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The following program is produced under a grant aid from the educational radio and television center and is distributed through the National Association of educational broadcasters and the University of Michigan. Brownlee presents one nation indivisible. Self-determination independence. Sovereignty. These are the catch words of one of the most powerful forces on march in the world today. Words which symbolize the desire of people everywhere. To be masters of their own
political destiny. This is our story. The story of nationalism in the twentieth century. Told in a series of 13 radio documents created by the broadcasting service of the University of Michigan. And now. One nation indivisible. Repeat after me in the hall I'm. Good here.
Listen closely. My country is island. Question When is a nation not a nation. And so when it's Ireland to most Irish men this is not a happy conundrum. On the one hand Ireland is a sovereign nation recognized in 1909 by Great Britain as the Republic about a free and independent. On the other hand it is a divided country wracked by economic disorders some point out that the cause of Ireland's present difficulties is that same partition of the island into
north and south. Others take the view that Ireland's problems are perennial revolution freedom from tyranny. Maybe only sparks flashing in the long twilight. Many of Ireland's most prominent writers have been exiled from their native soil. Swift Shaw OKC Joyce critiques of their own way of life. Wild geese they were called they could not remain they said and live. It was left to sentimentalists to sing of an imaginary paradise in the Emerald IO full of 30 folk Bogen blarney. But Irish history is something of a folk tale. Her rise to nationhood in the 20th century is unique in many ways. She has manifested most of the classic symptoms of nationalism but her struggle is not yet complete. Let's examine briefly some of the reasons and the background for Ireland's present
status. Our story begins in Dublin on Easter Monday 1916. Ships. This. Year. Do you know what. Soldier Tommy grew up with the next then the march bank holiday. Good to come of the North officers who are you to Diodorus find tears in their green uniforms and the citizen army of Ireland the queen the coming upset for three guns this is probably another the shall I make a great to do to tell you that this is no sham just who would be marching on Easter Monday to the hospital but it would comes over their shoulders and I'm quoting here said OK the commandant are said to be passing the GPO and then this lessens the post I'm
thinking it's their opinion I take it as a notion Fe No you are no mistake the final two years after the takeover there ups at the post office. GPO tracks the frost office. But I tell you that Captain the post office. But that's insurrection you shop for traders see the taken up positions of the windows. On the roof there must have taken the Tommies inside by surprise comes with an armed guard. I do stuff like the taking. Come on I want. An. Irish men and Irish women. In the name of God and of the day generations from which she receives her own tradition of NATION. And. Through us. Some and throw children to us and strikes for freedom.
And the secret revolutionary organization. The Irish Republican Brotherhood. Having patiently perfected her discipline. Having resolutely waited for the right moment to reveal herself. She now seizes that moment. And strikes in foam of victory. We declared a right of the people around and. To the ownership of our land and to the control of Irish destinies. To be Sarver and indefeasible. Along usurpation of that right by our foreign people and the government has not extinguished the rights. Can it ever be extinguished. We hereby proclaim the Irish Republic. As a sovereign independent state. And we pledge our lands. And the lives of our comrades in arms. To the cause of its freedom its welfare and
exaltation among the nations. That was Easter Monday April 24th 1916 shots were fired men were killed on both sides by brick Pierce president of the provisional government and commander in chief of the Republican forces held the post office commandant M&A Valera schoolteacher extraordinary held Boland's mills. Other strong points in Dublin were captured in London in the House of Commons next day. The British officials took note at noon yesterday. Grave disturbances broke out in Dublin possession was forcibly taken to the post office and telegraphic communication was cut off. In the course of the day so just arrived and the situation is now within hand. The rebels around a thousand of them soon found the British soldiers outnumbered them heavily. British field guns were brought into play a gunboat coming up the Litani River fired incendiary shells into the heart of Dublin on Wednesday Thursday Friday.
Heavy fighting. The post office on fire over the rebels heads from peers of his hard pressed volunteers. If they do not win this fight they will at least have deserved to win it. But when at their will. Although they may win it in death. Saturday April 29 3:30 p.m. There's surrendered his sword to the British general. He ordered the volunteers to lay down their arms. Although commandant McDonough and double arrow was still holding their own resistance seemed hopeless. Double-A if the people had risen en masse if they had gone out with nothing but some forks and out hands they could have won the country one third in the House of Commons London three of the signatories to the Republican proclamation namely it passed Thomas J Clarke and Thomas McDonough were tried by court martial found guilty and sentenced to death by being shot. The
sentence was due it carried out this morning May 11th after the report executed 14 sentenced to death but not executed to penal servitude 73 imprisonment with hard labor. Six deported one thousand seven hundred and six. The Easter Rebellion was over. The prisons were full but the fight was only beginning. Pretty soon your dynasty. I'm sure we'd like that fought of the Spirit.
Just through it convict 95 he was a man devil or a second thought on the part of the British government and pressure from America contributed to saving him from execution. And because he and other leaders survived the drive toward independence continued. Never Lera what kind of an Irish name is that. Double-O his father was Spanish. His mother came to the United States from Ireland. Him and Evelyn was born in New York City in October 1882 at the age of two and a half the boy was sent back to Ireland to be raised by his grandmother did and is being born in the United States make him an American citizen. Double-O is answer to that question was when I became a soldier of the Irish Republic. I became a citizen of that republic. What about the long usurpation of Irish rites by the English as peers phrased it.
How long has this struggle been going on since the 12th century. Ireland considered itself an independent country before that Ireland's independence is part and parcel of our ancient cultural and political tradition that history lies behind the mists of time. First. So the legends say came the farebox short dark man whose home had been somewhere along the Mediterranean. Then in time the semi-divine to earth Adama renowned for their wizardry. The real gales tall red blond landed several hundred years before Christ. For them Ireland was the Isle of destiny in Ishmael on the windswept plateau of Tara the Gaelic Kings established their royal seat there the barge pole the ancient epics the stories of heroes like Hooman and Kono are and the cattle raiding Queen May no Roman legion ever set foot on Irish soil but in the 5th century
A.D. Irish Sea Raiders kept it on English soil the boy who became St. Patrick. He converted Ireland to Christianity throughout the Dark Ages Irish monks were to travel the length and breadth of Europe founding monastic schools and helping to keep Christianity alive. Vikings and other sea Raiders were repulsed successfully by the Irish but when William of Normandy conquered the English in ten Sixty-Six Ireland was doing the Gaels Golden Age was at an end. From the time of Henry the seconde of England English monarchs claimed Ireland and parceled out its lands as rewards to feudal lords by the statutes of Kilkenny the English were bad the speaking of the native Irish language with the exception to the English throne of a Protestant monarch. A new excuse for invasion was added colonization it was thought would aid the cause of reformation in all ster the northeastern section of the country. This colonization was carried out successfully in to such a degree that even
today the pro English interest and bands of Ulster men keep Ireland from becoming a unified country. Cromwell ravaged Ireland to subdue her. Ireland's independence was destroyed and the Irish were oppressed and degraded by their overlords. In 18 no one by the Act of Union Great Britain incorporated the parliament of Ireland into that of Great Britain. Irish representatives had less say than ever before in the management of their own affairs and the flag of Great Britain now would carry the crosses of St. George St. Andrew of Scotland and St. Patrick combined into one union jack. During all this time the Irish suffered incredible privations military repression high taxation addiction famine immigration left a country depopulated wretched and savage between one thousand forty one and one thousand eleven Ireland lost half of her population. But more and more voices began to be raised in the cause of liberty and national unity. Religious differences in Ireland were
subordinated to purely political ones. Well of tone a Protestant Irishman struck out for independence in the 1790s Robert Emmet who was hanged for his part in the revolt of 18 3 was an Irish Protestant revolution once it began in the eighteenth century continued. Just what were some of these revolutionary organizations the ones we heard about earlier in 1848 a young Maryland movement was started from France's Republicans that received a flag in a green white and orange tricolor. They staged a revolt. It failed miserably and the survivors fled to America. There they form the Irish Republican Brotherhood a secret oath bound organization dedicated to revolution. Is that the same as the IRA and the so-called Irish Republican Army the IRA is descended from the Irish Republican Brotherhood
who did the sacred brotherhood have any success. They supported an uprising in 1867 called the Fenian rising like previous efforts it was a failure. But the I R B endured above ground and underground. What about Home Rule. Home Rule would not have meant independence but it would have been a long step in that direction. Charles Parnell one of the most controversial figures in Irish history almost brought it to pass but not even all the Irish were in sympathy and the crown rallied to fight Home Rule. Trapped in a divorce case Parnell was effectively silenced. Home Rule died on the vine and Ireland went after bigger stakes in the 20th century. Who what and why was shin seen that spelled s i n n f e i n isn't that right. Translated from the Irish It means we ourselves or ourselves alone. It was founded in 1005 by Arthur Griffith but not as a revolutionary organization its original aim was not a republic but a measure of
independence under the British Crown. It's not reformed by civil rather than military means but Shin Fein has changed under the leadership of devil and his contemporaries shin thing became after 916 a powerful Khaleesi force in Irish politics who were volunteers to capture the post office. They constituted a real Irish army trained on military principles secretly backed by the Irish Republican Brotherhood. The volunteers were the military arm of the Irish nationalistic movement in 1016 in Dublin they seized the initiative and proclaimed the existence of an Irish republic.
In the midst of a devastating world could ill afford rebellion in its own backyard. But the general armistice of 1018 what it came did not ease the situation either. The Irish only became more vociferous in the election won by large majorities. And in 1900 the UN or parliament was convened in Dublin as an independent constituent assembly of the Irish nation self proclaimed to top it off the doll adopted a declaration of independence. Whereas the Irish people is by right of free people. And whereas for 700 years the Irish people has never ceased to repudiate and has repeatedly protested unarmed whereas And wherein has a document familiar in tone and wording to one long held in honor by the people of America. But there are many differences between 1776 and 1919. Ireland was at the time an armed camp with British troops and strength. They could easily be reinforced. The conflict sporadic since Easter Monday broke out into full scale
warfare in 1919 in one thousand twenty. The Irish republicans fought back with guerrilla tactics double era Reem prison escape then left for America to plead the cause of independence. And then when the military action seemed to have reached a point of desperation a truce was arranged. In July 19 21 doubler journeyed to London at the invitation of Lloyd George. From the reports of this meeting and the correspondence which followed we have reconstructed the following scene at Number 10 Downing Street of a hot July afternoon. Mr Ayman divil Lera show him in. Mr Valera Mr Prime Minister I am happy to welcome you into this room around this table have sat in council the premiers and representatives of Britain's far flung dominions here great decisions have been made decisions which reflect upon the honor and glory of all members of the British Empire.
This seat here sir this seat has not been occupied. It has I might say been reserved especially Would you care to sit. Thank you I prefer to sit over here. That's only for visitors. Exactly Mr. Valera. You were a school teacher. Not I was. It might surprise you to know that there is no word in my native Welsh language for a republic. Is there one in Irish. We use public so start is another word that may mean Republic. Literally it means free state. Perhaps it will not have to be changed. Surely you and I can arrive at a peaceable solution to the problems that beset us. I make only one demand that the self-determination of the Irish nation be recognized. I see. I believe in our preliminary correspondence we agreed to speak to the question how the Association of Ireland with the
community of nations known as the British Empire may best be reconciled with Irish national aspiration that is correct. What sort of association and external Association. Your definition leaves much to be desired. Let me make the position of my government clear. Ireland is invited to take her place in the great association of free nations over which His Majesty reigns. But the British government cannot acknowledge the right of Ireland to secede from her allegiance to the king and must recognise the force of geographical and historical facts. Do these so-called facts include the partition of Ireland the people of the six northern counties have demanded their independence from the rest of us. You mean a minority in the north east corner of my Island. May I finish Mr. If you would be so kind as to read this document
you will see that under which we propose to grant island this signal of Dominion status. I have been all along in favor of peace with England. What are your conditions ones to our mutual interest. The right of Britain to have access to Irish ports to set up air bases to recruit for the crown. Free trade would be guaranteed. Ireland would assume a share of the United Kingdom that my country would never accept such limitations. Dominion status and these terms would be wholly allusion to develop our geographical proximity to England is made the basis of restrictions on her duff in the case of the other two ministers but now refer smaller nations right to independence is forfeit when a more powerful neighbor covered its territory for the military rather advantage it is supposed to confirm. There is an end to liberty. You missed our proposals have gone far beyond all precedent. If self-determination means setting up a Republican for
purity ating the crown my government would not tolerate such an ex-felon remains. Ireland has formally declared its independence and recognizes itself as a sovereign state. I ask you to reconsider those words. I cannot withdraw them. Then further discussion between us is impossible. Dealing with you is like trying to pick up mercury with a fuck. If you ever thought of trying a sport do you realize that if these negotiations break down hostilities will begin again. I am perfectly aware of that danger on a scale never before undertaken we can only resist as generations before have resisted. Then what is your proposal sir. External Association of Ireland with a group of free nations and a British Commonwealth with the status of the Republic of Ireland guaranteed. Oh very well let's go back to the beginning and start all over again.
The negotiations between Ireland and Lloyd George eventually resulted in a treaty establishing the Irish Free State. The treaty recognized the partition of Ireland into north and south as being in existence. Civil War broke out brother fought against brother but in spite of the horror and bloodshed a semi independent Ireland made progress in the administrative and economic fields although the ancient Irish language was no longer familiar to most Irishman. It became a compulsory subject in the national schools. Repeat after me. Be proud of them. Potatoes grow on the farm. Good. In the 1930s with the restoration of an uneasy peace Ireland began to see the independence it had declared in 1016 approaching the reality in one thousand thirty seven. A new constitution was introduced and passed by a narrow margin.
The name of Ara was established to replace the old Irish Free State. When World War Two broke out Ireland once declared to neutrality. Well this provoked resentment against Ireland in the Allied world Englishmen and Irishmen were actually brought closer together but Ireland paid the price of our neutrality and shortages of food fuels and weapons for self defense in 1045 at the end of the war when Winston Churchill summed up the bitterness of the Allied powers in a broadcast Amun devil era was quick to reply. Here are his actual hoods. Mr Churchill is after report America into war. Could he not find it in its heart the generosity to acknowledge that there is a small nation that student. Not two but for seven hundred years against aggression
that Im doing poorly Asian family and Africa's fixation with logged many times into him ability but that each time with returning consciousness took up the fight anew. As long nation that could never be got to accept defeat and has never surrendered for so Mr Churchill is justly proud of his nation was oppressive. Again carry on but we don't go proud or people's perseverance for freedom through all the same jury. We need of our time have played our part in that persevered. Here's to the generation who have preserved intact for life the Lord is headed toward We who will be afraid through to believe and pass on this tradition continues.
In 1948 Ireland proclaimed once again the existence of the republic the wheel had come full circle since 1916 but partition was still a fact today so many years after the dim beginnings Ireland as a nation still struggles toward unity in conjunction with freedom stubborn in the face of adversity she still continues to reap the whirlwind of her self-imposed isolation. But her problems have become the problems of all small nations the world over. More and more in the future. Ireland will turn to the United Nations or some other international body for help and cooperation. Meanwhile to quote M&A Valera again. He was a protection small nation we should go on and try to compare our part in the word continuing once we have indeed one precognitive true freedom from true peace and understanding between the only issues.
Are unreal. Or. One nation indivisible. One of a series of 13 radio documents on nationalism in the twentieth century. Resource advisor for this program was Mary S. Brummie author of devil in the march of a nation. The program was written by E. G Burroughs and narrated by Lou Hamers and the cast included Brendan or Riley Martin Levon Don Inglis and members of the WUOM radio ghetto. The program was directed by William stag of and was produced and transcribed by the broadcasting service of the University of Michigan. One nation indivisible is produced under granted aid from the educational radio
Series
One nation indivisible
Episode
Ireland
Producing Organization
University of Michigan
Contributing Organization
University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
AAPB ID
cpb-aacip/500-kd1qkz2m
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Description
Episode Description
Ireland, a country with ancient traditions, struggles for unity within the framework of national sovereignty.
Other Description
A documentary series about nationalism in the 20th century.
Broadcast Date
1958-01-01
Topics
Global Affairs
Politics and Government
Subjects
Sinn Fein
Media type
Sound
Duration
00:29:58
Embed Code
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Credits
Actor: O'Reilly, Brendan
Actor: Lavin, Martin
Actor: Ingles, Don
Narrator: Hemmers, Lou
Producing Organization: University of Michigan
Speaker: De Valera, E_amon, 1882-1975
Writer: Burrows, E. G. (Edwin Gladding), 1917-
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 58-17-2 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:29:40
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Citations
Chicago: “One nation indivisible; Ireland,” 1958-01-01, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed August 17, 2022, http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-kd1qkz2m.
MLA: “One nation indivisible; Ireland.” 1958-01-01. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. August 17, 2022. <http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-kd1qkz2m>.
APA: One nation indivisible; Ireland. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-kd1qkz2m