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The Communists tried to answer American material aid with propaganda and failed because the truth was evident and betrayed the lies. But in the summer of 1940 7 there was fear and violence and tension throughout Europe just before the Soviet Union withdrew from the Paris conference. In this universal atmosphere of tenseness and impending conflict Stalin made a statement. Those who believe in the inevitability of war are unduly pessimistic. The statement was made to Harold Stassen when he visited Moscow in 147. It is the view of the government of the USSR that the two systems Soviet and capitalist can co-exist peacefully side by side. Stalin spoke and the world listened grasping at Hope. I didn't want peace. Russia wants to cooperate. We can relax now. The most destructive war in history had ended only two years before and the memory was fresh. The people of the world wanted to believe that Stalin meant peace when he said
peace. But this was only part of another technique. The technique of negotiation this technique includes a war of nerves. Endless accusations delays obstruction but this point was settled at the last meeting of the commission. The Soviet delegate agreed to it. They were general in particular for Section 6 of objectionable in the Soviet viewpoint and the wording was fully discussed and accepted idea among the discussion marry up and I'm afraid that I must insist that the commission abide by its previous decision at a time when fascism is the only thing in a totally enjoy or many United States that refuses to take steps against it. We have enough to do here to eradicate fascism without quibbling about words United States delegate by his actions by following the imperialist line pro-war thing fascism. I called to the Soviet delegates attention that I have been pointing out the wall like an aggressive dangers of fascism since 1930 including the years when the Soviet government was sending wheat oil and manganese to Germany.
Shall we go to the next point. Dr. Mosley this actually happened to you in the course of negotiating with Soviet representatives didn't it. Yes it did. I will never forget that moment. After that the Soviet delegate dropped his absurd charge and we got down to business. Why do these Soviet representatives continue to make such accusations Dr. Mosley. Why do they delay and obstruct negotiations. The Russians want these accusations to stick in the minds of their own people and of the satellite countries. How else can they justify the strenuous preparation for war. The maintenance of large standing armies the continuing low standard of living. The Iron Curtain in addition the Soviet leaders often use accusations like
these to mask their own plans or actions. For many many months the Russians accused us of arming western Germany. All the time. They were building up substantial and well armed forces in Eastern Germany while we in the West had not actually armed a single German soldier. The Soviet negotiator also uses obstruction and accusation to stall for time. Sometimes he does it to conceal the fact that he has no instructions and when he does have instructions he must carry them out to the letter. He cannot wire Moscow urging this or that small concession in order to facilitate agreement. It is only after he has fought to the last gasp for each letter in his instructions that he can even inform Moscow that no agreement is possible without some concessions from the Soviet position. The Soviet representative is drilled to believe that
the Kremlin is all wise that it alone has the key to the future. Any deviation from its way of thinking is dangerous to his future as a communist and to his personal survival. Under these conditions how can a Soviet diplomat even allow himself to understand the ways of a democratic society. The Russian attitude toward negotiations seems to be different from that of the democratic world. When countries of the West like America or Canada or Britain and France set out to negotiate they assume that they will not use force against each other and that they have already agreed to seek a settlement through compromise. But the very word compromise is a bad word to the Soviet rulers. It is usually used by them only in the term putrid compromise negotiation. To them is a way of testing out the strengths the
nerves the will of those whom they regard as their enemies. If they can gain time gain a point intimidate a weaker nation through negotiation. Well and good but do them. Negotiation is simply a technique which they apply within a total situation and that total situation is to them one of total conflict. Naturally the Soviet rulers would prefer to extend their power by negotiation rather than by war. But to them negotiation is not a good thing in itself a sign of good will. It is only an episode a technique within what they regard as a continuing inescapable pattern of conflict between their system and the non Soviet world. Negotiation is a third Soviet technique and statements from the Kremlin are a part of the tactics to raise hopes and destroy them to confuse and
weaken the opposition. In 1047. When Stalin said that coexistence of the two systems was possible the Soviet Union withdrew from the conference to provide Marshall Aid to Europe and in the same year revive the common form to fight American imperialism. In January 1949 Kingsbury Smith of the International News Service also received a statement from Stalin. It is my belief that the USSR could cooperate with the United States and in January 1949 Berlin was blockaded by the Russians and the North Atlantic Treaty was being negotiated for the defense of Europe. On April 2nd 1952 James L. wick publisher received replies to some questions he had sent to Stalin a question to Mr. Sterling is a third world war closer now than two or three years ago. No it is not. On what basis is coexistence of capitalism and communism possible that peaceful coexistence of capitalism and communism is fully possible given the mutual
desire to cooperate as in the unification of Germany. Readiness to perform obligations which have been assumed as in return of Lend Lease ships observance of the principle of equality as in relations with Poland Hungary Romania and noninterference in the internal affairs of other states the peaceful coexistence of capitalism and communism is fully possible. I ask the people of Albania of Greece of Korea what Stalin means when he talks of peace. If you ask the people of Prague. If you ask me what could I say. I could only tell you how the voices of the Communist orators grew harsh with hate how all through the month of February 1948 we felt the communist pressure mounting. On Feb. 23 something unusual happened as young. My husband
was on his way to work. What a surprise comrade. I want a cation. I know comrade of yours yeah. Well aren't you at work today. Can't you see. So you want all your own band workers militia. So now there is a worker's militia. Well US will defend the workers against the attacks of the reactionaries. You sound like an editorial from Pravda. You'd be much wiser to hold your tongue. Now it's too late for that now it's time for people to speak for the workers militia begin to carry guns. Just wait you know when we need them we'll have the guns was. This is the culminating technique in the pattern of conflict. First propaganda then intimidation and negotiation and finally
the technique of seizing power in the first years after the war it seemed as if Czechoslovakia would be the example of Democratic communism. The only country in which the Communist Party would win power through democratic elections. But by February 1048. It became clear to the Communists that neither the Czech people nor the Czech government were willing to submit to communist rule. And so the machinery began to turn. For good news. No Vinnie please. LATE EDITION and I don't carry the reactionary anti-Soviet newspapers. All right I know the rest of the speech missed it but come back when you want. Here take this. I don't want the Communist Party paper. Look Inside it says it's forbidden and so it's come to this. Communist gangs come around if they find Democratic papers they turn the whole he was dead over. I pay for both things you know.
One is my contribution. I would hope you agree to withhold from those members of the government. I have a high here. My. Fault. Why is there no answer from the so called Democratic Party servants and lackeys of foreign reactionary. Right. And for the charges
against them. Why are they silent. Once we couldn't answer such questions now the answers were plain. The communists controlled the ministry of information including the radio they controlled the unions including the printing and distribution of newspapers. Now we knew and we hoped it was not too late. All over the city thousands came together at meetings called by the Democratic parties to show the people who had fought the Nazis were not yet conquered by the Communists. But on February 24th 1940. Maybe it was already too late for this. Oh by the order of the National Security meeting is only gold. So you take your include a heart that I can't do it. Listen to man talk. You're going to do so turn on time I would hope my mother listen to me everybody.
We still have a constitution. We have the right to me don't draw any oh no speech that is really a subject to arrest as a conspirator against us if we don't talk now we will all be silent for a long time. Right. Sergeant Black of the Bihar. I'm not afraid I don't understand why must we understand. Come on Tommy does already too late. Yes. Every Jew I heard you had Soviet troops are gathering on our frontier. How do you know. Who told you. Everybody knows it. It's being said everywhere in the streets but not on the radio where it could be heard outside Czechoslovakia. Communists are spreading the rumors to frighten us still more. We'll just see. I may be alright but
Yarden do you think Moscow would let the communists here in Prague be defeated. The end. We bring you the point of view of the Czechoslovak situation from an article in Moscow on the eve of elections in Czechoslovakia. The authority of the Communist Party which is fighting for the way of being of the masses is increasing irresistibly proud government is struggling energetically against the traps set by foreign reaction. And yes I'm asking Terry. To do more than enough work as Malaysia
did a fully equipped when the time came I would have again when the time has come. Today you defend the workers where you're on our street. Aren't you permitted to tell me it's no secret. First to the offices of the reactionary bodies then to their publishing houses and finally to set up machine guns to guard the government buildings. You'll be a busy little man. You have your little joke many of us in the street with guns. Well haven't you anything to say. Yes the store troops are back again. On February 20th of 1948. Twelve noncommunist ministers had resigned from the cabinet in protest against the communists illegal attempt to take over complete control of the police.
They resigned with the understanding that President Benish would not accept their resignations so forcing the communist premier vowed to respect the rights of non communists in the coalition government. But Benish was sick in fame. The Communists applied strong and continuous pressure. On the twenty fifth of February 10000 students marched to the presidential palace to offer their support to banish. Lieutenant we intend no disorder. The police will have no trouble with us in your control of money. Give them back. We only want to send a delegation to present that to a university where you are low. We want to tell him that we're behind. I will tell him we're not leaving until our delegation sees the president you're asking for trouble. Listen the security police will be here in a moment. They will not argue with would we I am missing
the way we heard. The poor young people. What they did was so brave. And so few. They didn't know the president had already been forced out and tons. He would get to the front tune through to the west. They will know where to come for us. We are ready. And. We learned how to wait. Under the knocks. Now we wait. For the sudden.
Here in the studio is Mr. emmel runs Dore who was president of the Student Union at the University of Prague in February 1948. It will be interviewed by Dr. mostly Mr. Ramsey door. And when did you first realize that the Communists were trying to take over Prague and destroy the free republic of Czechoslovakia. We have had many times before in Czechoslovakia. That the communists they would try to take over the demagogue in public. But we didn't believe it. I mean the Democrats didn't believe it. The belief in the big 30 by the next election in 48. Even when the police came to asked me. On the 23rd at of February I didn't believe it. That was the first day of the coup wasn't it. That's around and why did the Communist come for you on the very first day. You know I have been the chairman of the Czechoslovak university students and they that are
known as strong opponents of communist dictatorship. When you escape from the police early in the morning as I recall. Where did you go. I escaped to law school building. And why did you go there. The hat the law the autonomy law for the unit as it is that the police couldn't go in university buildings without the permission of the Dean. After you left the law school building where did you go. I have been in four or five apartments deal 13th of March when I escaped to us all of Jetta many a Mr. Ranstorp did the Communist minority among the students tried to prevent the great democratic majority of students from marching to the palace of the president to defend the republic no communistic students didn't try to prevent the Democratic students from marching to Gosar Why was that
they didn't know what they did before and frankly speaking the Democratic students didn't know that too. After a meeting it was a spontaneous protest against the dick that the US was Duran's door if you've been through some very difficult struggles in your life but how old are you. Thirty Vani of us well I recall very well. How the Nazis fired upon the students of the University of Prague and killed and imprisoned many of them and closed the university. You haven't had very many years have you when you could study quietly and normally as we all would like to do. That's what I thought didn't I know that Nazi close to University and University was a yellow print only in May 1945. After the netspace had been driven out and that was one of the first things that the people of Prague did wasn't it was to reopen the University that said I that was a wonderful
day. It's often said Mr. Rand's doors that the communists have their best success among the youth who want to see things made better. Why is it that in Czechoslovakia as the communists were unable to get control of the minds of the great majority of the Czech students the communist thought itat best to have been among the students but the spit it off. Democrat I think that audition between the students on and by. Next elections by Tiffani students of actionis the communists lost and had only developed better send off the seats. And what happened to the students who organized and took part in the demonstration to defend the republic. That's was the same as I did during the netted times. Many were sent to jail. Many were sent to concentration camps and to minus some that exec you with it. And according to office tional calmly sticks that the sticks all
but did any better send off the students about X but from the universities. Well they certainly would have wanted to execute you or send you to the uranium mines if they had caught you. What have you been doing since you escaped from jokes with like you. When I escaped into that aspirants I helped my fellow students to find scholarships into what are you about. Then I have been employed to be a medic and what I lif agency in charge of many to help my company and to emigrate to United States Canada and I came to this country in November 51. Well that has certainly been a very important contribution. Since you have come to America Mr Rann's door. It is going to be your aim in life. That's the same as I for all of my countrymen to help my people to be again free.
Emma runs doff escape from Czechoslovakia in March one thousand forty eight. But the Soviet technique worked inevitably to an end which has become painfully familiar. On the day after the seizure of power all the newspapers reappeared under their old names but with no difference from the communist papers. The elections were held in May as scheduled. Yeah two ballots done in the space two ballot. Course the official list of the candidates in the second blank ballot if you want to vote against the government list. Now you are looking for law. Where is the voting booth. A lone citizen of the state has no secrets. The ballot boxes are on the table. This one for the official list that one if you will get a blank ballot. Waiting. You have a free choice. Many people say the would but freedom has only one meaning in Czechoslovakia. Freedom has ended. My dear and you and tens of thousands of others have heard the sound on the door
but the knocking is not for them alone. It is a warning to the wounded. Find the sum of four techniques the technique of propaganda the technique of intimidation a technique of negotiation the technique of seizing power. Put them together to form a pattern of conflict a pattern which the rulers of the Soviet Union imposed. Then. How long. How long must the conflict continue. The answer comes from Moscow and is echoed whenever there was a communist. The Marshall Plan is a plot to isolate the Soviet Union point for the North Atlantic Treaty aid to Greece and Turkey. All steps in the capitalist and circumvent of the USSR the capitalist world are striving desperately to encircle the Soviet Union. Here's a question from a number of readers of Bolshevik. The official publication of the Soviet
Communist Party August 16 1951 it question. And when we now rule with China and the people's democracies a third of the word again we still speak of capitalist in second. And so comrade Stalin has stated that capitalist encirclement cannot be considered a geographical notion. Capitalist encirclement is a political term translated into plain language. In the view of the Soviet leaders as long as one country anywhere in the world is free. It encircles the Soviet world. Now ask the question again. How long. The answer is inescapable. As long as the two systems the communist and the Democratic exist in the same world they must be in conflict. This is not of our choosing. Nevertheless we must accept the fact and the challenge of continuous conflict.
Let's stop fooling ourselves are we at war or not. The answer is yes a no no and maybe we should stop negotiations and useless arguments in the UN and substitute wot. It is a serious question Dr. Mosley. It requires an answer for our own protection and for the protection of our friends. We have to learn to cope with the Soviet techniques and we have to do so without becoming like them. This is a tough problem but I believe we can solve it for the free peoples. I have great reserves of power productivity ingenuity trust in themselves and in each other. If we can counter strength with strength totalitarian unity with the voluntary unity of free men our side will be stronger. And then we may avoid having to fight a new war. A war will risk
destroying the very things we want to preserve. We cannot wait this time until war is upon us. As we were able to do in the past we must have great strength in being and ready. Part of our strength is that the majority of peoples in the world look to us to help protect them and to preserve the peace within the countries which are dominated today by the Soviet Union. And even within the Soviet Union itself people hope that we will be strong to preserve the peace. But we cannot make and keep friends and allies if we try to boss them around. We have to make a constant effort to understand their needs and their fears and to make our own aims those which they can fully share and support. And the Soviet rulers are far from infallible. Whatever they may preach to their followers in 1945 they thought they had Yugoslavia firmly on their
side. They thought Finland would be forced completely under their control. They thought that Greece Turkey and Iran were ripe to be taken over. And they believed that as soon as American troops were withdrawn and American support denied Germany France and Italy would come under communist control. The Soviet rulers make many mistakes. If we are strong and alert and patient we can gain strength for our side through them mistakes. Their greatest mistake is to deny the great strength of the way of freedom hope and strength lie in the people of the world. Our people and those behind the line the Soviet leaders have drawn our conflict is with the governments the leaders our friendship can reach the people with whom we have no conflict. The people of Czechoslovakia of China and Korea and the Russian soldier who said
Americans and Russians friends are. Our. News. Just heard pattern of world conflict one in a transcribed series of programs. People under communism. Based on documented evidence and expert knowledge about the power and intentions of the Soviet Union. Materials for this broadcast were supplied by Dr Philip director of the Russian Institute at Columbia University as a whole was prepared in consultation with scholars from the Russian Research Center at Harvard University Hoover Institute and library at Stanford University and the Russian Institute of Columbia University pattern of conflict was written by Joseph and narrated by Alexander with
Series
People under communism
Episode
Pattern of world conflict, part 2 of 2
Producing Organization
National Association of Educational Broadcasters
Contributing Organization
University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
AAPB ID
cpb-aacip/500-k649tc58
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Description
Episode Description
This episode discusses how relations between former allies in World War 2 deteriorated and led to the Cold War.
Series Description
A series of documentaries, interviews and talks based upon documented evidence and expert knowledge about the power and intentions of the Soviet Union.
Broadcast Date
1952-12-21
Topics
Politics and Government
Subjects
Soldiers
Media type
Sound
Duration
00:31:11
Embed Code
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Credits
Advisor: Hoover Institute and Library on War, Revolution, and Peace
Advisor: Columbia University. Russian Institute
Advisor: Harvard University. Russian Research Center
Funder: Fund for Adult Education (U.S.)
Producing Organization: National Association of Educational Broadcasters
Speaker: Mosely, Philip E. (Philip Edward), 1905-1972
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 52-38-6 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:31:00
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Citations
Chicago: “People under communism; Pattern of world conflict, part 2 of 2,” 1952-12-21, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed January 27, 2023, http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-k649tc58.
MLA: “People under communism; Pattern of world conflict, part 2 of 2.” 1952-12-21. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. January 27, 2023. <http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-k649tc58>.
APA: People under communism; Pattern of world conflict, part 2 of 2. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-k649tc58