thumbnail of Toward a new world; Habitation of the cosmos, part one
Hide -
If this transcript has significant errors that should be corrected, let us know, so we can add it to FIX IT+
The Institute on world affairs the Institute on world affairs held each year on the San Diego State campus brings together statesman scholars military leaders and businessmen from all over the world. The purpose of this institute is the understanding of the problems and challenges that face man gained through knowledge and discussion. This year's theme was toward a new world and here to introduce this session speaker is Professor Minos generalise director of the Institute. We heard an analysis. Of renowned and Nobel scientists. Of some of the. Prospective changes in the future that science physical science has to offer. This overview was indeed a challenge to everybody's imagination even though
a shot period of time one can only cover. A limited amount of material. What if there is one area of exploration. Which one might define in any human inquiry as open ended. It is indeed in the field of science. We have the physical limitations imposed on us. By our bodies on this earth. Physical limitations which in themselves are tied down by a factor known as gravity. And it seems to me that one of the persistent. Drives in man almost instinctive has been from the days of the mythological story of Daedalus a knicker us. To to break away from gravity. To get out into
space time space which at that time was considered not as a vacuum but as a an atmosphere of spilled area. Times have changed. Jules Verne himself has become somewhat antiquated and obsolete. Reality has. Defied imagination. And human imagination is indeed something. Something to be admired. Perhaps since the day. But Nick. Has been. Away. Has been driven so to speak to awareness. Of the potential and possibility. Outside of planet Earth. Whose gravity. Keeps us together even though. In violent combat.
If one might think of it politically one might hope that in outer space one would find a commonality for mankind. Not competitive as some people might conceive of it has been. And since we are inquiring into a future world a new world. One I conceive of the boundaries of this world as being quite different from those of the old one and not simply the physical one you see on that map. Which is no longer one of limitation but a point of departure. Not simply for the astronomers viewing the stars through telescopes but for individuals venturing his pioneer. But one must pioneer first in one's imagination. Before one can do it in any other manner. And we are privileged to have with us this evening. A true pioneer in the area. Of space analysis and inquiry. Dr.
Constantine do you generalise who is my brother. Who was the first man in history to have inquired into space medical point of view. Have I gone and ventured into this area at the time in which he undertook the inquiry. I guess what is classified in the eyes of many so-called realist as perhaps somebody who was. Out of this world. And yet he did it. When back in 1930 31 32 he initiated his inquiry into what would happen if man did venture into outer space. His background was varied. He studied at the Harvard College in this country at the universities of veterans Heidelberg Paris and Berlin. He acquired the degrees of Medicine and a doctorate in philosophy.
And he continued his career in the army and subsequently went into private practice in New York City where he's associated with a variety of hospitals and then continuing his special interest. He became an assistant professor of space medicine the first one to hold a chair in the New York Medical College and coordinator of the space medicine system. And in the course of all these activities. Did pioneer a number of areas which may be too highly technical for me here to examine for the benefit of using time myself. And limited in my knowledge of this area. But he did engage in 1931 in the world's first biomedical space minded experiments in analyzing the effects of acceleration on mice and had developed his topological slides many years later when we had engaged in a space program. He alerted the scientific community of the dangers of stowaway germs from returning
space vehicles. He published the first printed concept of using electrical electromagnetic shielding for space vehicles and then develop something which is indeed a spur to the imagination a viable cycle fana Truong so-called which was a cosmic medical simulator. How multidisciplinary and highly sophisticated device which simulate space conditions of a man would know what to expect before he ventures into the area where his life itself would be in danger. He has made many scientific contributions his pioneering research was done with Verne of Brown as you know the inventor of the rocket in Germany back in the early 30s. He has been given many and very various awards he's recorded in the congressional record he has was given the American Bill of Rights
Award for distinguished public service in the field of space medicine et cetera et cetera. The listing is as usual as it is for a distinguished scientist very likely and should not take our time here. Because we are most interested in hearing what he has to say. It is therefore a distinct pleasure for me family wives as well as other wise and nodded to present to you my brother Dr. Constantine the generalised speaking on the habitation of the cosmos apology or in prayer in general. It is quite hard for one brother to accept nice words from another brother. So if you thought the challenge of nepotism I cannot defend myself.
Speed is the only new bikes invented by man observed Aldous Huxley. The popular expression. Quote We do not know where we are going but we are getting there very fast. And the classical statement by Abraham Lincoln quote If we could first know where we are and whether we are tending we could better judge what to do and how to do it. A most appropriate in our space conscious. During the last two centuries a man has been directing his efforts in increased tempo toward leaving the ground and soaring into space. In the realisation of this dream as old as mankind itself. The role of the physician and especially those with paramedic cult interests has been prominent in recorded history. Such physicians scientists include among others the thigh gress in mathematics. Empedocles and the marketers of natural philosophy. Copernicus and Galileo in astronomy
Gianbattista found Helmont in chemistry. William Gilbert in magnetism Thomas Young in optics. Since the most important physical attributes. Of space imply vacuum in the absence of AI. I have singled out the 17th century English physician scientist Robert Boyle as a true project of space medicine and space medicine. As I consider is a study of man. The Universe and man's relationship to the universe. Man did not invent speed. He was born into motion. For a moment we should consider the aggregate velocities of the rotation of the earth its revolution around the sun which in turn leads its family of planets satellites asteroids comets and so forth to the constellation Hercules within the Milky Way. The latter completing one revolution every two hundred million years.
If we project these velocities linearly we find man hurtling through space at about one million three hundred twenty five thousand kilometers per hour or a little bit better than one four hundred fifty years. The speed of light. Are four million times the speed of sound. This is still not the final figure thought to this. We must add the as yet undetermined speed of the local group of galaxies which are about 24 by this count. To which our Milky Way belongs which revolves around an unknown center of gravity astrophysics passes here in the present state of its art. Man speculation and imagination. Go on. His desires are monumental. His quest for answers never ceases. Who is he and where is he really going. We cannot disagree with our startle which states that man was not born as something but born for something. We also know today that man is an
open thermodynamic system with the inherent property of giving off energy and receiving energy. With his origin somewhere in the player scene as our anthropology colleagues tell us it has taken man over two million years to reach a population of 1 billion on this globe and that was as recently as 18 to 75 years later in 1925. He double this number. He tripled that in 1960 35 years later. And at this rate in 1980 he would have doubled and will reach 5 billion in 1900 at the turn of the century there will be 6 billion of his kind on this earth. Doc it would t holic Chicago anthropologist asks. How much space man needs and has defined for social zones which I consider important enough to briefly state here. The intimate zone
within an arm's length. Where in writing where an eating procreating comforting protecting take place invasion by strangers in this area brings alarm and stress in. The personal zone extends from an arm's length to about four feet. An area of private conversation and social zone from four to ten feet is the area for general working together and parties or in groups. This is known as the buffet to the public zone to which anyone has access and reaches beyond 12 feet. Medical science recognizes a host of ailments due exclusively to overcrowding. Aside from those due to contagion that is spread by infectious organisms. Some of these are chronic headaches. Thyroid disorders peptic ulcers colitis hypertension. Increased hardening of the arteries and so forth. As well as aberrations in social behavior drug addiction problem alcoholism. Decreased work output and mental disease. Similar results occur among
animals when confined in close quarters. In fact togetherness in certain rat experiments has caused 100 percent fatalities at a single radiation dosage. After 30 days and not one mortality when the animals were radiated with the same dosage in individual cages. In spite of his frailty and its significance a man is willing to face the challenge of the unknown. Granted that is physical strength per se is relatively miniscule. The human organism can set in motion can use and can control forces quintillions of times stronger than itself and through these again forces more powerful. They will give manic commanding status not galaxy and the like in the next millennium. At the present time. Human curiosity and activity in the technological field has resulted in the production of about four times ten to the nineteenth power per second. And there it is the
force of one die and that acts to one centimeter in Adana self has the force taken to accelerate one gram per second per second. Now this enormous amount of energy based on statistical data of the last 60 years increases annually by 3 to 4 percent. This means in three thousand twenty years hence equivalent to the time elapsed. Since the destruction of the Minoan civilization. The production of man made energy will equal the production of the sun. Which is four times ten to the thirty third power the Iggs per second. Along such computation by the year seven thousand seven hundred civilizations wherever they may be well of hydrogen the energy output of the galaxy containing some 100 billion sun likes dies. This energy will easily amount to four times ten to the forty fourth power ergs per second. A system with high internal energy sources must radiate the entire output of
its potential sources. Otherwise the temperature of the system will rise and result in its destruction. But it's somewhat dynamic equilibrium is upset somewhere along its evolutionary process. It is interesting to recall that it was a hundred and one years ago when the first wireless. Transmission of energy by man took place. Dr Maylon Loomis a dentist succeeded in the 1866 in sending a radio message through the air between two high peaks in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia at a distance of 18 miles. Incidentally Congress did not support his request for appropriations to pursue his idea already patented and the entire investigation was dropped with a result that Marconi is credited with the honor of having invented wireless telegraphy. Some 34 years later. This is an irony of history. That eight hundred sixty six radio message once it had penetrated the atmosphere
is reaching out to the stars some six hundred six trillion miles away and for all we know it may have reached and been decoded by some super civilization. During transit a man will utilize many sources of energy for his own and interplanetary interstellar intergalactic spaces for example capacity of radiation consisting of high energy protons electrons neutrons photons and even neutrinos wave radiation of infrared ultraviolet x rays gamma rays cosmic dust free radicals. Of had rocks aligned nitrogen oxide hydrogen and so forth magnetic and gravitational fields. Also the local resources of individual stars and of about in this debate 5 percent of which have planets will be tapped for use by man when he decides to habitate feasible celestial bodies. For example the derivation of water as well as other minerals and
chemicals from the surface strata as well as oxygen infrared energy from their radioactivity interior. Analysis and harnessing of whatever materials will be deem useful. The synthesis of biomedical compounds. Such as amino acids proteins from primitive combination of elements such as ammonium methane carbon monoxide and Caballe dockside self working sulfurous compounds and so forth. The synthesis of foodstuffs caviar political and identical in structure to the natural project product has already been accomplished. The highly sophisticated approach to the creation of living cells. If technically minded civilizations are encountered profitable exchange should be encouraged to the benefit of the host and the society of man. To accomplish the exploration and habitation of the cosmos. Man must rely not only on power. Todays and tomorrows spaceships using chemical and ion propulsion are sufficient for the solar
system but hardly beyond it. There are some highly advanced precision instruments that technology has made available today which will along with many others forthcoming be of great value. Here are a few. A device that can be caught accurately switching time variations of one light inch recalling that see the speed of light is one hundred eighty six thousand two hundred three hundred seventy two miles per second. And instrument whose sensitivity shows differences at the level of 10 to the minus 18 is what's as advertised as the amount of energy less than the power of moonlight on the surface of a virus on a cloudy night. A device for measuring distances by means of crystals to the accuracy of eight tenths of an inch in 25000 miles. And instruments that can detect the weight difference of two words added to a 30 volume encyclopedia while another chemical balance converge the difference between two small objects side by side and when placed
one on top of the other a device that can measure variations of infrared energy in the melting of an ice cube. Five miles distant. Photography permitting legible photography permitting legibility of newspaper prints the 65000 feet as occurred recently in the U-2 taking pictures of. The. Soviet missiles in Cuba. Oil diffusion pumps that can create a vacuum of 10 to the minus 70 millimeters of mercury a degree not equalled by space experiments. All these instruments offset the questioning by our startle of the validity of sense evidence of the unaided senses. Man cannot distinguish on his skin between the pain of extreme cold or extreme heat. He has no built in system to warn him of lethal radiation before irreparable damage is done. He cannot perceive the early warnings of an imminent earthquakes as the rats can.
He has poor spatial orientation over large bodies of water or land. In contrast to some animals he cannot discern the slow movement of the sun across the horizon as the eyes of the fiddler crab can. He lacks the radar equipment of the bat and that of the dolphin and the visual acuity of the owl and the heat sensing faculty of the rattlesnake man is recognized. That is optical window in the electromagnetic spectrum of nature's energies is pitifully inadequate for him to enjoy study and understand the wonders of the universe. Furthermore. He not only is not quite sure what is best for him to teach he often does not know how to eat or when to stop eating. In space as in the Earth's environment he finds it expedient to use the hydrated in the radiated foods without realizing the forfeit in health by the prolonged use. Neither his taste buds nor a stomach sense the nutritional inferiority and latent danger in such foods.
This is not the place to discuss the matter further other than just to mention the high incidence of cancer in certain species when fed he had weighted food. I would like to state however that man's bias. Often obscures the rationale that fresh and uncooked digestible foods as a period to those he is tempering. He's tampering with. As the human race increases at the present rate. Of 1 million every 5 days concepts of surgery Internal Medicine preventive medicine molecular biology biomedical engineering and many other disciplines tend to blend with eugenics you Phenix in your techniques in the process of leading man to adapt to accelerating revolutions both external and internal. This is essential to the venture into space and the habitation of suitable planets in the universe for history. Yes H.G. Wells want is becoming a race between education and catastrophe. Mother Earth has not always been kind to her children. Her unequal
distribution and watch are in food resources are examples. And then there are natural disasters in terms of hurricanes tornadoes. Volcanic eruptions forest fires floods and earthquakes. The great says make event of January 24. Fifteen hundred fifty six. The worst single Holocaust in modern times that the film mankind. Swallowed up. Eight hundred and thirty thousand people in the province of China surpassing the man created in one thousand forty five nuclear inferno of Hiroshima Nagasaki by a factor of 5. Today it is believe it the series of Sept. 20 is cataclysmic eruptions of Thera wiped out more than one civilization in the Aegean and could have been heard as far away as Scandinavia. The amount of matter expelled at that time exceeded many times that of the 1883 cracker toy eruption that destroyed three hundred Indonesian towns and was tidal wave was felt around the globe while the earth's daylight was affected for weeks thereafter. The Times of past when
geological disasters and celestial events were explained on the basis of divine intervention. Mankind has thus far survived all the challenges of nature only to find itself plagued by the by products. The results of his own advanced technology thus justifying his efforts to build a home elsewhere in the universe. This should not appear strange any more than the reasons for the colonization of the Western Hemisphere by Europeans. It is reasonable to expect the following events. Before the year 2500 the natural resources of fossil fuels will have been depleted and that combustion will cause an increase in the carbon dioxide of the air as well as a rise in the overall atmospheric temperature utilization of solar energy and the harnessing of nuclear power will hasten the melting of the polar caps resulting in the inundation of millions of square miles of valuable land. Pollution of the oceans and less checked will have reached a critical point in the marine supply of
man's nutrition. Air pollution toxicity will further reduce cherished fauna and flora. Increase in fresh air will be a most urgent problem. However we recognise that chemically pure and toxin we watch are available for drinking purposes is not always best. The man has certain substances with immunological properties common to spring water will be absent susceptibility to disease will therefore be increased. Industrial ills can reach epidemic proportions but the fear of an increased pathogen resistance to drugs. Cemetaries will have to yield their place to accommodate the living. Artificial and computed intelligence school program every step of the individual. The entire social structure of man will be governed by the science of numbers both literally and figuratively. In striving for effortless living human reproduction out outside the human body will be commonplace and dull currency
as we have known it will have long ceased. We shall have become experts in calling the price of everything and totally incapable of evaluating anything. I must stop here. But the new issues and the number and severity of the problems as yet unforeseen will continue to come out. This is a dismal picture for the future of man on this planet. Eventually space travel and planet planetary habitation will be the only way out and will constitute the greatest challenge to man's death on concepts. And what about communications. In spite of 6000 languages with 50000 of the world's population using only 7. Mandarin 15 percent English 10 percent understand the five Spanish Russian German Japanese approximately 1 percent each. The spoken word has not proven as effective as one would like. With the whistle language of the canary Islanders. And of some parts of Turkey offer a remedy. Already
universal understanding among earthlings and those in other plants be better served by music mathematics or crafts. Incidentally the skin is an excellent receptor for communications. When sound and sight become impossible now man has reached the age of electronics. The third stage in the evolution of communications since the oral oral period that was followed by the Cairo topographic Europe. Aside from the usual list of dangers that will face man is it leaves you earth and makes its home on the planet of the solar system or of another star. As for example the invisible companion of Bandit's six light years away. There is inherent danger of uncaring of incurring serious disease due to disturbance of the biological rhythms. Along with the physics along with physical fatigue reduced mental activity and so forth created by proven hormonal imbalance and variation is back chemistry. The danger of increases stept ability to cancer looms on the horizon.
Experiments with the American cockroach in day night reversal of the Socratic rhythms have shown for answers that almost 99 percent incidence of malignancy. Then there is also the possibility of terrestrial contamination busto away germs from the joining space ships and the crews causing epidemics that mind resist existing methods of treatment. On the other hand as I mentioned Tokyo in 1062 there is a possibility that a cure for cancer could come from an extraterrestrial virus. Growth in certain types of malignancies have been known to requests and have become eradicated in the face of the coexistent exceed the disease. As for example in a receptiveness. Such tumor dissolving class it called on quality means tumor dissolving reactions would be a blessing to mankind. And while on the subject the health. It should be mentioned that the potential dangers of copper skillet in microwave radiation to man skin Hema to
Toward a new world
Habitation of the cosmos, part one
Producing Organization
San Diego State University
Contributing Organization
University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
If you have more information about this item than what is given here, or if you have concerns about this record, we want to know! Contact us, indicating the AAPB ID (cpb-aacip/500-jd4pq456).
Episode Description
This program presents the first part of a lecture from Dr. Constantine Generales, Medical Society of the State of New York.
Series Description
Lectures recorded at San Diego State College's 25th Annual Institute on World Affairs. The Institute brings together world leaders to discuss issues in politics, culture, science, and more.
Global Affairs
Public Affairs
Media type
Embed Code
Copy and paste this HTML to include AAPB content on your blog or webpage.
Producing Organization: San Diego State University
Speaker: Generales, Constantine D.
Speaker: Generales, Minos D.
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 68-9-13 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:29:48
If you have a copy of this asset and would like us to add it to our catalog, please contact us.
Chicago: “Toward a new world; Habitation of the cosmos, part one,” 1968-03-05, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed February 4, 2023,
MLA: “Toward a new world; Habitation of the cosmos, part one.” 1968-03-05. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. February 4, 2023. <>.
APA: Toward a new world; Habitation of the cosmos, part one. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from