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The electricity was put to good use by mankind long before anyone could answer this question. What is electricity George no one knows what electricity is Randolph. Throw the switch. Couldn't possibly. Why not because I don't know what electricity is. I am scientifically inclined and I prefer not to act until I know all the answers. We don't know enough about it. We know enough about it for our purposes. From experience. Throw the switch. Experience is not enough. We need full comprehension of all of us which roundoff or your fired. All right but it's highly unscientific. It almost isn't. Right. I have told you I'm good time's experience has taught it's extremely dangerous to touch a bare wire with one hand and a water pipe with the other. Nonsense I need full proof. It may have been the water pipe but not the wire. It may have been me and not the wire. Until we know what electricity is now who can say. I see no connection at all between this water pipe and that wire and a mythical something called electricity. No connection at all.
Now let me demonstrate that you get to actually round off OK. You know. Who. All of our foods were selected from among labor poisonous substances of the earth. My experience with data was long before they were analyzed chemically long before anyone knew the fine details about potatoes and how where and when they affect the human body and all its complex radio messages were received. Telephone bells rang and cars started lights lit before anyone came up with a final complete and absolute bliss. Ollie Turnell facts about cars radios telephones electricity and the processes involved in their operation. There is no complete comprehension now and there may never be. Thomas Alva Edison did not build the electric light bulb. Atom by
atom and molecule by molecule. Very little has been accomplished to this point in history by starting with molecules working out from there. It may be different someday but up to this point in history progress is still made primarily by the hot stove method. But your hand on the stove around it's cool right now but your hand on the other stove. It's hot isn't it. Never touch a hot stove Randolph. You don't need to know about the crystals in the metal of the stove or the chemistry of its paint or the bone structure of the human hand. In order to learn that hot stove is burned it isn't dry to great many materials for the filaments in light bulbs. The ones that burned out and went cold were obviously wrong. The ones that became incandescent and burned along became part of the first light bulb. The point is that
Edison was not doing basic research he was inventing the light bulb. He wasn't concerned with cause and effect. He was not asking how but what not how did that filament burn out but what material would not burn out not how does it happen but what happened. This is the hot stove method and it's quite scientific when properly used the hot stove method refined and controlled and regulated to a high degree has given us some of the most useful information about smoking as you shall see. Question mark a series of programs presenting information on Smoking and Health. These programs are produced by Radio station of the University of Wisconsin under a grant from the National Association of educational
broadcasters. Now program number three one. Basic research in the physical sciences has produced a washtub full of information toward the general human project filling in an ocean of ignorance. Research into the cells which make up the human body into their relationship with each other and the effect on them of food germs bugs dust moisture temperature all of the affects of environment on the body and all of these multiplied by time age and other circumstances as outlined in ocean of ignorance. Medical science has a pint bottle of that kind of information with which to administer another ocean of need. Pain and sickness. Need pain and sickness. Can't wait. As ignorance does.
Consequently medical scientists and medical men have for many years used the hot stove method for getting necessary information. Come back here rant off your should not go duck hunting with a bad cold Randolf. It works like this. I got a dot not deer. You also got a case of pneumonia when a doctor discovers that patients with colds tend to get well faster with rest lots of liquids and fruit juice and tend to get pneumonia if they take their colds to a wet duck blinds. He may communicate that fact to other doctors say through professional journals and if other doctors get the same results. If say 10000 doctors with 100 thousand patients get similar results and there's pretty good hot stove evidence that people with colds ought to stay in bed and drink lots of liquids and avoid
wet dock blinds Well anyway I got a doc and I almost got a lot of yeast. The hot stove method is simply collected experience the same method is often used with laboratory animals the experience of so many white rats with a drug for example under carefully controlled conditions produces useful information. Unfortunately the effects of cigarette smoking are related to time and intensity of smoking. There produced over a number of years. Furthermore cigarette smoke is not one pure drug. It's a great many substances combine and finally some of the substances in cigarette smoke have multiple widespread effects in the human body. These effects are related to the time a person has smoked and to the quantity he smoked modified by his physical condition and possibly among other things the place in which he
lives. This complicated picture needs to be remembered in general not in detail for a full understanding of the information we have about smoking. However it's not a picture of something that lends itself well to the day to day observations of regular medical practice. Consequently while cigarette smoking has been mildly suspect for a number of years it was picked up for questioning only recently and it's been in question most intensively by a hot stove method by a statistical study a method which can bring a large number of individual experiences into a meaningful relationship and which can compress time studies. In this country in England and Germany and several other countries. Studies of several different types have come up with similar answers by the hot stove method.
Put your hand on the stove roundoff outs start smoking roundoff and 20 years from now we'll see how you feel. Or to put it another way. You have been smoking for 20 years Randolph lets you know your physical condition compares with people who haven't smoked Well I'll tell you one thing. When I got a code and I got to shoot back I get pneumonia. Oh even if I shoot they big study that brought cigarette smoking under serious and sustained questioning was the Hammond and horn study for the American Cancer Society. Now that study included more than one hundred eighty eight thousand man. These are some of the results. The death rate for cigarette only smokers was 68 percent higher than for nonsmokers. That's right for up to one half pack a day smokers was 34 percent higher than for nonsmokers.
The death rate for two pack a day or more smokers was one hundred and twenty three percent higher than for nonsmokers. Death rate increased in proportion to the number of cigarettes smoked. As another method for expressing the conclusions reached in most of these studies. It's called the mortality ratio in these figures the number one represents the mortality ratio for men who've never smoked. It represents you might say the normal death rate the expected number of deaths a mortality ratio of two would indicate a death rate double the normal a man who smoked cigarettes only at a death rate 68 percent higher than the expected mortality ratio of one point sixty eight. That's the way mortality ratio works. But smokers had a mortality ratio of one point twelve. They are smokers had a mortality ratio of one point twenty two.
And who smoked cigarettes regularly and also smoked either or both pipes and cigars had a mortality ratio of one point forty three. In who smoked cigarettes only had a mortality ratio of one point sixty eight. And who never smoked had a mortality Racial of one. Man who smoked 1 2 9 cigarettes a day had a mortality ratio of one point three four. And who smoked 10 to 19 cigarettes a day at a mortality ratio of one point seven zero. And whose smoked twenty to thirty nine cigarettes a day had a mortality ratio of one point nine six. And men who smoke 40 or more cigarettes a day had a mortality ratio of two point to three. Death rates mortality ratio increases with the amount of
exposure to cigarette smoke and the death rate goes down for men who stop smoking it increases temporarily for the first year probably because many people don't stop until they're already sick but it decreases after the first year. The death rate from peptic ulcer was higher among cigarette smokers than among nonsmokers. The death rate from cirrhosis of the liver was significantly higher among cigarette smokers and there were other diseases which showed a significant association with cigarette smoking. The relationship of death rates for coronary artery disease expressed in terms of mortality ratios for nonsmokers the mortality ratio is one for a half pack a day smokers one point to nine or one half back to one pack a day smokers one point eighty nine for one to two packs a day smokers two point one five and two packs or more a
day. The mortality ratio for coronary artery disease is two point forty one. Death rates go up as the quantity of cigarette smoking increases death rates among cigarette smokers are higher for cirrhosis of the liver and peptic ulcer. They increased death rate from coronary artery disease is impressive but this does not mean that cigarette smoking causes coronary artery disease or peptic ulcer or cirrhosis of the liver it does mean that smokers have a higher death rate from these diseases. These figures compare well with other studies in the United States and studies in other countries said the Royal College of Physicians in England. Heavy Cigarette smoking may well contribute to the development of coronary heart disease as well as delay the healing of gastric and duodenal. Yeah but what about lung cancer lung cancer
never again cancer. Well that's the question for next week. Smoke is produced by a radio station WAGA at the University of Wisconsin under a grant from the National Association of educational broadcasters. Gripped by Milburn and Elizabeth Dunn. This is the end of the Radio Network.
Once burned, twice warned
Producing Organization
University of Wisconsin
WHA (Radio station : Madison, Wis.)
Contributing Organization
University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
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Episode Description
This program focuses on the increased death rate connected to smoking.
Series Description
Series on smoking and health; approved by the American Cancer Society.
Broadcast Date
Public Affairs
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Composer: Voegeli, Don
Producer: Schmidt, Karl
Producing Organization: University of Wisconsin
Producing Organization: WHA (Radio station : Madison, Wis.)
Writer: Carlson, Elizabeth
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 64-3-3 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:14:31
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Chicago: “Smoke?; Once burned, twice warned,” 1963-12-27, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed June 21, 2024,
MLA: “Smoke?; Once burned, twice warned.” 1963-12-27. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. June 21, 2024. <>.
APA: Smoke?; Once burned, twice warned. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from