Toward a new world; The United Nations & world conflict, part two
I don't want to get into about real code it to the Chinese did not know it until after we had invaded North Korea. But the critical issue between us and Russia really is that I don't see anything else that is terribly important. Of course all of that is a bone of contention. The former lateral force nuclear weapons and oil. Was a bone of contention between us and the Russians because they were afraid by the multilateral force Germany would get the finger on the atomic trigger and they're still frightened out of Germany. It's very difficult for us to
understand the depth. Of the Russian fear and hatred of Germany. But this is no longer a viable proposal on our part. And if we could solve this problem of meddling in other countries get rid of the rest of the colonial territory as a penance get rid of these last seven parallelism. There would be very little for us to talk to the Russians made except this question of subversion and other countries and the United States fear of that kind of activity is really the only reason where South Korea of course or you just don't like. Peaceful settlement however with without mentioning court. Yeah that's all I will do. We say there are a lot of. Legal questions here. There's a legal question on
what rights we have in bar land. Question Why don't you go to the World Court. Well they don't want to go. They probably would get justice there but that isn't good enough. Now I've talked about what I call in a second set of notes and they were all a long way from it. World War I but have a lot of World War Two and a quarter or. So
and we hope that by the time the country without getting. Recognized. Spend all of that. I love him but I think he's a great running of the world progress. Now. This is a new development. In some respects.
I know you have been reading about the Century of Progress and the perfect all of this great dynamics of the forward thrust of civilization but that affected only Europe and the Western Hemisphere and in the northern part of the Western Hemisphere it hasn't left except to pat and now it is wait and watch for the South. The turning point in this. Self-determination of peoples had then for your. Race got its independence it got it
Germany got unified the self-determination of nations of Africa nothing happened back then nothing happened. And World War 1 and World War 2 very little have. Made steps toward self-government it ended. Almost wrote a book on. How to glad to come out of Iraq. If I had I would have finished about 1930 and that's when things began to move. Very little happened in that period. But after World War this juggernaut going. And I must say that in the long view of history I have only about half the size of that Russian Communist encouragement of the underdeveloped peoples to assert herself had a lot to do with it. They didn't help them much but they did give them enough help to
encourage them to keep up the battle. And here the United Nations is a beautiful forum for I think one reason so many of these nations got their independence self I ask less because of the United Nations General Assembly and all the talks that went on there. It was nothing but talk. But it land these underdeveloped peoples in Africa and Asia to assert and insist on their own. This doesn't apply to all of them because any in Pakistan were all set to get it anyhow and got it right after World War Two ended. The Philippines got there and the pennants right after World War ended and this was already in the cards long before that. But this vast movement of these are unheard of tribal peoples from Africa and some not as go there after World War 2. It came after when it came in 1960 and thereabout came in a 1960 and I believe the Russians had a lot to do with.
Now. Once these people got waked up they not only demanded self-determination in the sense of the nation but they demanded it for a reason and that reason was they were going to get rid of exploitation that they had lived under for centuries in some cases for decades and others. And there were going to have a lot more of the problems of the capitalist table than that had before they were going to have the things of a god lives. So they then demanding develop. Now here are the United Nations as well of them because the United Nations and the charter talks about economic and social development as being one of the great go of the United Nations. This is different from the League of Nations the League of Nations had very little to do about economic and social development. There were a few fragments in the program but it really wasn't on anything like the scope the magnitude
the depth or the intensity as in the United Nations United Nations charter to choirs and we must have full employment. It declares We must have welfare we must have health. We must have dignity of labor and how do you deal is there. Now the U.N. is responding to this. The U.N. responded first with the technical assistance program in 1949 and the day they program a special was was added on January 1st to 59. These have now been combined in the U.N. Development Program. The U.N. Development Program has a goal of every kind ever developed country giving 1 percent of GNP every year to the help haply development of these underdeveloped countries so they can make 5 percent
growth in the underdeveloped countries each year. And after you deduct the population increase it will result in something like 2 percent gain per capita gross national product. These people don't think this is fast enough. They don't think they're getting enough help and Hofmann himself. They're not giving him that in addition about the 8 billion that's going in now they ought to get another aid and I don't know whether you know how much a billion dollars is but a billion dollars. Is about. Half a day's earnings per year of the American people. We're getting to that in dollars and in addition to the UN. But this is nowhere near the 1 percent and it's a lot less.
A lot less. Significant than 10 or 15 years ago in terms of gross national product. So they are demanding more of a break to get economic and social development. And they know that. Now this brings me to the next point of the U.N. has been very and adequate in the field of science and the U.N. has cracked and nothing to do and they have fallen to the lot of you are not mobs. That you couldn't ride in the San Diego school system with the amount of money. Now if that isn't adequate I give you a series of lectures on it and actually
you know ASCO has done significant work but what can I do on 40 million dollars a year. When it's looking after the interests of about 80 underdeveloped countries and it's spending part of its money in relation to the developed countries it accept provided some money wants to help out and one of the United States passed their tours of Amman it had to help the United States and it also gave $10000 watch to an ETS in this country to have a meeting on Educational Television gave $10000 to the University of Indiana or somebody to hold a national meeting on some of the science. Way haven't been doing a great deal in the U.N. or elsewhere. Except you Nesco has had science in its educational program to the university level. It has sponsored a number of scientific research
projects oriented toward economic and social development. It has started the oceanographic program at work for a long time before we did in the United States on the day salting of seawater. So that we can irrigate some of these God forsaken places without enough water. And. It has worked on a number of these scientific projects. Made real contributions but the magnitude is very small in relation to the total need. There are a lot of bilateral activities here and the amount of money spent. For helping foreign education is much greater many times but still not enough. I mean if you put all of it together it wouldn't be
but a small fragment in the field of education of what the federal government spends to support public education and private education in the United States. And you know that that is a very small fragment of the total expenditure of public education in the US so that in dealing with the world problem it's very small. Now one of the things that the U.N. ought to do here much more than they're doing is work out the right kind of guidance for these countries. Now here I know something about what I have a technical experts going to perhaps 60 of these other developed. There are a great many more now that I didn't have anything to do with because there were.
French or British column as a Portuguese column as a something they wouldn't let us because we were subversive in the sense that we might educate the native. And one of the great things we didn't have adequate national plan and I told Economic Council which supervises the specialized agents is locked in escrow and world health and so on. And I told him or show that the US ought to put aside a lot of the stuff that was dealing with and concentrate on building up the capacity of the underdeveloped countries to make a national plan that made some sales. When they make nice some plans. Instead of having two sides of the budget two sides of the ballot sheet that have only one and what was that an inventory of their needs.
But when they came to the side on distributing their resources how they were going to use their resources what where the pie are and how big slobs they got to support each of the Pride is. There was that thought about but they had this inventory of needs and all they wanted was to give them some money to shovel it on that side of the budget. But you would look at the other side and see what is going to happen to it. I see what it made sense or not. Some of these underdeveloped. Power generators. And why they work. And I get. Why educational television stations when they don't even have textbooks for their kids. Well I got nowhere with it. And it's still it's still of
matter that is about it today. That's putting pressure on to get better educational planning. But my point always has been that you can't make an educational plan by itself. I gave a lecture on this in Libya watch what they wanted. They were debating whether they would have a physical training instructor in the schools. And I said no I'm not going to give you a physical training instructor. I think the climate here is pretty healthy and the kids around here if they get in ragged and I get a lot of exercise. I'm going to get an expert to help train people to take care of kids in the kindergarten and the nursery schools while the women go out more. I was five I still flat out. I couldn't get economic social counseling arrested I couldn't get to have an issue and arrested.
But Paul Hoffman is taking a lot of it as part of a real competition on this. But he's doing it sort of by the side door. Yes a great man who hasn't been given enough adulation in this country. He ran a martial law. And he's done a lot of other things of great significance. He said I want to play in this special program. One of them as I want in and my sources. Say. Which will result in applying. For the investment of capital to develop that. And he said My second category of projects. Is the training of personnel to employ a man that so most of Mr Hoffman's money getting up close to a hundred million a year now
and he uses it very wisely. He's he's sort of an old Shylock or these can give you $10 if you cared to put up 75 you know. You Nasco gabs dollars if they agree to put up pad and then do it. Well this is the closest thing we've had so far. To the United Nations helping does make nice. Except for another new development bank the World Bank. To write reports on economic development of countries and not even mention education has been converted by your Nasco and other people too that education is worthy of economic investment. And I must make loans to develop school systems. And they are helping nations to develop. Which are related to these
economic plans on which the bank will lend the money for economic or educational training for economic development. So all the pieces are beginning to get closer and closer together here. Now another important thing in regard to economic development and social development. If I can think of it. Relates to the matter of trade. Now we're often stupid in this country and in the US go and I include myself and yet not seeing the picture hole at the beginning and at the beginning we didn't realize that you could put 8 billion dollars into count in total international and
bilateral aid and little was more than that. By adverse trade development. Other countries that you were helping. More than all of them. More than all of the of all of the world and the price of coffee. And why did the price of cocoa drop and why did the price of it drop because the under-developed are in an adverse bargaining position to develop this international prices. But of what and of what Bob. Ford cars and
whatnot are from from the manufacturing plant. So the under-developed has caught on to this that they were being at losing all of their raw materials and the purchase of their manufactured materials. The capitalists control both. Marx was a work here. Sounds a little like Marx. But. A lot of people also say it's true. That. Cell at a recent conference and they call the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. If you want it in the show 77 Adam got together that was way more than a McCarty. And sad of the big powers. Yeah god again you got a game. You gotta give us a
break. Try. And they force through the creation of a new agency of the United Nations to deal with this problem of trade and develop and sell this thing is going on now. And while a big country has what a long way toward agreed with the underdeveloped countries that something ought to be done. They haven't yet done very much to satisfy the other development on the trade. Now I'm not sure that Russia's got to be the friend of the other developed that is when we got to talking about the terms of trying. So this was a straight out conflict. They Twain doctrinaire free world ors and Dr. Carmon. This has got to be a conflict that salary but plain rich and poor but powerful economic growth than the ones that are not
our. New thoughts. This is a fight between the north and the south of the equator. The dividing line. Now just about run out of time and I expect this to run out of my mind. Let me summarize briefly. I'm going to give you a very small capsule for me won't even have to swallow two more problems of the world disorders. One is a girl. Now most people are not nearly as concerned about this. But what do you think would happen to the United States if it had to double its population in the
next 30 years. Some countries are going to do that. That's going to maim a lot less of a person. It's going to Maine if we have self-sufficiency that will have produced twice as much on America. And are we going to be able to do it. India already has a level of lending more than it did at the time of George Washington. And what is it going to do if it doubles its population in another 35 years. I'll tell you what's going to happen. Millions of people are gonna starve and don't let anybody tell you that people are starving to death. There are a lot of countries. Sampson's got to be done about it. I think most people don't know much about mathematical progression. If I ask you to pay me a sat
the first day I work for you and and do it for 30 days how much you think it would be at the end. Would you believe that it's almost a million dollars a day if you don't get it. Well it wouldn't take 30 times 30 years isn't very many years. That's 900 years. Do you want in 100 years to have a million people. Or you think about it. At the rate of population growth of today it wouldn't be many centuries. Until the people on earth. Way more than the Earth. Put that in your pipe and smoke.
The other problem is human rights. I'm not going to say much about it but it is one of the world's disorders that in very few of our human rights respected to the point that people can really have a dignified life. And in this country it isn't respected enough to have a dignified life. And if we don't know more about it than we are going to be things that will make the fort look small. I'm not advocating predicting them. To do more about human rights and we've got to do more in the U.N. context. But that's all I'm going to say from now five. Given you're
something of a bleak picture. I have certainly gotten my point across to you. Thank you very much. T You have been listening to the Institute on world affairs a series of lectures and discussions held each year at the San Diego State College campus. At this session the principal speaker was Dr. Luther Evans the director of International and legal collections for Columbia University in the city of New York. The institute brings together noted leaders from all walks of life who addressed themselves to the perplexing problems that face mankind. The Institute on world
- Toward a new world
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- This program features the second part of a lecture by Dr. Luther Evans, Columbia University and former Librarian of Congress.
- Lectures recorded at San Diego State College's 25th Annual Institute on World Affairs. The Institute brings together world leaders to discuss issues in politics, culture, science, and more.
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Producing Organization: San Diego State University
Speaker: Evans, Luther Harris, 1902-1981
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- APA: Toward a new world; The United Nations & world conflict, part two. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-k35mf413