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The following program is produced under a grant in aid from the educational radio and television center and is distributed through the National Association of educational broadcasters and the University of Michigan proudly presents one nation indivisible. Self Determination Home Rule independence. Sovereignty. These are the catch words of one of the most powerful forces on march in the world today. Words which symbolize the desire of people everywhere. To be masters of their own political destiny. This is our story. The story of nationalism in the twentieth century. Told in a series of 13 radio
documents created by the broadcasting service of the University of Michigan. And now. One nation indivisible. South Seas Java and Borneo celebrate is the glamorous ballet and the luck of the day these islands are bound together as the Republic of Indonesia stretching far across the Pacific they have the official motto unity out of diversity. For centuries these islands were known as the East Indies and here on the island of Java long before the Europeans game arose the legend of the Savior the just and glorious one the great prince the legend began with the prophecies of an ancient king of job a king a Hindu mystic of the fourteenth century. And it shall come to pass that my people will enter upon a long and
then they will be subjugated by people with white skin all will come from beyond the sea. And after the right. Then we shall be a yellow race and only after that we become free. Whatever the heck the world will see a great prince or the prince rather than a free people. Thus in job began the legend of the principal operator throughout the East Indies similar legends have been popular and in modern Indonesia the ancient ideal of liberation and the growing spirit of Western type nationalism marched together as a result. Indonesia has created a strange spasmodic form of nationalism. This spirit has been like the typhoon which whirls out of the sea for a brief violent moment and then blows away. Historically Indonesia has moments of greatness were created while kings and princes sought personal power.
Early in the eleventh century Prince added a united and eastern Java under his benevolent rule. Upon his death. This Union fell into fragments. Two hundred years later the same area was united runs more under King and rock. And then the west murdered once more it fell apart. The strongest government I've heard in times was the Magic Kingdom established by Prince. Under the kingdom. Many of the three thousand islands of modern Indonesia were united for the first time. But in less than 100 years the kingdom dissolved. Soon after the first part of your body was and privacy came true. Right manner right from far beyond the scenes and took control of the island.
The Dutch sailors had arrived in Java Samatra Borneo and the other islands in search of trade. They stayed on to become columnists and Westerners began to make changes. One of the most controversial menace introduced by the Dutch was the so-called Cardiff agent system. In theory one fifth of each family's land could be controlled by the colonial government. But in actual practice once one half even the entire crop could be taken the Dutch root both the farmer and his land. On some occasions need different agents and native rulers threaten to hamper the commercial value of the islands. When I did the Dutch seized control of the kingdoms and Sultan AIDS and ran them to suit themselves they put taxes on food on the shingles for houses and children even on campuses being readied for burial.
The Indonesians found that they had become a subjugated people with no voice in their own affairs. In many other countries this could have led to revolution but not in Indonesia. The islanders accepted life as it was. They offered no resistance no complaints. They still awaited the legendary era to cross and this time prince came. He appeared in Central Java early in the 1980s and became an angry thorn jabbing at the Dutch administrators. His name deepened I'll go. And I encountered that when I go in 1825 while I was military aid to the Dutch resident general I thought you attacked it going commercial ways and as we have decided to build a road the length Batavia with a native capital of Jogjakarta where we maintain a small force in the world was to pass through the estates of one snippet of God whom we knew to be somewhat theirs affected toward the administration. We have prevented him from taking the phone of his father and had selected
instead a four year old nephew was somewhat more amenable to our ideas of government. When I would build those weak sister I tell you they discovered they were the go ahead by the Japanese and the way it was a declaration of war. The Dutch assembled an army of 900 soldiers and plunged into the jungle to attack the prince. But when they came to depend on a quarter as a state the native soldiers deserted rumors were throbbing across the island at the legendary opera and the very real deep in the Gautreaux were one and the same. Shortly the military aide reported to the governor. I find that it has caused the turmoil he is leading a band of vagabonds and criminals. The peaceful elements of the populace are forced to flee so deep in the Gautreaux success blossomed into the great job a war which raged through the island for five agonizing years.
The first typhoon of nationalism to strike the present Indonesia when it looked like the war might go on for ever. The Dutch set a fine present to deepen a goto and invited him to a party. Clap was carefully constructed and the governor fell into it like a fly on the second day. We quietly surrounded without troops and the rest at him. Then we exiled him to where he died 25 years later. With the capture of deep on the Gautreaux rebellion in Java was crushed. Although it continued for as long as 50 years and some ultra late 19th century social reforms resulting from a Dutch written constitution helped reduce many of the abuses of which the Indonesians had been vaguely aware. But these reforms emerged not from Indonesian demands but from Dutch conscience as well as pressure from other colonial countries. In 1899 the Dutch writer and her published an article titled A debt of honor in which he said we have extracted many millions of guilders from the Indonesian
islands. We have gained high profits from our investments in those islands and their products. It is time we repay the Indonesians for the profit they permitted us. We can repay them best by giving them an education. The debt of honor had strong effect on another lenders and was partly responsible for the government's recognition in one thousand one of the moral duty of the Netherlands towards the people of the Indies. Education for Indonesians had modest beginnings but by the start of the 20th century it did get underway and with it appeared a tiny ingredient of Indonesian nationalism. It was formed in an organization called Buddhi. The program of the time organization is essentially political. It cause for the development of both traditional and Western education among the people of Java and Madura. It strives for the Advancement of agriculture industry and commerce and everything that we are guarantee is the life of a dignified people
at the time no one noticed that the aims of beauty were actually nationalistic. We can only see it after the passage of half a century. A few years later in one thousand eleven a second movement got underway and quickly overshadowed the first. This was Saturday. It was the first politically based Indonesian nationalist movement. It exploded upon the scene with the suddenness and force which astonished not only the Dutch but many Indonesians. There was a peculiar split personality in this movement brought about by necessity. Government regulation 111 absolutely for bad any organization of a political character. Therefore the official program of standard Islam was quite innocuous to promote commerce among Indonesians. For support members encounter economic difficulties and to promote the
material interests of Indonesians under the facade however lived a bold and nationalistic determination. Much of Indonesia's economy lay in the hands of Chinese merchants. Chinese money lenders and Chinese entrepreneur has ordered a boycott against all Chinese and a programme of political action got underway. This movement promised to become the rallying point for all Indonesians and one of the leaders explained that the US is already existed in the hearts of our people before it was ever established. Our movement is not limited to model and economic affairs but seeks to provide the justice which our people have never yet found elsewhere. After World War One communist infiltration and interparty conflict fractured the energies of separate Islam and during its period of rebuilding and reassessment the modern day prince began to arise. Amanda fulfilled a legend.
This man was Doctor Akhmed Sukarno Sukarno had an engineering degree from Bandung Technical College. He had both Islamic and Western education in the 1920s. He began taking an active part in Indonesian political groups in 1927 Sukarno became chairman of the newly formed nationalist party of Indonesia the Nationalist Party. It was an out and out programme dedicated to complete independence for Indonesia. Economic as well as political body in our language. Indonesia emphasized the unity of the Nation Peoples and it is an attitude of non-cooperation with the Dutch. These were spirited years in Indonesia several political groups took shape with varying platforms and goals. Among them was an independence group called America. Two leaders of this organization would later become prominent in the Republic
suit on Schreiber and Dr. Mohamad Chatah. But in September 930 Sukarno and seven top leaders of the Nationalist Party were sentenced to prison terms and early in 1034 leaders of the medica were exiled to New Guinea. Once again the Indonesians came firmly under Dutch rule. Popular uprisings there were nine waves of public indignation. They were suppressed. The Indonesians continued producing their body their copra and rice. The typhoon of open rebellion again had blown itself out of the underground organization continue to exist. But meanwhile in the northern Pacific another and different typhoon was gathering ominously it build up and go and hunt you in the headquarters of the Imperial Japanese Army and Navy. Let this typhoon strike Indonesia and the land would never be the same. In 1041 that northern typhoon soon lodged its fury out across the Pacific it
struck Pearl Harbor Manila its web southward along the Asian mainland it devastated South China Malaya. Then it came to the Andes air raid struck the British oilfields in sorrow and North Borneo. Planes wearing the red ball of the rising sun flew into zombies and some drug. Raid January 1042 Governor-General a full month Dutch administrator for the Indies pledges a scorched earth policy of Japanese troops attempted land on Java a Japanese answer by urging the Indonesians to join the East Asia Co-Prosperity spare and to throw out the Dutch. Meanwhile the planes at Tun June Ramona upon on January 20th they strike Java on March 1st troop transports lined a Japanese army at three points along the Java coast. They brush aside the Dutch forces and swoop down on the major cities of Bandung and Batavia at 7:55 p.m. March 7th.
This message comes over a radio band on Fox and I said Yes thank you. It's expected to begin at 11 o'clock the next morning this announcement came from the Japanese overseas broadcasting station in Tokyo. I landed at the Java area after defeating and I mean waitstaff Yes that company to the office by the enemy said. The commander of the invasion forces was Lieutenant General even more. Seventy two hours after the occupation of Batavia and Bandung general even more I made this announcement to the Indonesian people. Your local laws are going to remain valid way but they do not interfere with the military other ministration over the Japanese army underneath all respect to be shown for your lives and your personal property. The currency would be that you got to do what you do and the Japanese military script.
We aim at the right way to reach the ration of peace order and the normal condition on the principle of a coexistence and prosperity for all. And so the new order arrived in Indonesia to Japan. Indonesia was simply a strategic position supplied Apple for the conduct of the war. But it suited them to play the role of the liver who had released these Arden's from Dr oppression and perhaps unknowingly. Japan began dropping fuel on the dying embers of Indonesian nationalism. This is Bryce van sack of the University of Michigan. How the Japanese revitalized the national spirit of Indonesia makes a fascinating tale. There was no great major event that did it but an accumulation of little things. At least I'm sure they looked a little at the time. For example a few weeks after the conquest of Java the Japanese released Sukarno and harder from jail and placed them in positions to help administer the country. Japan was in the throes of ultra nationalism at this time and therefore it was natural for the Japanese to seek
out and to encourage nationalist sentiment in the islands. For instance they prohibited the use of the Dutch language for the first time in modern history the Indonesian language was used for the administration of government. Japan then went on to organize one large all inclusive Islamic group. The organization itself was effective but the purpose was somewhat upset when the Japanese recommended that they perform their daily prayers facing Tokyo rather than Mecca. And finally Tokyo gave a powerful stimulus to the Indonesian leaders. They promised to grant the power of self-government in the future by the middle of 1944 the allied forces were counterattacking all over the Pacific theater of war to delay the inevitable. Japan desperately needed allies people a strongly independent and nationalistic as Japan itself. So on January 3rd one thousand forty five Japanese military headquarters in Indonesia
issued this announcement. The Army will immediately reinforce the following may improve by region for the independence of the East India is run in kind of gave this bit of a nudge knows if it will do things that actually the person that is to become future leaders of the nation. On March 1st the Japanese established the committee of investigation for Indonesian independence. Among the 60 members of this committee were Sukarno and at the first meeting Sukarno delivered a speech stating his ideas for freedom. There are five basic principles upon which the new order of Indonesia is to be bonded. These are belief in God humanism. Indonesian nationalism concept or democracy and social prosperity. But Tokyo was reaching the end of its rope B-29 we're now rating at will over the home islands an atomic bomb eliminated Hiroshima 2 days later Gen. Taro CI commander of Japanese forces in Southeast Asia summoned Indonesian
leaders and ordered them to take the final step by order of the Japanese public will be granted its independence on all of us the 24th in preparation for this event. You would have made as an official assembly. Oh yes the 19th to finish your constitution and ratify it. The island's political leaders felt however that the proclamation of the republic should be made by the Indonesians themselves at a time of their own choosing and not by order of the Imperial Japanese Army. Already in the world. Quivered with rumors that a surrender message was working its way through diplomatic channels at a house in Jakarta on the night of August 16th Sukarno and had discussed the independence proclamation while outside one of the monsoon storms crackled over the city. How can we believe anything based on rumors. No mistake action on that I'm sure of the Sukarno public sentiment
favors an immediate proclamation based on these rumors we're hearing. No I prefer to wait until we can be more sure of our ground. Did you hear that the door must have blown open in the wind the wind doesn't stretch to somebody and or the host. It's official now it's been on all the shortwave radio and has surrendered the message reach Washington and London a few hours ago we had people watching the Japanese headquarters. All our lights are on and they're burning papers. It's true all right. You didn't come up here in this storm just to tell us that. We came as delegates of the Student Union doctor said we must have that proclamation now we insist on. You just can't dash off a proclamation of Independence. The whole future of Indonesia depends on careful and thoughtful work on such a document or maybe no future for Indonesia unless you do it now. How do you think it will be doctors the carno the Dutch will be returning in a few hours a few days at the most. I'll be back shouting God Save the Queen and business as usual and it is even more imperative that we declare our independence before the Japanese army does so and that's what
they will try to do. They've surrendered we've made many mistakes in the past independence times and then died through lack of careful planning just as often it has died through lack of action in moments of crisis. We have no time for careful planning now. We must have a proclamation of Independence. This is not guns will be a weapon against the Dutch. All right what do you think I should do. Take this pen. I sit down and write that proclamation throughout that night of August 16th one thousand forty five. Sukarno and Hart are perform their labors in a state of semi captivity. Early the next morning before a small crowd had gathered outside the house a proclamation was read for the first time. We the peoples of Indonesia herewith proclaim the independence of Indonesia all matters connected with the transfer of power will be carried out effectively and in the shortest possible time. The next day employees in the government offices and bureaus declare their allegiance to the new leaders. Sukarno as president then announced.
We hereby declare that the establishment of the Republic of Indonesia as required by the whole nation is being carried out effectively. All who are ready to account for their deeds toward the nation are assisting in their ass. What we think necessary is for the establishment of the state of independent Indonesia is being carried out and will be finished within a short time. But a simple declaration by Sukarno would not make Indonesia into a functioning independent republic. There were many hurdles ahead and one of the greatest was the iron headed determination of the Dutch to pick up the reins of colonial government where they had been dropped in 1942 when the Japanese conquered the islands. When the Dutch returned after World War Two guerrilla fighting erupted all over the islands between Dutch and Indonesians. Then there were conferences long exhausting interminable conferences. There was a conference at Denpasar and Bally in 1046 And finally there was a crucial roundtable conference at The Hague in 1949 under United Nations auspices. Then on December
27 one thousand forty nine. Both parties signed an agreement recognizing the independence of Indonesia. But recognition of independent status is only the beginning. Consider some of the problems the New Republic faces. Our country is comprised of three thousand islands brought thousands of miles across the South Pacific. There's the constant problem of communication. I've never had an adequate education in the US so they were honest and right in the island in foreign problem stuff. Government under the Dutch and the Japanese.
We had no opportunity to gain experience in government at the station. All important post put out by foreigners. The population of Indonesia is extremely unbalanced. It's out of just the most overpopulated by the other and so much of a competitive underslept. Brother in law to come in and is now the official language but much remains to be done to broaden its modern. And there is still the problem of interest in our territory. The most violent disagreement between a true country is the question which you know as Western critics and it has been submitted to the United Nations
time and again without settlement. On the official Indonesian coat of arms appears this motto Be tongue unity out of diversity. This is not an accomplishment but a goal toward which they strive and it is this all important matter of diversity which makes Indonesia unique in our story of modern nationalism. For physically and politically. Indonesia is a nation but it does not yet have that cohesive national spirit which glues a nation together. Not long ago. Sukarno pointed out that political independence was only the first step. In his speech accepting an honorary degree from the University of Michigan. Sukarno said this bill is now open for us to continue the expansion of democracy. After all the mockery is not just the method of parliament but also a method of social and economic
justice. Oh it is now to ensure that 80 million of our people are able to have fathomed share of those things. Their struggle for national independence. Let's not basically for the national parliament. Our silent government those are big necessary steps necessary steps to the complete political social and economic and mention Beijing of the Indonesian people from the colonial balance which have hampered and impeded them for so long. Having achieved political freedom what evolution will continue and the economic and social progress brings more perfect liberty and the right to pursue happiness. Yes this is the story of Indonesia and infant Republic Hopefully my fumbling with its first real experience with nationalism. One nation indivisible. One of a series of 13 radio
documents on nationalism in the twentieth century. Resource advisor for this program was Mr. Bryce van scion of the faculty of the University of Michigan. The program was written by Rene going on and Edited by William Bender Jr. The narrator was Lou Hamers included in the cast were Indonesian students attending the University of Michigan and members of the WUOM radio guild. The program was directed by Williams Duggan and was produced and transcribed by the broadcasting service of the University of Michigan. One nation indivisible is produced under a grant and aid from the educational radio and television center and is distributed through the National Association of educational broadcasters.
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One nation indivisible
Producing Organization
University of Michigan
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University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
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Episode Description
Indonesia: An island republic attempts to unify its disparate elements under the banner of anti-colonialism. Features Achmed Sukarno, president of Indonesia.
Series Description
A documentary series about nationalism in the 20th century.
Broadcast Date
Global Affairs
Politics and Government
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Narrator: Hemmers, Lou
Producing Organization: University of Michigan
Speaker: Soekarno, 1901-1970
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 58-17-11 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:29:14
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Chicago: “One nation indivisible; Indonesia,” 1958-01-01, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed April 21, 2024,
MLA: “One nation indivisible; Indonesia.” 1958-01-01. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. April 21, 2024. <>.
APA: One nation indivisible; Indonesia. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from