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The telephone switching system following each rotation of the dial the telephone the printing press. Radio and television were allowing the Americans in the 20th century access to information. Communicating. Fifty years of communicating in less time. Rapid improvement of communication technology making possible the compression of time and space. Ideas and information appeared before the individual in quantities so abundant that he becomes immune and disregards much that is valuable. Progress in technology technology in the increased movement of ideas and information. Confusion in social and personal relationships revealed in the growth of the community of signals. This document of major changes in personal mess and industrial communication
was produced and recorded by the University of Southern California under a grant from the Educational Television and Radio Center in cooperation with the National Association of educational broadcasters. Compression compression of time and space. A basic action in the improvement of communication technology an essential element needed to increase the range of knowledge. The quick rapid transmission of ideas and information and Mail audio and video impulses the long distance telephone call. A growing impression of electronic intensity. Time and space closing in has meant cooperation for industry. It adds to the confusion of personal communication. It can approach perfection in the communication of knowledge to mass audiences.
Compression of time and space. The past 50 years. A revolution in technological development. Well I suppose one of the most important is the spread of the use of the line of time. Now it was invented before the turn of the century but by introducing a line of type you eliminated the necessity of long and laborious hand setting of large batches of copy. This has made a great difference in the production rate of different kinds of printed materials. The radio as a broadcast instrument did not exist in this country much before 1920. Television came into the homes of most of us. Well after the end of World War 2 around 1948 1950 in printing and in television we have the immediate prospect of a lot more use of color. You see color in the daily newspaper today you
didn't see it there very much 15 or 20 years ago. There are a few color television sets available in the country today there will be more soon I think. You didn't see those even 10 years ago. All of the processes for for the processes by which these things come about have been known and have existed in a laboratory form for for many years let me give you an example. The theory and predicted action of electromagnetic waves radio waves was. These things were stated by Maxwell in England in 1860s. You didn't actually have these waves produced physically until the 1880s. You didn't have the muse for sending a signal until the 90s. You didn't have them. Used for broadcast purposes in most countries until the 20s. Television has a similar history. The first television was
issued in 1884 and it was 1948 at least for most of us before we saw our sets in our homes. And they're not new things there are developments of things that began much earlier. Question of time and space in the company of confusion keeping up with available information has become a job in itself. The public health officer is plagued with and enlarged community of signals. Of scientific meetings. Public health why is a physician trained in the same way that any other physician is trained and has a special activity. So our library contains. A very familiar battery of scientific periodical laboratory.
But more particular fields of which we have a direct responsibility of environmental sanitation public health nursing. And public health administration. In which we stocked our library most heavily. For. Education and training of our staff. It is not easy for any physician to keep up. So all of us need. Refreshing and we need to know what's going on not only in our own fields but also in others as well. So to be a well-rounded physician with. Almost a full time job adding to the confusion of the community of signals is the increased personal information more information from more sources. Changes in the outlook the way of living of the individual. The
deluge of information takes time more time than before. Well probably both as a function of both the productivity of the individual average productivity of the individual. And the function of the increase of the availability of information. You have a greater proportion of far greater proportion of the day today are devoted to the use of the mass media than you did 50 years ago but that doesn't mean you're communicating more or less. Probably the place of reading a lot of newspapers or listening to a lot of radio programs or seeing a lot of television programs today was taken in the past by personal conversation. You talk with your neighbor or with your family in the time that you now use for use of these other mass media. So one effect might be depersonalization.
Of media intake by the individual the use of more and more less personal information and increased use of mass media for conveying information and yet more problems are evident to the public health officer must get the right films for training and education and the right films are not always available. Well I would say this that our films that have been available to us and very often we see them that are there not well enough. To be acceptable as an educational medium. You have a film that you have to. Point out. Why then I am too involved. Actually it's rare that we see a film that is timely and authentic in every every respect I
don't know what the problem is and why we can't get better production of films. Part of it might be the market. Not. Really well enough so that we. Will have a new demand may not be sufficient to give us the best quality. Backward. I look to the past for the theories and discoveries. Basic to communication technology before 1900 the printing press. Motion picture camera. The telephone telegraph and the discovery of electromagnetic waves and electrical conduction. I look to the past for social changes basic to communication in the present urbanization. Early in the century making work more complex the complicated
business of the tense me of working people. Really. Pissed. Off. I don't think anything on. I. Liked all. Art. Thought I was kidding with. Wright's logic. Life was. An. Awful day. On Earth. It's a. Hard. World. That's right. There. Goes. The. Optimal. Way to. Handle. These. Kids. Relationships have become intense and complex. The specialization
of play the competitive intensity of the playground The Bold and the swimming children turning play into battle. Personal communication becomes a battle a hard fought battle to understand and to be understood. Communication urbanised and compressed in space. Communication technically and socially stemming from mechanization mechanized industry gaining inefficiency organized itself and began to plan. Planning and research the team of efficiency. And industry wanted to know more of the why and the how as the heart of production maintained itself communication. The essence of finding out and discovering reasons. Of understanding. A half century of communication changes. Technology
rises rapidly. Automation gives the machine something to think about improvement invades the instruments of communication services of communication industries expand. Social changes seep more slowly. Mass selling confuses consumers. Mass media are entertaining. Personal Communication revolves around the machine. Attitudes toward communication change. Industry recognizes the problem and people find that they need mass media changes. Technological and social changes in communication. Just. Mass and personal communication. Only flexion the space between the sender and receiver. That is constantly shrinking. Automation the machine thinks for itself and industry
wonders but the communication of information is increased and there are other reasons why the principal benefit of automation is to increase productivity per man hour by giving to machines or having machines do much of the hard physical labor and routine mental labor that once had to be done by individuals you multiply the effectiveness of the human being by the use of automatic processes a series of processes can be made automatic. I'm thinking now for instance of automobile assembly line can be made automatic by having the processes governed on a feedback basis by a computer. You can attach a governing computer to an automobile production assembly line and automate that. Good deal. The Boeing of cylinder blocks
of automobile engines can be automated. A whole series of processes that must be gone through and turning out a board walk can be programmed pre-planned and run off through the use of the computer. Thank you. Thank you. Twentieth Century improvements improvements in the instruments of communication the vacuum tube 1990. Yeah kind of scope the 1923 image or to come to above 1940 to. A color camera. The application of scientific principles to mass production and the perfection of machinery. A line of time expands offset lithographic enters the scene. A simple lever of the past gives weight to the complex skew of the present. Things are changing that the burning into the day is the field of specialization. However in the press here we have.
A man called to go to another at any time. Because he might be called. Today as an artist a skilled technician in his trade or apprenticeship in the printing. Printing. A pretty ring. I like your work. It's really running really working hard and printing is a work of art. The cumbersome machines of the past give way to the efficiency of the present. The old automatic setting for it in your time. Rather slow and cumbersome as compared to the present day machine.
Names you know been so. Perfect. So the. More. The. Better. Plug. In or type in the line for the same. Description which is not necessary here. And if. It is true to such an extent. Today with operator having one. What combination. Of the keyboard. Coming down with your wife. I love it. Thank. You Laurie. The American character searching all searching the search for efficiency in expanding services offered by communications
industries the telephone companies have joined the search making constant improvements for the consumer. In the course of the present. Better have number of services offered has increased.
Anticipating demand is the desire of the company. As well. Our
number here in New York this time in effect. The complicated process of deciding what to buy with the change from person to the consumer is lost in the maze of product information people people trying to decide what to buy and we buy the first thing we want.
But if I'm buying it right now I look around and then buy a thing that I think that this guy out of the box price is. Right. Right. I can ask. If you listen and remember Tucker he just gave in to CNN Dallas spent a whole day just shopping one of the next never by a dime thing and then I'm going to compare that and then they're talking Darren talk maybe I'll go back and buy one of the more they go back and look for her cloth and they'll shabu shabu shabu never buy anything that come back and maybe the next day they make another trip over there to buy more than my cat
came about 20 miles to the store. In those days and they didn't know much of what brand or anything else was and I mean they took what they could get glad they get it that this boy it don't do that now that the guy in the store today and most at me that they sell a lot of this. This trading stamps had they add a great deal to do the buying of the women. Today I think everyone would get it but the growth of broadcasting in the 20th century the communication of entertainment. The American has more time to spend on the job and he spends more of it listening to radio watching television. Automation leisure time and the media of communication. Well I rather imagine that when we encounter the full effects of
automation and that probably the six hour day may be involved in off a six hour a day happens to be involved we certainly have to do something with the other shall we say 12 hours we're going to get it in addition. Probably we ought to devote some of this new use of leisure time to have a vacation good physical health. Gymnastic work hours I play you know group games anything that my. Human body to attain that degree of physical perfection is so essential for health.
The use of mass media to communicate vital information information about health national issues social problems educational programs the greater use of mass media for these purposes. Another reason for the communication of vital information. Personal relationships have become more complex more machine oriented wider in scope. The 20th century American depends upon the machine. Changes in attitudes toward communication. Industry recognize the person better employee relations or consumer relations surveys and
studies are made. Action is taken actually from the very top down to the bottom of any organisation. Your basic problem in communication is to set up. Proper procedures and systems of organization. Now your I can is a Chanel chart. It's your starting point. From your organizational chart. Then you have to define define the responsibilities. Of the departments of the apartment heads in the different sections and groups within the departments what functions they should carry out. How this is actually. A communications problem and it's a rough one. Because different interpretations by different people. Get you out of my field. Right. Say. The running. Man there's a problem there. Direct communication. Is one level the. Next level. Present your price president.
Vice President. Here the pipe. Can. Run. One. Morning down workers. I usually find a very close ally of America. If you have proper communication coming all the way down the various steps so that each one knows what the responsibilities are not only to those above them but those along with. Another change in attitudes toward communication and media. I looked upon as necessities operators and switchboards the long distance call the need for the telephone. Changes changes in mass and industrial communication or rapid transmission of ideas and compression of time. A growing impression of speed time and space closing in cooperation and confusion reflecting 50 years of revolution in
communication and needs for the future are great. More information must be conveyed by communications media training programmes and industry could benefit by the use of oral and visual media. Why. Training is mostly direct contact between the lead person on the train and the train south. Our program you'll hear directly on the job training is another. They were. Planning to bring order to the complexity of the community of research to discover the desires of people. Their desire. And yet they may not know what they want. The community is so complex. Confusion and personal relationships revealed in the growth of the community.
The telephone switching system of the dial the telephone radio and television the spoken word American in the 20th century. Institutions and personnel cooperating in the production of this program where Hofmann electronics St. Joseph's Hospital the Orange County Public Health Department Bell Telephone Company the faculty of the University of Southern California and the University Press. This program was written by Donald price directed in the aerated by Edward de rules and produced by Stuart will need access to information was recorded by
the University of Southern California under a grant from the Educational Television and Radio Center. This program is distributed by the National Association of educational broadcasters. This is the AMA E.B. Radio Network.
Fifty years of growth
Access to information
Producing Organization
University of Southern California
Contributing Organization
University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
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Episode Description
Time and space compress: Communication spawns a confusion of signals - a growing impression of electronic intensity as ideas and information challenge the media.
Series Description
A series of documentaries on industrial change in the U.S.
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Social Issues
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Director: Deroux, Edward
Narrator: Kuralt, Charles, 1934-1997
Producer: Cooney, Stuart
Producing Organization: University of Southern California
Writer: Price, Donald
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 57-54-6 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:29:29
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Chicago: “Fifty years of growth; Access to information,” 1957-01-01, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed June 10, 2023,
MLA: “Fifty years of growth; Access to information.” 1957-01-01. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. June 10, 2023. <>.
APA: Fifty years of growth; Access to information. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from