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A nest of singing birds. Three centuries of English verse were talked about from just. The Arcadian rhetoric the Arcadian rhetoric is the title of a work published apparently in April 15 88 by Abraham Franz. France was a lawyer who acted in amateur theatricals during the 18 years he spent in Cambridge and who became one of the men of letters in the circle around so Philip Sidney and his sister Mary Countess of Pembroke. They are Kantian rhetoric is a sort of textbook. It gives an account of the art of rhetoric. There's nothing unusual about that. What is unusual about France's book is that it contains examples of the figures and the tropes which he discusses which have been taken not only from imagine in great classics but from 16th century writings in Italian French and English. And imagine number of the English passages come from Safin upset me hence the title
The Arcadian rhetoric. Here is one of the illustrations which France takes from Sydney and as it happens this doesn't come from the Arcadia. It's the first quatrain of the first summit of Esther Phelan Stiller. We've heard it in an earlier program loving in truth and brain in verse. I love to show that she she might take some pleasure out of my pain pleasure might cause her to read. Reading might make her know knowledge might pity win and pity Grace obtain. And as I've observed in an earlier program in this passage Sidney communicates to us in the verbal organization of a series of steps. Pleasure pain pleasure read reading no
knowledge pity pity Grace. Loving in truth and pain in verse. I love to show that she dear she might take some pleasure out of my pain pleasure might cause her to read. Reading might make her know knowledge might pity Wayne and pity Grace obtain. I sought fit words to paint the blackest face of world studying inventions fine her wit to entertain after turning others leaves to see if the ends would flow some fresh and fruitful showers. Upon my sunburned brain. But words came halting for wandering inventions invention nature's child fled step Dame studies
blows and others feet still seemed but strangers in my way. Vance great with child to speak and helpless in my throes biting my truant pen beating myself for spite. So my muse to me looking via har at right. France defines this pattern climax as follows. Climax gradation is a radio play cation continued by diverse degrees and steps as it were of the same word or sound for these to be of one kind. Here is another example which we've also heard in earlier programs. The joyous birds crowded in cheerful shade their notes and to the voice a tempered sweet the angelic old soft trembling voice is made to the
instruments divine respondants the sober sounding instruments did meet with the base of the waters the waters with deference discreet now saw now loud unto the will call the gentle warbling way low and sorry to all who have seen my France used the adjective Arcadian in his title. He wanted to associate his work with a Philip Sidney's Arcadia. But what about rhetoric. What did he mean by that. In 16th century England by rhetoric men meant the art of combining verbal and non-verbal communication. They meant the training of the mind to Xpress itself in words with a similar train use training of voice and body to add non-verbal communication in the sound of voice and the appearance and movement of the face head body limbs hands.
In this program you can only hear not see actors. They can use only voice to communicate with you very flee from me. But sometime did me seek with naked for stalking in my chamber. I have seen the gentle take and me but now are wild and do not remember that some time they have put themselves in danger to take bread at my hand and now they re busily seeking with a continual chain. Thanks to a fortune it has been otherwise 20 times better but once in special in the array. After a pleasant guise when her loose Garland from her shoulders did fall and she caught in her
arms long and small. There was all sweetly did me kiss and softly said Dear heart how like you this. It was no dream. I lay broad waking but her nose turned to throw my gentleness into a strange fashion of forsaking and I have leave to go of her goodness. And she also to use new fangled mus. But since that I was so kindly moved I would fain know what she had to say. There is a B things use that as a goal Roman terms for non-verbal communication. Act your action and print out your pronunciation. Action could be used of voice and body combined all of body only and pronunciation was used to both body and voice and sometimes
voice only. How much is almost certainly referring to a voice only when he tells the first player to speak in a speech I pray you as I pronounced it to you. Trippingly upon the down. This may very well be the speech to which he refers. The speech of some dozen or sixteen lines which he gives to the actor to insert in the play. The matter of Gonzaga. This world is not far away. No it is not strange that even our lovers should with our fortunes change. What is a question left us yet to prove whether love lead fortune or else fortune love the great man down you're America's favorite flies the poor or advanced makes friends and enemies. And here the two would have to live on for tonight and for who not needs shall never lack a friend. And who would
want a hollow friend tried directly seasons him his enemy. But the ability to end where I began. Our wills and fates do so contrary run that our devices still are overthrown. Our thoughts are ours there and not of our own. So think about will no second husband wait but dive I thought when thy FIRST LORD. I believe that our actor Jonathan Farwell was doing in a modern way what was wanted by Hamburg and by France and France is that pronunciation is a fit delivering of the speech already beautified. He goes on. It has two parts. Voice and gesture. The one pertaining to the ear. The other belonging to the eye. And later he says about voice.
By that kind of voice which belongs to whole sentences. Well kinds of figures in passion I don't a means of speech are made manifest in figures of words which altogether consist in sweet repetitions and dimensions is chiefly conversant that pleasant and delicate tuning of the voice which resembles the consent and harmony of some well ordered some figures of words our patterns of sound rhyme. Of course is one so his climax so I'd like to ration and accidents and such patterns as this thing. Madam said she the dust in vain that say a mortal thing so to immortalize. Rhetoric was understood in the same way from ancient times through the Middle Ages up to the 16th century. It was taught as a subject or art which involved in addition to the use of voice and body. The process of imagining that is of thinking out ideas
and this process was called and was taught as invention. The process of organizing of developing structure so that every part of a literary work is in the right place was called disposition. Another process was called and of fusion. It concerned the actual use of language in the communication of what has been imagined and organized neighborhood France belonged to a school which believes that the process is of invention and disposition were better taught as logic though it was important to teach them but not under the name of rhetoric and as a result France deals only with education and pronunciation in the Arcadian rhetoric and so shall we start as figures scribes bards poets cannot think speak cost write sing. That's from Antony and Cleopatra you know Babis refuses to believe in Leopard this is
professions of love for Antony. The passage goes like this. Hearts is connected with think tongues with speak figures with cast scribes with write ballads with sing and poets with number who who were hot stones figures scribes bards poets cannot think speak cost rights to an attorney. Of course invention and just position are involved. But what France treats is the technique of verbalizing. I'm not going to own the names of the different figures who've been here enough examples to give some idea of the skill with which I really should be Sonesta singing birds could express themselves. First let's concentrate on pattens in which a sound or a word is repeated. I believe that rhyme obliteration and sometimes one
son to my life's day gives true light. One mood dissolves my stormy night to one star my sweet and happy fortune one same eyes one shrine with vows I died. One son transfixed has burned my heart out right. One moon apposed my love in darkness throws one star has to build my thoughts my wrongs disclose sense scorn poor sway shrines do my vows no right each of the first seven lines of that octave began with the word one the first and fifth second and sixth third and seventh. Also start with the same two words. They assess that develops out of the eighth line and here it is.
Saints score on course wanes. Shriners do my vows. No right. Constable has repetitions once more in the thirteenth mind of the poem. Nice and Nyman nice to nice ain't nice rain. Here's the sestet yet if my love be found the holy fire pit ever unstained without idolatry. I'm sure you know the less you know hate of my design lose to repose in my misery my sun my moon my star my saint my shrine mine be the torment. But the guilt be thine. Now let's hear it all through one son to my life's day gives true light one moon dissolves my stormy night of world views one star my fate and happy fortune
show one saint eyes of one shrine with vows I died one son transfixed as a burnt my heart out right one moon apposed my love in darkness throws one star has to build my thoughts my wrongs disclose Saints scorn poor Swaim's shrines do my vows no right. Yet if my love be found a holy fire pure unstained without idolatry I'm ashamed of the less you know hate of my desire to repose in my misery my sun my moon my star my saint my shrine. Mine be the torment but to the guilt be thy Samuel Daniel does a lot by repeating the word now in the octave of his thirty
fifth sonnet the second third and fourth lines start. Now then we have two lines without it. After which enormous intensity comes from the repetition of the word again at the beginning of line 8. But love whils that thou mayst be loved again. Now whilst I may have filled my lap with flowers now while STI beauty bears without a stain now use the summer smiles their winter hours. And while style spreads down to the rising sun the fairest flower that ever saw the light. Now Joy is I a time before I sweet to be done. And Delia think why morning must have night and that my brightness sets at length to west wind I will close up that which now Dow shows and think the same becomes the life
fading best which then shall most in Vail and shadow moves. Men do not wave a stalk for that it was when once they find her flower glory. Here's just one line. The first of Fletcher's twentieth sonnets Alysia first good I fear when first my love began. There is a presence construct comparatively elaborate patterns at the beginnings middles and endings of lines. Sidney sonnet 33 has this sort of thing but to myself myself did give the blow. Here are some from Milton Sampson akin to cities Samson denounces his wife as a woman who will then with more cautious and instructed skill again transgressors and again submit in her rejoinder we find Let weakness then with weakness come to power.
And here is a more sane us pattern from Shakespeare. The name well fits the faith that I think the name of the line begins and ends with the name. And my faith is repeated in the middle. The name well fits the faith that I faith the name that was the Roman General Lucius commenting on the disguised image and in symbol in ACT 4 Scene 2. Here's a magnificent example from Juliet. My husband gives but Tybalt would have slain and tipples dad that would have slain my husband. The lines began and ended. My husband and his repeated in the middle and did you notice the repetition of would have slain. There are so many repetitions in the speech that it's worth hearing it. Notice how Shakespeare rhymes at the end.
Shall I speak of him that is my husband. Oh my Lord what a tongue shows when like three hours wife. But wherefore villain gets up kill my cousin. That Filon cousin would have killed my husband. Pack foolish tears back to your native spring your tributary drops belong to which you're mistaking offer up to Joey. My husband leaves the tip would would have slain and tipples dead that would have slain my husband. Oh this is comfort. Wherefore we part of them so more that there was worse to do that moved me.
I would forget it fain but oh it presses to my memory like Donna go to dance to sin as mines to beauty is dead and Romeo. Banish. That banish had that one word but I should. Have thought I was in temples. Was that well enough dividend and then. Oh or if the world delights in fetters of a need you will be right with all the grief that I followed not would you that did not that died. Well my mother would you most bowed to the reward following that the love we always shed. To me that would call the mother ship home. Oh me oh oh oh
oh oh oh. But there is no more limit Mattia. But yeah it's tough. It's that way someone has to senses and articulate and fathom not only can no words express that no words can reach to the bottom of measure the depths of that world in the Arcadian rhetoric. France treats a number of figures or patterns composed of words with slight differences of
sound some of which we would call half rhyme in his own words. It follow earth to speak of the repetition of sounds somewhat like. But alas I am as true as truth. Simplicity and simpler than the infancy of truth. There we had two examples of public to join in forming or declining of one would when as words of one offspring have diverse fallings all terminations in France's prose he gives this example. Those lamps of heavenly fire to fix it in motion bound the ever turning spheres the never moving ground. And ever and never. I used his rhymes for the couplet in Spence's eight sonnets dark is the world where your light shine need never wellies he bone but maybe I hold you over the third night of this song it has a sound pattern
no longer obvious owing to changes in transmission since it was written. No I is but Joey's eyes and Joey's virtually rhymed then more than most fair full of the living fire kindled about to the make no eyes but joys in which all powers conspire to the word Nortel's be counted through we all bright be not the blinded guess shoot out his darts to base affections but angels to lead frail minds to rest in chaste desires on heavenly beauty. You frame my thoughts and fashion me when you start my tongue and teach my heart to speak you will calm the storm that passion to begin strong through your cause but by your virtue weak. Dark is the world where your light shine you'd never wear.
But maybe I hold you over this sonnet by large starts with polit don't know Glory makes me glorious Oh I'm glad. This is number twenty four to Phyllis. And we have in it Noah and her absence taken I wonder right now in her presence and I want content and know it is repeated a number of times. No Glory makes me glorious or glad nor pleasure my to pleasure me to suppose. No comfort can revive my senses sad no hope enfranchise me with one repose nor in her absence taste I wonder light nor in her presence am i welcome to him. It was never time gave term to my Despite no Enjoy the dried the tears and my lament nor hold i hope of we will in memory. Nor have I thought to change my restless grieve nor does my conquest yield me sovereignty
no hope no confidence relief. For why. She sorts her frowns and favors as when I gain or lose I cannot know. Now for a slightly different pattern of sound somewhat on my friend's quotes this from Sidney comes Shepherd's weeds become young masters minds become of course means fit. Here's one from Sam's and I going to cities. In vain though strives to cover shame with shame or by evasions thy crime uncovers more weaknesses like excuse and I believe it. We need stories just Felicity and gold. If weakness may excuse one murder what traitor parricide incest to a sacrilege Yes but may plead it. Well recognition is weakness that police are there for with God all men will gain the no remission but love constraint. Call it
furious rage to satisfy the lust love seeks to have all of my love. How could style hope who talks the way to raising me in X be able hates knowing as needs I must by the bitrate drives to cover shame with or by evasions like crime uncovers more some more from this tragedy. Dammit I promise to look after Samson and so supplied that what by me the history lost the least. Miss Milton has a skilful change in pattern when she finally loses her temper with Samson. I see them as implacable more deaf to prayers than winds and seas get winds to seas are reconciled at length. He would not have been so good if you had married him to repeat winds and seas. I see thou art implacable more deaf to prayers than winds and seas yet winds and seas are reconciled at length that change from and to to
works wonders. Cherished I hasten widowed with the gold of matrimony or treason. So farewell I see that I was implacable more deaf to prayers than winds and seas at winds to seas are reconciled at length and see to show that I am God unappeasable still rages eternal Tempest never to become. Let's listen to some things of repetition. Notice these repetitions of time stretches on a twenty eight to last year in time. The strong and stately targets fall in time. The Rose and soberly died in time the Manics captive are thrown into the arm of the sea and rivers are made dry. The hardest flint in time doth melt asunder. Still living Fay You mean time doth fade away the mountain is proud we see in time come and and
we see in time decay the sun in time forgets photo retired from out the east where he was wont to rise. The basis thoughts we see in time aspire. And greedy minds in time do well despise that's all sweet in time must have been and except beauty virtues and life are and so we see that in his Arcadian rhetoric neighboring France was dealing with aspects of verse which are vital practical importance. You have been listening to a programme entitled The Arcadian rhetoric. The verse was read by Barrie boys. Elizabeth Shepherd Jonathan Farwell Sharma do it and I mean Scott this is Bertram Joseph inviting you to be with us again next week. This program was produced by Radio Broadcast Services of the University of Washington under a
grant from the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. This is the national educational radio network.
A nest of singing birds
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Arcadian Rhetoric
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Chicago: “A nest of singing birds; Arcadian Rhetoric; 19,” 1970-00-00, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed June 16, 2024,
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