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Voices of Europe produced and recorded by Milton Mayer in cooperation with the University of Chicago under a grant from the Educational Television and Radio Center in cooperation with the National Association of educational broadcasters on this program. Milton Maier will conduct two interviews. The first is with Professor Dr Friedrich de-fund a meteorologist in Austria and the second with Lazaro Wexler a film producer in Zurich Switzerland and now Milton Mayer Professor day professor of media allergy Innsbruck University and chief of the Australian weather service for the Northern Alps forecasting the weather for the European Alpine regions as a whole. It's interesting that Professor de. I was at the University of Chicago and at the University of California in Los Angeles in 1952 working on the general circulation project sponsored by the
United States Office of Naval Research to study the changes of the atmosphere on a hemispheric scale and the currents and the wind systems of the upper air for the purpose of making long range forecasts. Professor there is the weather changing and is changing for the better or the worse if it's changing at all. The event actually is not changing. We have very little patience for UP I AM stations we have only observations from up by about 20 or 30 years and even later. Yes we have seen the early ideas we had only surface of separations. So actually Army dualistically think that.
Did you say a hundred and fifty. Always And so we cannot do any good stuff just with this observations. As far as we know in this hundred and fifty yes no change in Bedlam. And what about the weather then of the last few years you know in the States we seem to have had a great rash of hurricanes and floods. Certainly the weather of the winter of 1955 56 in Europe appeared to be one of the worst ever recorded with snow in Sicily and so forth. Yes this is cruel. We have also in your in several of the last event does that you see the
conditions especially in February. Nineteen and fifty six all over your head. Then you strong. Season and size of the ED disaster catastrophes of Evelyn schiz and sorrow. But we should always remember that when we talk of change we should always remember that the population has changed in the last day. We have very good information by radio and so on and these informations in the EPS for instance populations in all of the place and now we have a strong spot in the EPS. We have
a lot of thousands clamoring So all the accidents increase this a maybe and so is the population of Central America has also increased. So probably should not say that all is well. Phenomena finds a natal contest of these oh Evelyn she is gone and the video has really changed in the last days only that these things and have very good information now about these things separately and the same things are happening
then. Professor de-fund Do I understand you correctly that the winter for example of 1955 56 does not give you any scientific basis for saying that a change has occurred or a change is occurring in the weather. Yes only in this respect to investigate such and the changes of the general circulation and we have to look for this special. Scientific things we have to investigate in the winter season where we have an activity called us or we have an increased activity. The other extreme of the general circulation probably collegians and we have to look this changes.
So that may actually happen. The conditions in polar regions very much changed by say for instance by expert their ethical inferences when the sunlight is diminished chords may have a greater activity and they are poor. No special winter season may be stronger in one year than in the other have there been winters within the last say 15 or 20 years like the winter of 1955 56 in the individual winter. Yes definitely. Nine twenty eight and twenty nine. There was the bell you see the winter season in your and we had nearly the same conditions as in
1956. Especially sample early and very very cold similar to that of 1956 and also same jubilation color for all five weeks of explaining cold conditions and it is seen that this winter season as I explain really similar behavior without any pattern that you can see. Scientifically Yes scientifically very similar. Also see is that in this winter season they explain really good activity are the following. Conditions what I mean Professor defined is could you predict from the winter of 1928 29 and the winter of 1955 56 that another such winter what occur in a certain time.
There are certain signs in the months of November December of the year. Then we see this increased activity of the general circulation that could probably cause for generally several in much such a cold winter season. For instance when we have income of solar radiation in the fall and then we have a sudden action of the atmosphere in in in several days and so on then. The atmosphere increases its activity. We have actually increased activity and so on and also then we have this developing disaster conditions and so on Professor They finally let me ask you a very popular
question do the atomic explosions of the last few years have any connection with what seemed to be weather changes have given much thought to this problem and your base can you know for many persons that the atomic bomb is the cause of change but we know in an environment in one don't make explosion is. Very little. Come with me and she's invited in the atmosphere like developments developments and so on. So another comic explosion on the epic event a very smart and I mean smarter about the dimensions of the
descent the explosion. But it will not effect the continent on the hemispheric scale. So the only difference. Now or question Professor de-fund that I suppose I should ask an archaeologist Have there been any long range weather changes in the world since the end of the ice age that that we know of. Historically yes many investigations of this kind but very down to earth and the sun changes all of that since the early historical times but. That change is actually not definite will announce
more slow change plans of change but not a very strong change is that a change or a trend in the direction I would be able to say warmer rather than colder weather throughout several years than the next several years a little colder and then Vollmer. But yes Say for instance the last 10 or 20 years to be generally planned become to become Valma especially in the northern latitudes you saw in the polar regions and but now in the very last two or three years. Did the plan seemed to stop. I see that it's impossible to say scientifically or even a guess that the world is growing warmer. No no no no. A final question you should also
remember that such changes are very slow. You can only see changes in tense cent. That is a slow change here. Our last question Professor you know we always say that everybody talks about the weather but nobody does anything about it is there anything actually to be done about the weather. Oh I guess that is done very much about that not just between the first and the Second World War there was a period let off forecasting last time that the charts and the surface observations and very little was known about development. And now we are going into quite a number of weather forecasting really going to decide in 50 basis of weather searching for dynamic
reasons and physical reasons for buying it. That was in the atmosphere changing and so we are going to do in the period of mathematical weather forecasting beyond putting all our electronic computers and getting mathematical time about 24 hours ahead and really going to study the creations of motion really mathematical with the machine. Now I tend to side of the northern hemisphere to get forecasts for the Northern Hemisphere.
Leaving defeated guessing in the pollination and getting pounded on busy and dynamically listening. You mean you're putting the weather man out of business. Yes thank you very much Professor de. I don't know how many Americans know that there's such a thing as a great Swiss film producer. I didn't and yet I saw the movie four in a jeep four in a jeep is the work of Lazard thanks for whom I'm interviewing today in Surrey as our thanks were never hurried. His latest film is Heidi the grand prize winner for youth films at the 1933 Venice Film Festival. He was his third film for American really falling for energy
and the village next and I was born in Poland. Fifty seven years ago he was vacationing in Germany when World War One broke out and immediately went to Switzerland which was neutral territory. He studied engineering at the power Technical Institute of story on graduation he set up the first film company in Switzerland. It made documentary and publicity shorts. In 1934 he made a full length documentary wings over Ethiopia in 1936 he traveled 20000 miles through China to make his second full length documentary. This is China in 1933. He started producing the Swiss language comedy love letters one for him the first grand prize at the Venice Film Festival in 1936. Maria Luisa the story of a French child sent to Switzerland to escape the bombings in France one day how I would ask her for the best screenplay. Thanks Summer
inaugurated the multilingual film in which each character speaks his own language. He founded this practice with a last chance and the search both of which won askers one for the screenplay and one for the best children's performance director one of the best American films you've seen. The last month I think it might be contra go from here and call it might be the movie that which you speak. Country Girl From Here To Eternity and Marty. I had the country girl and from here early Karen and they were quite popular in the United States and probably fairly bent to make Marty. Certainly was the unusual film in America. I think they have been all of that country. I think all of it because I'm going to kill you.
Why are these films good films in your view. My view because the thing you can do with your own thoughts about the human body. Something your country fought them with your family who was killed on the other hand who feel if such a film necessarily inexpensive to make. For example Mikey was famous because it cost so little to make there were no steps to seek out yet because you don't monitor your house phone for my car and work and I think the money for the film part or not. And I might do or thought that some of them might be that or that you blew it by being.
You mean the best European films are also simple I think. Can you think of any famous exception to that I think. Do you think that a lot of free by fame or direct thought on your mouth and you'll feel that they are. I think Fine you have been good for them and all of the fame or film that you see the end of their life and people don't see all of them may face on your and your but my brain and yours. Why are American films influenced by Europeans instead of European films being influenced by the much larger and greater American industry.
Maybe some of the have been fairly far over influenced by the Americans more I came from Europe because when I have not so much Motley for that money it would have thought. Is the minute arm of the American film industry. No very great benefit to the industry for money all of it and gave them the good that the city of when we all come from them on the life of me. Oh thought I was going to give you both of them and you have the most money from and the money why you let them. With out having money but you know someone that those you have to deal with helpful are not quite clear here of axillary if if a man
him a producer such as yourself have an idea a good idea for a movie for a film is indeed better off in the United States where he can go to one of the great companies and say Now I have an idea for a film which might cost a great deal of money and happens to be that kind of idea. And there he can get the assistance which he cannot get in Europe. I never think of a quote. Your theory that method of filmmaking quite different in the film when when you have evidence for doing so for instance you have thought about it for doing ever procurator on the phone working on the plane. When you have the proper new world that program and it will tell you
where have you thought some thought might mean you don't come with you or something. Our westbound phone from a new problem with he thought it got by and then you'll have thought of that and here your make your film. But you know I think for instances where have not the film in the field at all that have on film I would say only what they'll think of when you said true of Europe in general. Mostly because in final you have only one blow to the thought of anything and you think are going to say that. The program and all on a small something always more to do with and I would say you complete with food producing one film a year but.
Well the American film industry the American film has certainly been extremely influential in Europe. I am I suppose to be in the in the rest of the world. People who know nothing else about the United States know about our films I have met some Russians recently here in Europe who know nothing about the United States except through our films would you think the influence of the American film has been good or bad. I think it was good and bad good film of a good influence and I would say you know you have quite recently a lot of very good films and down the alley way of life rather than the men convicted a few you saw how down then it can be are and that is good. I remember the movie one of your movies which was
extremely successful in the United States it is called for man in a jeep for energy. You know about the four power occupation of Vienna and I would suppose that it was not a very expensive movie set in the oven not a very expensive film to make. How much does an American film cost compared with what you then different my people in these people the $50000. I think I would find that the gate would put forward five we can build I think over the book and tell me here back there whether you think the cinema should have a purpose. The better thing than I think it would be very vocal and over the life of the cinema. Every film would be like
a pretty big thing for me for me to live through on made across the engine you feel for things. But if you're not. Then the film should have a purpose beyond that again. And the American film in general I think it does not have such a purpose. Why when they saw you have on them and put them in film and film with the plane with you but the idea from the other would generally be 75 or something. When you mention From Here To Eternity again I am reminded that such a film I think would have cost a considerable amount to produce. Now there was a good down there was a good thing about an expensive one.
The ferry effect I think. I'd like to know just for a last question why in your view if I understand that why the European idea have influenced America rather than the other way around. Certainly the American movie has it everywhere because we have more film with what they feel and where more people like the New York who are working on. With the help of a lot of good people. But we don't live in a month on
and overdone. Please don't forget one thing when you have a PM film who will go on in the day to film the one you would never accept and I'm going to feel it. On the surface of the bed there and here we go we have because of that. Americans are going to have very good one. That would be the day where you go for that. Yeah. One last question here regular. Why should there be where film in this. I thought you already have. Not that we all have one and for the moment when you want
to do with someone who makes films for the book or what they want and if you want but when I die somebody will come and take over my work my don't go that far but I you know but you can't you will not be. So I think you and they say we have to build the leaders we need help from a small country. Thank you very much. Voices of Europe was produced and recorded in Europe by Mayer in cooperation with the University of Chicago under a grant from the Educational Television and Radio Center. This program is distributed by the National Association of educational broadcasters. This program has been introduced
by Marvel. This is the end E.B. Radio Network.
Voices of Europe
Meteorology and the Swiss film industry
Producing Organization
University of Chicago
Contributing Organization
University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
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Episode Description
This program consists of two separate interviews. In the first interview, Milton Mayer interviews an Austrian doctor and professor of meteorology. In the second interview, Mayer speaks to Lazar Wechsler, a Swiss film producer.
Series Description
Interviews with noted Europeans on a variety of subjects, conducted by Milton Mayer, American author and broadcaster, lecturer and professor in the Institute of Social Research at Frankfurt University.
Broadcast Date
Global Affairs
Motion pictures--Switzerland--Plots, themes, etc.
Media type
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Interviewee: Wechsler, Lazar
Interviewer: Mayer, Milton, 1908-1986
Producing Organization: University of Chicago
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 57-7-13 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:29:21
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Chicago: “Voices of Europe; Meteorology and the Swiss film industry,” 1957-01-01, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed September 30, 2023,
MLA: “Voices of Europe; Meteorology and the Swiss film industry.” 1957-01-01. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. September 30, 2023. <>.
APA: Voices of Europe; Meteorology and the Swiss film industry. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from