The story of education; Hebraic education
Your Pacific University program today and in the broadcast to follow is based upon the story of education published by Chilton books in June 1962. Co author with your narrator was Dr. Eugene Mollusca and assistant superintendent in charge of teacher recruitment for the New York City Board of Education. By presenting these excerpts from our book The Story of education we are hoping that you are listening audience may be better able to understand the whys and wherefores of our own American schools. Our topic today he brake education he brake education mark the transition point between Oriental and Western systems for training of youth. Despite such efforts to exterminate them as massacres and ghettos of Eastern Europe and the Nazi gas chambers during World War Two adherence to strict religious and moral ideals During thirty five hundred year cultural development has preserved for the Jews a unity even though they have been widely dispersed over the face of
the earth. Of all the ancient peoples in the western world the Jews were the most literate. They were the only people of antiquity who attempted to teach everyone to read because of a moral discipline maintained almost entirely by education. The Jews alone remained to day a nationality. During biblical times and to a lesser extent even now. Jewish children were trained in habits of patriotism. Being a subject people throughout most of their history and thus enjoying political independence for only brief periods. The Jews constantly face the danger of losing their identity as a separate nationality. Such a fate was escaped even during periods of captivity when there was no place to call their own. Almost entirely because they used education to bind themselves together as a nation. Definitely planned as a product of their educational system. This patriotism was strengthened by ties of common race
common language and above all a common religion. Basic to break. Education was the introduction to the world of the monotheistic religious concept the belief in a one and only God. The Jews have always held a firm conviction that they are a chosen people to whom someday a messiah is to come. For the purpose of restoring them into God's favor a position they lost through their own faithlessness. The primary conditions for this restoration is holiness on their part. Thus the immediate purpose of all he break education is to teach the Jews to make holiness before the Lord. The aim of daily life. Under the influence of Moses is about fifteen hundred B.C. And later prophets first orally and then in written form rules and regulations for everyday living were developed and transmitted to the people as a Torah of the laws and Talmud. The interpretation. Thus ever since the time of Moses. It has been the purpose of the
break education to make faithful and obedient servants to a person living God. Both as an immediate means of assuring harmony and everyday civic life. And there is a path leading to a glorious future for the chosen people as in oriental religions the individual is still subject to external authority but with the Jews it is the authority of Jehovah and not of ancestor caste or state. Education is democratic. It is meant for everyone regardless of class. For all Jews must be educated. If the nation is to survive. The practice. Ostracize the ignorant man and thus by having him suffer civil disfranchisement make it highly undesirable for others to remain ignorant. The reasoning. If a man is ignorant he cannot be religious and to be otherwise is a detriment to the nation. The ancient Jews felt that education was deficient if it did not include the training of both the home and other schools.
As far back as biblical times they had made the formal education of words parallel the informal education of deeds. And analysis of e-brake education would probably place more importance on the home. The prime example of aristocracy of learning was found in ancient Egypt where the priestly class jealously kept to itself the privilege of investigation and study the common people were forbidden to learn to read the complicated Egyptian picture language which was regarded as sacred. However occasionally even a slave boy of exceptional ability found aristocratic patrons who educated him as is shown in the Bible story of Joseph. His people were Mesopotamians whom the Egyptians held in slavery several hundred years. When these Hebrews obtained their freedom. Possibly because of their appreciation of the long denied privileges of an education they became the earliest of the Mediterranean people to establish a system of universal education. That is education for all the
boys. One of the greatest contributions of the ancient Hebrews to civilization was giving to women a much higher position in society than ever before. Women were considered in the family as junior partners and not as slaves as in Oriental countries. Although the position of women was far better with the Jews and with their contemporary peoples in educational matters the females still did not count except in the informal training for domestic life as carried on in the home. Throughout all Jewish history. The mother has remained important in the training of girls. Within the family circle the father served not only as a patriarchal ruler but also his teacher with the wife sharing the burden of instruction. That this Jewish family education was definitely of high order. Undoubtedly it was due to the fact that the father possess such great powers and responsibilities and the training of his children and these duties were shared by the mother. Importance of the parents as
indicated in the injunction of the book of Proverbs. Quote My son here the instructions my father and forsake not the teaching of my mother unquote. The entire family was held responsible for the behavior and training of each of its members. A well bred child was considered a credit to his parents and one badly rared a source of shame. Formal education for the Jewish boy began in the school attacks of the synagogue when he was about 6 years of age. Isaiah had recommended that it begin at the time a child is when. The first objective in formal schooling was to achieve literacy and then to learn the Pentateuch which set forth the basic customs of the people. As in China. People shouted their lessons aloud. Schools lasted from dawn to dark and continued all year round except for religious holidays. Since the pirates and parchment were far too expensive for anything except finished writings People scratch
notes and compositions on tablets for white wax. The more brilliant older students were encouraged to search out the meanings of what they had learned. Provided of course they did not venture too far from the traditional beliefs of their fathers. Classes in Hebrew law and religious duties were conducted by a priest called scribes or penmen. It was quite common to see students clustered around famous priests and wise men under trees and on porches of public buildings. Asking and answering questions which centered mostly about philosophy and religion. The general firm discipline definitely found in the Jewish Home past and present usually creates a deep respect and a habitual obedience to elders at all age levels. Doubtless it has been this family discipline that accounts for the success of the Jews and surviving the many hardships and cruelties they have had to face. But especially an early Jewish history that's discipline in the schools was quite severe. The rod was a symbol of instruction as it had been with their early oppressors. The Egyptians.
Threw out the old testament our admonishments quote he despaired of his wrod his son but he that loveth him chasing him betimes. Unquote. And quote The rod and reproof give wisdom. But a child left to himself bringing his mother to shame. Unquote. However later Jewish methods became more temperate. As for example when the Talmud recommended that older people should not be compelled to undergo corporal punishment for fear of instilling a rebellious spirit within them. In similar vein the limitations set up by congenital downness were recognized in the admonishment not to punish such children because of their lack of capacity for learning and as much as punishment would have but little effect. Modern progressive education thought seems to have crept into the Talmud when it was directed that children be punished with one hand and caressed with two he break. Education had some very practical aspects especially the emphasis upon vocational training.
The duty of every father is to teach his son a trade manual labor is honorable and one should be an artisan as well as a scholar. Thus it can be better understood why Jesus Christ in his youth learned the carpentry trade. That was the customary educational practice of the time. However for physical training the Jews made little provision although the Mosaic law included some rules of hygiene and fathers were urged to teach the children to swim. Passing the age of adolescence among the Jews was celebrated by the boy becoming a son of a law. This transformation indicated that the youths father was no longer responsible for his conduct. That according to the law he now stood upon his own and was here after answerable for his own actions. Before elementary schools or the synagogue which started higher education already had been put upon an organized basis for the purpose of trading priests and scribes. Most important in the Hebrew curriculum was the learning of the Mosaic Law but it
became largely a matter of rote memory as schooling degenerated into a training and ritualistic observances. Tending to stifle spontaneity and initiate eve of Jewish students was the biblical injunction of Jehovah. Quote. What things soever I command you observe to do it unput under such restriction logically teaching methods became as barren and therefore a malady as in Oriental education. Understanding and appreciation of meaning were definitely subordinated to memorizing the exact word. Then came reformer's who saw the super officiality as such a system. The best known of course being Jesus. These later prophets set up a new goal for educational endeavor the deepening of religious insight and fervor However in later he brake education. This new and enlightened aim was seldom realized. The attention that most scribes continued to be devoted to the observance of formalized an institutionalized religious rights.
It is difficult to determine whether the outstanding type of education among the Hebrews was religious training or civic training. Religion was synonymous with patriotism. Jehovah was the God of Israel and loyalty to him was loyalty to the nation by teaching the children to obey the commandments of God. The greatness and glory of the nation was being preserved. This was also a moral training in its highest and best sense and that all customs and activities were directed toward the common welfare. Education was democratic and that all were trained upon an equal basis since all were equal before God. The Jews were the first to insist upon the education of the whole people and they were willing to establish schools for this purpose. The content of the brake education was fundamentally the history of the Jewish people and Jehovah's dealings with them the highest of qualifications were required for teaching.
Those allowed to teach. Were carefully selected and well trained and had to be of unquestionable moral caliber. Jews in America today as throughout their entire history are notably education conscious. As a group. They seem more anxious than the average is to take advantage of every opportunity to make the most possible out of their lives. According to Max very sensitive Jewish college students covering 1946. There were then 200000 Jewish college students in the United States and Canada. That number represented 9 percent of the total college enrollment. Even though several institutions of higher education had quota system drastically limiting Jewish enrollments. Bear pointed out there is a traditional drive for learning in the Jewish Home in which college is regarded as a natural educational goal of sons and daughters. It is quite a common sight to see a Jewish youth rising from a New York City public school to his home or
- The story of education
- Hebraic education
- Producing Organization
- KOAC (Radio station : Corvallis, Or.)
- Contributing Organization
- University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
- AAPB ID
- Episode Description
- This program focuses on Hebraic education and its influence on modern education.
- Series Description
- This series presents various excerpts from the book, "The Story of Education," which traces the evolution of education. The excerpts are read by the book's co-author, Dr. Carroll Atkinson.
- Broadcast Date
- Media type
Narrator: Atkinson, Carroll, 1896-1988
Producing Organization: KOAC (Radio station : Corvallis, Or.)
- AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 64-38-3 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
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- Chicago: “The story of education; Hebraic education,” 1964-11-10, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed November 28, 2022, http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-m9023h99.
- MLA: “The story of education; Hebraic education.” 1964-11-10. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. November 28, 2022. <http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-m9023h99>.
- APA: The story of education; Hebraic education. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-m9023h99