporters constituents in Washington about the inequities in the present oil and security program. This address strong in their pride the brief was publicized in those newspapers and journals which were reasonably conscientious and cover the news. In any event it was an uplifting to park press conferences interviews which tended to slightly embarrass those responsible for the present
administration the oil security program. Now let us make the assumption and I don't think this is an ungenerous I was on the ball. Probably true. Mr. Cain change among the general let us make a further assumption this bit of socially relevant behavior which come should come within the purview of social psychology in this category. I submit that any adverse social psychology should be capable of handling such a phenomena. Now let us look at the way I put it away in which proponents of the social psychological approach is noted might tackle this problem. Iraqi Demick psychologist would translate this problem so that it has particular theoretical from the wreckers. Stimulus response or program manipulations the most and to be ready to restore the US dollar euro So let's look at one at least. Since the latter since there are more numerous. First thing here is that there is a gap of law that has to go scope these days. Then he
compares last. Sample selected probably from beginning classes at Harvard or swap for. Experimental design is properly balanced so the requisite number of students in appropriate cells are either too busy to think or allowed to think for exposure the same as with the stimuli. Here the possibilities are such as to rouse a sympathetic nervous system of any true experiment. To kneel just him such as So versity. If I stood on one hundredth of a second exposure on a balance of university course it counterbalancing to see what differences occurred between the two groups. Or that such phrases right can only be exposed gradually increasing intervals to see what differences in recognition time where they found on the samples. The possibilities of course are virtually endless and we can be sure of three things however. First statistically significant results with the fact.
We're. Saddling an article will soon appear in the psychological review taking experimenter to task this regarding word frequency counts in the preparation of stimulus words. Final results with precious little like the sort of behavior it ends by ex-senator tank with possibility the small group research likewise and with just three man groups are especially popular right now set up by a free man group we have one leader one follower one observer. Human going to repaired passageways or the passing of those in the appropriate direction. A sample selected probably from a beginner's psychology class at MIT or Michigan. Subjects are randomly assigned to the free rolls. An abacus five paper answers given its last course of the price. As a research experimental groups are told they're competing with one another in solving a problem. The structures you can send messages to whom and when. After the experiment a citation is well under way the experimenter this
is a note purportedly from the follower which is sent to the leader was to believe anything and as some are not the observer has plenty of time in the know the followers of the evidence or subverted by saying that he thinks this group is lousy. We should enjoy one another. Shortly thereafter the experimental station is terminated and members of the group have got a series of readings on each other. The crucial question is will the leader or the errant Pottermore RC on such items as followers disloyally possible sex life character friends and associates etc.. And will you observe such an experiment occurrence is rather stripped down and forced at the ingeniously embellished with change in the roles Moredock messages presence and absence of the other groups and so on ad and I think we can be sure of three things. First statistically significant results will be fine. Secondly the crime report we were quoted in the book a report on a small group reserved for every year in human
relations finally results are priceless the light sort of behavior against my accent. Now the survey research man is allowed less flexibility and ingenuity. Design of his research and make up for the skill of asking questions like fiber analysis. You might well be from Columbia or Michigan and is committed to getting a representative cross-section of something the United States. Washington D.C. are living Eck centers since a problem they are considering involves a change over time and a Methodist call or Methodius survey research terminology from several before or after. Alice sampled initially interviewed as the avenue toward the oily security program cleverly designed series of questions designed to uncover overt attitudes over attitudes possibly even attitudes that don't exist. At a later time the samples re-entered all requires or I would have punched him like you know our indices measuring the
direction amount of change are constructed. Then the process of tabulation across tabulation begins in a stable support for breaking down indices by sex as a yes religion political affiliation region of the center of the sample and represented enough to accomplish one ex-senator gain might be possible by diligent church search to find one among the thousands of tables in which a single cell is occupied by one Republican male in Washington D.C. I saw as an economic status a Protestant for 45 years of age who shifted in a negative direction on index measuring attitudes toward loyalty and Security Program. It amorous chanced upon a stable you know enormous response was it was air or coding or something this or answer only wanted it when subjected to the DNA case analysis we can be sure of three things here. First notice the significance of the run.
Secondly a traditionally oriented political science scientist or possibly Lindsay Rogers would ban the study and export binding results with precious little like sort of the events by accent or Again obviously illustrations are all wrong but what makes they are. So often overdrawn your million are some of the unity of the whole of them sometime see and some of the publication that actually emerged. Now I'd be the first to deny that. The charter much of the sort of psychological research is of no interest of little significance it is clear that the highly diverse researchers and the social psychologist gave are slowly building up the outline of an internally consistent theoretical structure. But as far as we've come we have much further to go before we can adequately conceptualize many problems both genuine theoretical and practical. Now lever there is a discussion of psychoanalysis made some critical remarks about the limited nature of the data
which is their radical superstructure of psychoanalysis. But remarkably some writers are saying that the sample of people being analyzed is extremely limited either biassed damage to the highly restricted training which does not ensure familiarity with a broader range of human behavior and the data collection collecting situation although somewhat standardized is not one which ensures exhaustive sampling of behavior this is not to deny the cockle statement the most important things in life happen on the couch was functional. Such a statement has subject Little Eva lesson please Riccati the real world. That's despite factional disputes among psychoanalysts it appears they know to the serious psychoanalysis possesses a greater internal consistency. And elegance. And it's true of most social psychological. You're right this is in large part due to the fact that the basic data is collected on the relative standardized additions in accordance with a roughly some of the
same. We have indicators social psychology like much more extensive data much less intensive what this makes the task of building up an inductive theory with Compass compasses incredibly varied bodies of data much more difficult. And consequently most social psychological theorizes and many of them haven't been there either. Speak of the relative few in this category tend to build up energy systems which are based upon a limited area of research. Either ignore and misinterpret here I should say that or criticize data which do not get their scheme. Now a basic problem then utilizing cycle and other insights in social psychology arises from the fact. That different frames of reference blood samples are related. Way in which they get there. Last century it would be rash to say that one sort of their social psychological is more important than the other. Both or rather
by the Neurontin her doctor last. Neither is paying adequate attention to vast areas of human behavior which are of vital importance in understanding man's relationship to man. They're going to far too few attempts to come to grips with the psychological requirements of many of the crucial role in the social structure of the data cycle analysis of the collected largely from those who are not functioning effectively in society. The data social psychology largely from college songwriters who have not yet begun to function in adult roles aside it's garden part right beside who pointed out that he's busy presidential address several years ago. Psychologists psychologists have conspicuously failed to handle the problem of our society. Now this has had certain consequences on the type of research which has been done on every line of the research. Now the most conspicuous example of the application of psychoanalytic theory in social psychology
is the work reported the story and personality and the I think roughly 200 studies was about at least that he by now to follow at the end still divided by the California group has been using the amazing variety of situations. Almost. You pick up you with American Political Science Review now and find stated what you have and I think the Journal of comparative dissolving has still failed to report a study of a museum scale I think in terms of our model still has. But otherwise you can hardly. Pick up a journal about running across at least two or three articles in which the airfield and correlate with something new and I think the skills problem correlated more other I am skilled tests on our test and psychological history in Stanford. Now the authoritarian person. He's been hailed and deservedly so as one of the outstanding social science achievements of our time. He represents the most conspicuous blending recycling of the social psychological theory and Vertical Research. My genocide has been thrown up on the person out
of the bigot and the irrational hater. Now subsequent readers indicate one thing very clearly. People make. I scored on the obstacle and I am a natural receptivity fascist ideology are not very effective people. They're concentrated in the lower social levels rather marginal social positions. It is better to know that two commentators with highly divergent attitudes about the authoritarian personality make a similar point. She also points out that individuals who are in personality or sense of the California work aren't paid precisely because the person that organized the fact political move and I think in a sense wrote this before these decline of the century and see this in this particular situation as a man a man is not a popular sport little or that happens. Last word on that one says quote It is improbable that top leaders will establish the Kalahari regime in industrial society
are recruited from Hope order and personality. And there's a good little supporting evidence. This mother started on going to it as a present intention of the lack of relevance of the authoritarianism syndrome the personality of the wielders of our society is a perfectly natural consequence of the original approach psychoanalytic theory is based upon the study of infected people its applications in the authoritarian personality has relevance primarily when in fact people there are unfortunately a tremendously large number of socially ineffective people in society despite their numbers for their relatively unimportant in the making of crucial decisions within society such as the Occupy secondary role of the social system. Now the preceding comments had predominated negative 10. This is partly because of primary research every day seem to be then directed toward the understanding of individuals who have little relevance to the legal structure of society.
Far too many of the studies of leadership on both have bought into this group discussions of college students or the study of a sorority or something like this or if you look at the literature leadership it's really amazing how little your is are you acting leadership role. It was seen to be much more profitable to investors and to those who really wield power. And here I am of course only at the last Wellesley for many years. Now so meeting could be your year. Conceptualization in terms of this I quote psychological records necessary for playing crucial roles in the society what life and psychoanalysis wrote on the prod. A vanity vans are required are all of that yes be able to muster. There are however several encouraging aspects. In the first place it is sometimes surprising to see how closely the thinking of psycho analysts social psychologists can be as
impressive as the other two individuals two quite different frames of reference familiar to quite different sorts of data. I tend to analyze a new problem of highly similar what. This does not preclude the possibility of course that their analysis is of dubious validity. It does indicate that there is more perhaps more generality in human behavior than we sometimes think. Now the second point of the herdsman think Absolut factors and growing indications of interest and integrating creative playful. And. So active life and activities of man I'm part of with psycho analysts and psychologists of the past few years now will be very right through our insights seen by each group previously simply because they do not cover a wide range of behavior despite encouraging aspects of such an increased interest in causing human functioning. A quest with a research strategy must be reversed. One sometimes has an uncomfortable feeling that researchers in the area of creativity say
assumed quite naturally and probably right that they themselves are creative and tend to look for subjects who are similar to themselves. This undoubtedly leads to the collection of interesting and provocative data but it will not appear to be immediately relevant to some of the problems being raised in this age. It would be much more useful to start an analysis of various roles of the social structure. Sociological analysis to determine which ones were crucial. The nodes of power in the city should make a functional analysis of the psychological recklessness. Necessary for the success of playing such roles that lead to a number of specific hypotheses. And very little research on those who play these roles. Brainerd was a success within certain past hypotheses. What I am interested in of course is the development of personality meeting as much which are relevant to performance he wrote. Passenger noted in discussing yesterday only an overview that is. Tremendous popular. Recent research was probably in
large part due to the fact is the only part of the personalities and I do a sting earlier in the social phenomenon where. We have pointed out a major limitation in the sort of social phenomena that is correlated with it has little relevance to the role of the personality kind of occupied and he was actually. Now both a psychoanalyst and social psychologist paid scant attention to implications of the structure of our society. Each has dealt with limited body of data which are largely also contributed insights and some generalizations. Speaking for myself was one of the greatest contribution contributions of psychoanalysis to social psychology. Why had the possibility of Iraqi cooperation examine the problem. What makes the players form social roles. Thank you. The program you just heard was one of a series of lectures given under the general title
of new directions in social sciences. It was produced and recorded by radio station KPFA Berkeley California under a grant from the Educational Television and Radio Center. Distribution of the series is made possible through the facilities of the National Association of educational broadcasters. This is the end AB Radio Network.
New directions in social sciences
Psychopathology and politics
Producing Organization
pacifica radio
KPFA (Radio station : Berkeley, Calif.)
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University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
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Episode Description
This program presents the second part of a talk by Harold Lasswell, Yale Law School, and Richard Christie, Research Center for Human Relations, called "Psychopathology and Politics."
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A series of talks delivered before the annual convention of the American Psychological Association in San Francisco.
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Producing Organization: pacifica radio
Producing Organization: KPFA (Radio station : Berkeley, Calif.)
Speaker: Lasswell, Harold D. (Harold Dwight), 1902-1978
Speaker: Christie, Richard
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University of Maryland
Identifier: 58-10-3 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:29:44
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Chicago: “New directions in social sciences; Psychopathology and politics,” 1958-02-16, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed May 28, 2024,
MLA: “New directions in social sciences; Psychopathology and politics.” 1958-02-16. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. May 28, 2024. <>.
APA: New directions in social sciences; Psychopathology and politics. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from