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Latin American perspectives a program of comment and analysis about current Latin American problems and their historical setting. The commentator for these programs is Dr. C. Harvey Gardner research professor of history at Southern Illinois University. Here now is Dr. Gardner. Oft times in the evaluation of foreign issues. We cannot see them clearly because of the foreigner. This is not double talk saying for example you cannot see Brazilian problems because of the Brazilians rather. I'm saying that our American interpretations of Foreign Affairs are generally so loaded with implied comparisons subjective evaluations moral judgments and ill concealed evidences of a holier than thou air of superiority that we cloud rather than clarify the foreign issues. Accordingly I
think a good hard headed objective evaluation of a foreign problem by a foreigner is always in order. I wish today to talk about the writings of the ideas. Of one Roberto De Oliveira composts a leading Brazilian economist and economic planner. Say your compass has come out of the West. Indeed the jungle area of Mato Grosso in Brazil to serve in high places. Indeed as Minister of Planning in the recent government of President Custer Runkle as a speaker as a lecturer he has been in this country and in Europe on many occasions and the volume to which I refer in titled reflections on Latin American development consists of a group of lectures that he has given at such widely separated places as the University of Arizona and Berlin
the University of Iowa and the Waldorf Astoria Hotel. Indeed he has spoken before the American Institute of industrial engineers before the national press group in Washington DC. Before world trade and marketing conferences before economic training institutes he is a man of international reputation and because he speaks with a vigor with a voice that is loud and clear. I would like to introduce saying your compost to you in word and action. The time for action came in his career when he was invited in 1964 to serve as Brazilian Minister of Economic Planning in the government that displaced president its administration. The action program that he then caused to come into being set forth five fundamental objectives of economic policy for
Brazil. The first to celebrate is accelerate the rate of economic growth which have been interrupted in the Goulart administration of 960 263. Second to progressively curb the process of inflation during 1064 65. So as to obtain reasonable equilibrium of prices at the beginning of 1066. Three to alleviate regional and sectional in equities and tensions created by social imbalances through improvement of social conditions for to assure through investment policy adequate conditions for productive employment to absorb the continuously expanding labor force of Brazil and fifth and lastly to correct the tendency toward uncontrolled deficits in the balance of payments which
menaces the continuity of economic development through the strangulation of Brazilian capacity to import the revised version of the action programme for the Brazilian government called for a progressive and programmed curbing of inflation. The monetary expansion in 1065 was to be so limited that the price increase during the year would be reduced to 25 percent in 1066 the increase in means of payment would be held to 6 percent equal to the projected increase in total output so that price stability would be achieved. The action program unlike some of its predecessors in Brazil was no paper plan to be discussed shelved ignored. Indeed it became the basis for action. The pace at which the Brazilian congress passed the legislation called for in this 600 page program rival that
of the famous hundred days of the first Roosevelt administration in the United States. Two tax reform bills a banking reform bill housing legislation and perhaps most significant of all in terms of what the Goulart administration had been promising and not delivering a sweeping agrarian reform bill a bill designed primarily to provide family sized farms to the masses of landless farm laborers and to those with Splinter holdings our fragmented farms. It provides indeed for penal taxation on large the new or underused holdings designed you see to force the man who has land and is not using it either to use it or to sell it. But the action program was not a mere soak the landlord measure its chief aim in Brazil is to raise agricultural output and the legislation also provides for agricultural credit
extension services improved marketing facilities soil surveys and other agricultural benefits. The Act in fact reflects the government's insistence on stabilization development and reform and a high level of technical competence is called for from the administration of the government. I would hasten to add that saying your compass no longer is in the government of Brazil. The president under whom he served left office and indeed has been killed recently in a plane accident. But the ideas still prevail in Brazilian thinking and though they did not contain the rate of inflation within the 25 percent they aimed at in 65 they did drastically reduce it. They did not come to equalize the growth rate with the inflationary spiral in 1066 and yet they worked hard
toward that end. The fact of the matter is that a two year correction program was asking too much too soon of the Brazilian people and of the Brazilian economy. In the course of his many speeches made in those widely separated areas of the world that I enumerated he developed the ideas which are now in this volume intitled. Reflections on Latin American development a recent publication of the University of Texas press economic development is probably the most important single challenge facing the countries of Latin America today because the United States from the very nature of our geographic and economic relationship with our southern neighbors must inevitably exercise a strong influence on the course of that development. It is important that North Americans understand conditions in Latin America and the attitudes of its peoples. The ideas the attitudes the
thinking is indeed well set forth by the very perceptive saying youre a compass because in this group of essays Dr. compost gives a comprehensive analysis of many aspects of Latin American development. He examines relations between the United States and Latin America from a variety of angles and from the initiation of the Monroe Doctrine on down through the Alliance for Progress. He outlines the basic problems of economic development of governmental policy of public and private administration. He gives particular attention to the relationship of foreign trade and foreign aid to economic development and presents a long discussion of the Alliance for Progress. It's history purpose is accomplishments and yes it's failures. Dr. compasses philosophy regarding the role of the state in economic development and other questions emerges clearly from these his writings his one time speeches.
He said On one occasion the valid distinction I see on the basis of my analysis of men and things is between pragmatic or functional nationalists and romantic or temperamental nationalists the latter confuse intention with results. They start with enthusiasm and end in fanaticism. On that score I would remind you that the philosopher Santa Yanna once said that fanaticism is the art of redoubling efforts. After losing sight of objectives the pragmatic nationalists. Saying your Ocampo continues. Seeks to operate within the framework of democratic institutions. And he considers himself a pragmatic nationalist.
In the course of his work with the Brazilian economic affairs I repeat he had but a short time at the top most level. But in every instance he was working with certain fundamental ideas in mind. He for example conceived these five problems as the ones he had to tackle. How could he mobilise the internal saving face so that they could be used for the economic advancement of the country. How at the same time could ratios be worked out between internal capital and internal savings and the foreign investment that must be obtained. He also was concerned about reducing the inefficiency of investments that result from market limitations. How could the instability of export earnings be decreased. In other words a guaranteed price or at least a favorable price for coffee in the world market. How and where should they train the
personnel that they need for the tasks of leadership is this to be done within Brazil. Outside Brazil. A combination of such locations. And How indeed could the quality of government be improved. Keeping with the economic purposes of a state to give you more of the direct flavor of the man's writing. Let me give you this quotation of his concerning the Alliance for Progress the Alliance for Progress offers what may be the last chance to reduce economic social and political tensions of the impatient and impoverished masses of Latin America to levels compatible with democratic reforms without recourse to authoritarian revolution. Bold faith is needed and patience too. And the latter bringing with it a lot of patient toil. Over a period of many years Roberto composts educated himself
Latin American perspectives
Roberto de Oliveira Campos
Producing Organization
WSIU 8 (Television station : Carbondale, Ill.)
Southern Illinois University at Carbondale
Contributing Organization
University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
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Episode Description
The program focuses on the writings of Roberto de Oliveira Campos.
Series Description
A series of comment and analysis about current affairs in Latin American countries.
Global Affairs
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Host: Gardiner, C. Harvey (Clinton Harvey)
Producing Organization: WSIU 8 (Television station : Carbondale, Ill.)
Producing Organization: Southern Illinois University at Carbondale
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 68-3-9 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:13:18
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Chicago: “Latin American perspectives; Roberto de Oliveira Campos,” 1968-02-01, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed February 4, 2023,
MLA: “Latin American perspectives; Roberto de Oliveira Campos.” 1968-02-01. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. February 4, 2023. <>.
APA: Latin American perspectives; Roberto de Oliveira Campos. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from