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Mark you're meant to service. The American hospital supply where. 1943. A plane an American flying fortress over an enemy target. Way from. What I sang was. Not. The way. Michael Jackson I want to.
Relax he said. Yeah. That's what the man says and what he didn't say how did a. Man there. Last. Night going to reach down anywhere and grab a red hot iron. Home when there. Was no way I was a great deal more here than there was to. Run from here on I am. Very sure that. Milk or. Rather. My bro agence gone. The American hospital supply corporation presents as a public service march of
Madison drama to stations of Great Moments in medical history. Our story for today. The hard way back. Paul Barnes speaking so Arjan Bill Evans was a gunner in one of those remarkable old workhorses of World War 2 the B-17 the Flying Fortress. He got through 35 missions without a scratch. On the 36. And he aircraft fire what they called flak in those days. Put one too many holes in the engines and the plane dived into the middle of the English Channel. Sergeant Evans later rode home. When I came to I was in an air raid rescue him the navigator and the new tail gunner had pulled me onto a rubber life raft. I guess that kept me floating too. Sure was unable to kick around much. He said we're only human. Water about 20 minutes before they pick it up. Well. I guess I can't tell you where
my right leg is in a cast up to my hip and I don't know how much damage I've really got it's enough. Don't worry I'm alive. Making out all right. I imagine they'll keep me here a while and then send me back to the states for my discharge. How do you know we made it. Mitchell feel Long Island. You're back home Sergeant and now. You feel alright. Yeah I guess. Tell you the truth lieutenant. I'm a little nervous about flying you know what after how many missions. It was the last one that scared me. When do I get my discharge. According to your orders you're bound for the Army Air Force convalescent hospital Pawling New York. Brother Ward. We'll all tell you Sergeant. When the Army got to you were a nice
shiny new civilian. We don't like to return you all beat up and shopworn. So this hospital is going to give me a new leg all shiny and new. That may be kind of a problem lieutenant. You don't have to tell me Sergeant I'm an Army nurse have seen a lot of shot up soldiers. I guess you have at that. So who are you kidding. Not you Sergeant. Delayed me not to. Tell you the truth. I guess we don't know enough about how to help people like you who have been hurt. But we try sergeant. We try. You go up to Pawling and you'll see. There was a reason why they tried a reason why the whole force of American effort was behind the rehabilitation of disabled servicemen during those war years.
It is expressed in a letter from the president the Honorable Henry L. Stimson Secretary of War. Washington D.C.. My dear Mr. Secretary. I am deeply concerned over the physical and emotional condition. Of the disabled man returning from the wall. I feel as I know you do. That the ultimate ought to be done for them to return them as useful citizens useful not only to themselves but to the community. I wish you would issue instructions to the effect that it should be the responsibility of the military authorities to winge your that no overseas casualty is discharged from the forces and only has received the maximum benefits of hospitalization and convalescent facilities. Which must include physical. And psychological rehabilitation Vocational Guidance evocation old
training and re socialization. Very sincerely yours Franklin Delano Roosevelt. So the reason why Sergeant Bill Evans wasn't simply made civilian Bill Evans a cripple. Was the directive of Franklin Delano Roosevelt who had had a good deal of personal experience with disability. At the first rehabilitation didn't please Bill Evans very much. Now listen tack. Let's not kid her. When I came in here you said you were my personal doctor like my family doctor. And that's right Bill. Well now you know and I know that's a lot of and I look back. Why don't you just send me home. I had brain experts guys to teach me how to walk. And Doc I know I'm no good to the Air Force. So send me on Bill. Bill you flew a lot of missions and you were badly hurt on the last one. I don't think there's anyone including the president would say that you haven't done enough for your country. You've
done more than enough. Now if you want to go home to where you are all right all right I think I can get your release right away. The way you are Bill. You're right. You no good to the Air Force. You know Jack you want to. Kind of lay it on the line don't you. Sometimes I have to bill. I'm doing it now. You want out right say so. But if you want to take the hard way stay here. I'd say give us about three months of rehabilitation and you might not be as useless as you think. While back I got my orders this morning. Did you know what are they. Right back where I came from European theater. You don't sound happy. I don't like wars that's all. Who does. Cheer up Jack. Sure
I could get all busted up in another plane crash or get my head shot off in a raid over Berlin but I could also trip over the stairs outside here and break my neck. It doesn't matter what is important is it. I came in here useless. A cripple. You told me if I wanted to stay I might be useful again. So I stayed. And went through all the exercises all the whole business. Physical therapy everybody said rehabilitation they said so you stayed. So I stayed. And. The great thing is. I'm useful again. Hi this is Dick Coleman speaking. I've been asked to learn a little about the field of physical medicine so that I could urge you to find out about possible careers in this field Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation of professional medical effort to
make the consequences of illness and injury less crippling. There are some kinds of damage to the human body that so far can't be cured. Suppose you lose an arm and a leg. Suppose that you suffer a paralytic stroke. Suppose that you have a child whose brain is damaged from birth. No one can turn the clock back and make this sort of damage disappear. But the specialists and the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation doctors nurses therapists social workers and counselors can and do provide the careful sensitive direction and teaching and treatment which will one day allow the injured a sick person to work again to be part of his family and part of his community. There are at least half a dozen separate specialties in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. I think you might be interested in learning more about them. If you are your name an address on a postcard addressed to health careers P.O. Box four twenty seven Evanston Illinois. We'll bring you all the information you need. The I.
Am. Kolbein speaking of. Physical therapy occupational therapy speech therapy and related fields are old and yet new. Well-known and widely practiced in ancient medicine. In recent times two world wars revealed their importance and now. But to tell you about some of these special medical fields. Here is our guest. I'm Dr. Henry Betts medical director of the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. And assistant professor at Northwestern University Medical School. In the United States entered the First World War in 1917. The field of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation was nonexistent. The few doctors who used exercises and similar techniques to recondition and to re-educate injured and crippled patients were thought by many of their colleagues to be somewhat eccentric.
The terrible injuries of war really forced into being a new technical skill known as physical therapy. And in the early 1920s the American Congress of physical therapy was founded in. World War 2 which imposed an infinitely greater strain on the health resources of the nation. Forced doctors medical researchers and para medical personnel to create a new field of medical specialization which came to be called physical medicine now known as rehabilitation medicine. Since 1946 a doctor specializing in physical medicine has been known as a priest. Even today there are not many of these specialists practicing the latest figure being 597. Certainly there are not enough to meet the constantly increasing demand for their services. The physiatrist is essentially concerned more with the consequences of disease than its basic biology. Businesses to try to restore as patient a full functioning
after the amputation after the crippling stroke after the first crises have been passed. It is a particularly rewarding field in the man who practices in it may hopefully at the end of his career look back to see that he was a pioneer in the field far larger and more vital to society than it was when he first entered it. Thank you. When the United States entered the war against Germany in 1917 millions of lives were suddenly disrupted. Thousands volunteered for duty although thousands were drafted a rather unusual draft brought a Boston physician Dr. Frank Granger into the presence of a distinguished American general. Going through was excited but a little puzzled. Granger you don't know why I ask you here do you know I don't. I'll tell you why. I understand you've been practicing something you called physical
therapy physiotherapy or something like that on your patients. That's right. And then see if I understand what to do. Now. Say a bone has been broken or there's a bad rule and say it's all healed up but the patient is still crippled. You use massage or special exercises and so on do we tell them to reeducate him to rehabilitate him. That is correct general. Well I must say I'm surprised that's what many of my medical colleagues are pretty distrustful of my notions of physical therapy. They think it isn't really medicine. I suspect a good many of them don't know as much about the subject as you seem to. General doctor that might be just the case. I've been in the Army a long time and I've seen a lot of injuries a lot of broken bones. I tell you something doctor and you know sometimes the hardest part of getting a man fit for duty comes after his wounds have officially healed. That's why I ask you
to come here. I see. We're going to France with a lot of men Dr. Granger. We're going to hit hard we're going to hit fast. There will be a lot of casualties. If a wounded man can be made fit for duty again I want that done as quickly as officially as possible. If he can't i want him to have the best treatment we can give before he goes back to his family. Do you follow me. Yes sir. I think your physical therapy has to be part of our effort. You can have entire charge of that program both here and abroad. Now this is a draft Dr. Granger. Will you accept it. And in due time Dr. Frank Granger had another interview with the general who had drafted him. Well good to see you again Dr. Granger Thank you sir. I don't suppose our paths will cross again so I wanted to see you before it's
all over. It's hard to believe and it's all over for us. Get the boys home. Little occupation duty. But the rest is up to the politicians. I hope they know what they're doing. So do I. General. When you've done you a bit ducked in. A real fine service. I'm writing a letter but I had I wanted to tell you personally. Well thank you. We learned a great deal. The only decent thing about wars that I can say is I make you work hard and they make you learn fast. You'll be going back home now. Yes sir. You know we plan to carry on your physical therapy and Army hospitals doctor. Yes I do. I'm. Glad of it. You are going to work with civilians now. Well. They get her to you know. And yes. Of course. Granger The president wanted me to express his thanks. You know how I feel. Good. Grange.
Good luck. Hi this is Dick calling and again talking about careers in the rehabilitation field. Do you have any idea how many special individual professions there are in this new and fascinating field. Would you believe nine. Well there may be more by now but nine is a pretty good number to begin with. First there's the physiatrist. He's a doctor who specialized in rehabilitation and physical medicine techniques. Second a rehabilitation nurse. Third a physical therapist fourth an occupational therapist fifth a social worker six psychologists seventh a vocational counsellor eighth a rehabilitation counsellor a speech therapist. Well there are all these highly trained people most of them with college degrees or at least a good deal of special professional training. So where does that leave somebody who
can't afford the time with the money at least right now for this sort of training. The answer is that the demand for rehabilitation specialists is so great that there is room for AIDS and all of these specialties occupational therapy physical therapy social work psychology the training for an AIDS job isn't nearly so expensive or time consuming. And yet the rewards are really great. There is a desperate desperate need for both physical and occupational therapist. Why don't you find out about these health careers. And the. Nickname. In 1921 in a meeting room in New York City the first step was taken to turn physical therapy into a true profession a specialty in the medical field. Other professional societies were organized as more and more rehabilitation specialties
develop occupational therapy psychiatric therapy therapy for the deaf. Speech therapy. Through yet another war. The field of patient rehabilitation grew. Very often it grew through ingenuity and hard work. A case in point. A county home for the disabled. Somewhere near Pittsburgh Pennsylvania. Welcome back Lawrence. I hope you learned something. Oh you bet I did but. But what. Well Dr. Hamill look. I guess this whole thing is my fault. I asked for the job here I was the guy who worked with physical rehabilitation in the Navy. I was the one that suggested it was the guy who agreed with you. Remember. We've got over a thousand patients here and I think some of them could go back home. Even go back to work if we had a good rehabilitation program. And then the guy who would you send to New York for a good course in how to do it. So what did you learn. Equipment doctor I learned equipment exercise machines parallel bars gymnasium match. Where in the world can we get all.
You served in the Navy my boy. So you know I don't know that a good commanding officer never bothers about that too. Equipment in this case is detailed so I'm telling that little problem over to you. Well Lawrence seem to solve your problem pretty well. And as time i so this rule it was pretty big and now it's clear he quipped I'm guessing. That the childer exerciser over there. Made from the wheel from an old wheelchair gymnasium laps old mattresses recovered very good very good. And avoided all these other devices come from the doctor Hamel don't ask. There's a broken down bicycle in there somewhere. And as for the springs and wheels. I just hope they were come by honestly. Oh no don't do NO NO NO NO sure not entirely. I started my color
stuff but. Most of it was put together by a patient. I've got the material for your first report to the county doctor Hammam room and I already know what some of it will be. And I have seen some of the paralyzed patients look pretty chipper don't they get out of bed. They can move. They can care for themselves. Now I tell you let's hear about you apprise cases rights cases yesterday. Number one 57 year old man both legs amputated wheelchair case. He once had artificial legs but he didn't know how to use them. He walked out of here has a job now with the railroad and had bad and bad is right. Spectacular is more the word. Here's another. Girl paralyzed bedridden for four years. She's walking now with
crutches McCain with walking. Or maybe like this one man one time auto mechanic his legs paralyzed. He was supposed to stay in bed the rest of his life a ward of the county and I didn't want to spoil it to please you and telling me all this but so now you know now he's back at work. Is that good. It's an easier life here at the hospital and I want to make these into jokes when you're reporting would you. Yes or I remember and I'm sure you'll remember it. Oh right. Put people back to work. The important thing is though that these people can move. They can take care of themselves. They're human beings again. They have dignity. And other methods of rehabilitation and came into being sometimes almost by accident
and sometimes with the most desperate and bitter cases. Johnny. Johnny Well I just stop to say goodbye. You're leaving home. You get now as you write. I made it. Well so goodbye. I didn't mean to make you mad Jenny. I was lucky. You managed to get me back on my feet but that doesn't mean you have to lie here the rest of your life. I'll have you up and around again. Just wait. You'll be getting that. But there are other ways of getting out. There are other ways to victory. And in this case an occupational therapist found one of them. So yesterday the whole neighborhood was nutty really full of characters and wonderful Jadick. You know. We should really write about them. Come on. Well they make a wonderful book. Your kids. If you can talk about them you can write about them or can't you're all right
or me. Listen I got thrown out of school Johnny tell me the truth. Didn't you ever think about writing. Well. It's silly but. You know being paralyzed. I thought the other day if you were a writer. It wouldn't be so bad being paralyzed. It could just think of things to say. Johnny I'm going to bring you paper and pencil whatever you need. And you do me a favor. Write down your neighborhood for me. Hi this is Dick call me once more talking about careers and physical rehabilitation and medicine. Now I don't know a great deal about medicine or what I guess they call the power of medical specialties like occupational therapy medical social work and so on.
But I do think that anyone who likes people likes to work with people could find a wonderful professional life for himself in the field of rehabilitation. I just think you deal with both the very old in the very young and all the ages in between your patients or people who have to struggle against a crippling disability of one kind or another. Inability to walk to move freely to speak. And obviously there are people with courage and a will to live or they wouldn't be struggling at all. And you. Your job is to help them physically psychologically socially to help them find their way back into the world of everyday life. Where they can function as free and normal individuals once more. Now isn't that the kind of career anybody could be proud of. Especially you know young men. Why don't you ask about it. But ya. Know A.
Physical therapy occupational therapy the whole field of effort devoted to the retraining of the Handicapped of those who have been hurt. It is an inspiring story. And one much too complicated to try to tell here. But whether we think of children injured and. Or soldiers injured in war. The words of Edwin L. Boortz one time president of the American Medical Association. Our approach. To society which fosters research to save you cannot escape the responsibility of the life that's extended. It is for science to add years to life. But more important. To add life to you. MARCH OF MADISON drama positions of great moments in medical history a
march of medicine is presented as a public service by the American hospital supply corporation appearing on today's program where Paul Barnes Russ Reid always comr Norman got to talk to Bill Gretzky and Ron McAdams. This is Mark Maloney speaking. Authentication for research on this program was provided by the research division of Encyclopedia Britannica. If you wish to receive a copy of the script for this program or information on careers in health and medicine Please send your name and address on a postcard to health career whose post office box four to seven. Evanston Illinois.
This program was distributed by national educational radio. This is national educational radio network.
Man and the multitude
John Kenneth Galbraith, part one
Producing Organization
University of Illinois
WILL Illinois Public Media
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University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
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Episode Description
This program presents the first part of a lecture by John Kenneth Galbraith, professor of economics, Harvard University, on "Individual and Organization in the Industrial State."
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A lecture series commemorating the centennial of the University of Illinois.
Politics and Government
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Producing Organization: University of Illinois
Producing Organization: WILL Illinois Public Media
Speaker: Galbraith, John Kenneth, 1908-2006
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University of Maryland
Identifier: 67-41-1 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:29:09
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Chicago: “Man and the multitude; John Kenneth Galbraith, part one,” 1967-09-08, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed October 5, 2023,
MLA: “Man and the multitude; John Kenneth Galbraith, part one.” 1967-09-08. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. October 5, 2023. <>.
APA: Man and the multitude; John Kenneth Galbraith, part one. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from