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The African revolution program number four. The multi-racial myth. The sound is European but the voice of. Africa in the Portuguese colony of Angola 30 African school children are taught to mimic the songs of the white man to sing of the Fatherland they have never seen the Portuguese were the first to come to Africa and they probably will be the last to go. And you could hear a similar sound almost anywhere across the span of Central Africa where an attempt is being made to stall the inevitable. The African revolution. Yes.
The African revolution as sound as they haven't cooperated to a continent in turmoil a six part study of Africa south of the Sahara based on a 15 country tour with a tape recorder by broadcaster Harry russkie. This fourth programme in the series titled The Multi Racial myth. There's it's the heart of black Africa the Borgia gays colonies of Angola and Mozambique and the Central African Federation of Rhodesia and Laos a land of vast strip of white dominated territories stretching from the Indian to the Atlantic oceans. Despite their diversity the territories have this in common. Their governments claim to be working out a national policy of multi-racial ism. There is a change taking place along a large strip of white dominated land that stretches from the Indian to the Atlantic oceans. The forces of black nationalism crushing down from the north and the doctrine of continuing and lasting white supremacy drifting up from South Africa mix here with sometimes violent results. And
all across this land mass that includes Angola the two Rhodesia and Yass the land in Mozambique the doctrine most talked of at least by the minority white rulers is that of a multi racial society. Whether this is rationalization or reality whether it does now or can ever exist is the focus of this survey. First let's look at the Federation. It is a landlocked mass five times the size of Britain strapped in by the Portuguese territories on either side by the Royal Republic of the Congo and the newly freed nation of technique to the north and by the rich republic of South Africa across the Limpopo River to the south and the three British territories. There are about seven and three quarter million people. Each territory with about the same population. But the areas and the racial mixtures are far different. Northern Rhodesia is twice the size of Southern Rhodesia and five times bigger than the
Assa land. And yes the land has only 8000 whites. Northern Rhodesia 80000 and Southern Rhodesia 200000. These three as a self-governing colony into protectorates are assembled into a reluctant and explosive Federation a union which almost certainly cannot but somehow must survive. And today the leaders in the ass land are absolutely determined to break with the Federation. Meet the. This is the sound of a nationalist politician at work. A crowd warmer you might say preparing a thousand people on a cool night in Blantyre the capital of nuance a land for
the appearance of Dr. Hastings Banda the 57 year old physician who returned from London after 40 years of self exile to lead a poverty stricken people with promises and bombast. These are sounds and thoughts are recorded outside his home in. The hope or the as he talks the doctor away or is this the. Symbol of total freedom. Mr. Kenya Kenya has the same sort of thing that they talk to his props like. The doctor talks a young man another microphone translates.
To. We. Lost a lot of sleep on. Board will. Come about I. Was writing the the. Thing he is absolutely enjoying destroying my ship as he talks and waving his buggy whip and keeping his chest laughing with the crowd. Dr Banda since his return as a Messiah to his people and some believe he is a messiah in the Aslan has conducted an intense membership
campaign to get funds to set up an autonomous country everywhere he goes loudspeakers proclaim his presence his own paper the Malawi party press heralds each of his pronouncements his party is said to have one and a half million people in his membership list. The impoverished people of meow salon are used to organizing the country dark dust amid threadbare beauty was almost entirely the creation of the Church of Scotland. It was a stablished by its first the most famous missionary Doctor Livingston and its chief city Blantyre was named after his birthplace. It came under British protection in 1891 but the influences of the church are everywhere even in its new songs a freedom of. The will
of the load. The Los Lobos the end of the. Now I'd like you to explain what that song means. We ask to go to any bussiness we are going to do full level government with a M.O. Yes we are going to pull up the government. You want this country to be all on our civs that's the chorus of the song.
It is a country. Ninety nine point six percent black its only real resource is labor. It has no known wealth. The fear is the Dr Banda with his promises and ambition may pull it out of the Federation without an economic plan. The arch enemy of Dr Banda is the federal prime minister former boxer and railroad engineer Serai Walensky. So hostile are the feelings between the two men the doctor bounder refuses to meet with sorority to discuss any future Federation plans. And this is a Royce feeling about Dr bounders concept of pulling the Assa land out of the Union. It's not in Dr Bendis powered upon Iceland out of the federation it is in fact within the powers of the Parliament at Westminster to legislate the dissolution of the Federation. But I have good grounds for maintaining that such an act would conflict with the convention entered into between the British government and the government of the Federation in April 957. Therefore the
responsibility of any action to break the federation by legislation of the British Parliament would be a heavy one. One hope for it if it does go is that it will stay linked with Northern Rhodesia a far different country. Part of the rich copper belt and the chief source of the Federation's Well her leader is a different kind of man he is Kenneth Copeland who told me of his past and his plans for the future. First of all I was born at a mission place. I had visited Mission Church of Scotland. I got my education there. Then you went to the only government CSA going to school in the country. After the teachers cost for two years I went back to teach at the Mission place and after teaching for some seven years I got interested in finding. From the hours stepped off my feet by political activities. And I've been in politics since 1949.
Now all. My party is as I said United National Independence Party. We stand for uncompromising African government even know the militia. That does not mean we don't value the presence of other people there like some of us from the 2000 Europeans about 6000 patients and about 1000 to 2000 other races. We want them to stay there. After their fellow human beings and want them to be happy. But we object very strongly to the idea held by. Prime Minister of the so-called Federation of Ed. Yes land along with NC when he says because we the government must remain in the hands of a few Europeans. We object to that very strong very naturally.
And. I can see no peace coming to our country. Until Africans themselves no other nation has the now. And yes the land control the affairs of the country will the Federation of the three states survive in your opinion. I'm afraid. This federation was. Imposed on the African people. Nine million in all. It was imposed for wrong reasons. It has been run. But. We have lost confidence completely in the people concerned and it must break. There no two ways about it must break and then a cause. It would be up to us to build federations of our own choice. And a further question is Should Northern Rhodesia also leave the fragile Federation What would then happen to Southern Rhodesia. Could it go it alone.
So Will Nancy has a subpoena and it would find the greatest difficulty in sustaining the added burden of defense external representation and many other costs of standing alone including a proportion of the federal debt borrowed on the strength of a much greater economic entity. Moreover the economy would undoubtedly lose its present momentum. The market would shrink the federal credit structure which is so important to industrial and commercial progress would go and could not be replaced within the smaller economy of Southern Rhodesia alone. But the commitments of health housing services to industry would remain and increase. It's important to realize that the Northern Rhodesian copper belt is the second richest copper deposit in the world. The mines have an annual output worth almost 400 million dollars and in some years copper contributes as much as half of the Federation's tax and export revenue to find out what the federation is like what it means what its real prospects are. I went to
Salzburg. It is the capital of the Federation the place where trends are set and the great debates are fought Solsbury is a surprise. It is a white wide city. It's pink and beige buildings are new and elegant. Its avenues are as wide as the sham cities and Paris made that way originally So an eight pair team of oxen could make a U-turn. But now its streets are crowded with modern automobiles. Its altitude of almost 5000 feet makes its climate like Nairobi's invigorating and magnificence. This is Sir Godfrey Huggins now Lord Melbourne first prime minister of the Central African Federation a living history book of the past and present in Central Africa. Nearly everybody and God country in its present stage has been haven't they forget that there is of a similar vein have at it on time and those have a ball in half and you are never at an entirely different country.
And therefore most of the jabs from the so-called Western gentleman are no more about it. It's all founded on a false premises. You've got to go back to see what emerges from the we're quite civilized Now I admit that 50 years ago we generally just escaped the slave days and people don't appreciate we've gone a very long way they think we haven't advanced a troll because the Europeans have undergone a revolution. Actually that I couldn't afford 10 years ago. How much of it is our truism and how much of it is also second hand as I would like to guess but it doesn't matter. The changes taking place and at a decent atmosphere is being created. If only the indigenous inhabitants could be left to work out their own
salvation without being brainwashed and indoctrinated from outside. Do you feel that the process of evolutionary change that is taking place here will continue without any great violence. Oh well you know this is always considered very round talk about savages but the fact remains that most of the mass childe Savage is from no fault of their own and there hasn't been time to bring them out of that stage and therefore they are very inflammable on dangerous material want to demagogue it out of them. It would be a better man to say that you could settle this thing without a rot you think that both races can exist here at peace if they are both living as equals here. Yes I think that this is not anything like the difficulty people
anticipate because we all choose our friends whatever color way. And the thing will set itself on that basis. People as far as public places are concerned of course they gradually got to be have everybody and if anybody who counts down to the lake can stay away from the public places that seems to be theirs too or choose their own frames. There's always been a bit of intermarriage you know small amount always will be about I think this business is about producing a sort of Kappy out of a population. If the integration is grossly exaggerated. Do you yourself sir through your years of experience here feel that there's anything basically different between the black man and the white man as far as their potential development is concerned. It's both potential skins and I don't think there's any evidence of the new difference at
all a matter of when and bottom and over the centuries that different. Actually they did to me quite amazing the advances that they have made. When you consider that when the pioneers came here in 1890 they were all pretty stone age gentlemen. Do you think that this federation will in fact survive the pressures that are on it now. It must survive if there's to be any hope for either race. Otherwise there would be a poverty stricken shit with no future for anybody. Africans of most them are out them. There are in fact more Africans but the whites some material things have far more to lose. Roughly one half of the land is owned by whites and the white even though he has changed remarkably by say South African standards. His spot to retain
his privilege and prejudice. It's true that signs that one said cyclists dogs and Africans are not allowed have been removed but many places are still out of bounds to the Africans. This isn't a time when the official pronouncements say the Federation is attempting a multi racial society. Professor Terence ranger of the University College in Salzburg. A militant fighter for African Rights outlines some of the fundamental differences in the lives of the blacks and the whites. One of the most important figures. If I did give it to you it accurately would be the average annual wage of a European and the average annual wage of an African. I countered that give you the figures but the disparities is enormous it's something on the lines of 800 900 pounds a year for Europeans and something like a hundred and twenty pounds a year for Africans or even less than that.
The most important piece of legislation here is the land apportionment Act which divides the land in southern cities you have between Africans and non-Africans or in effect Africans and Europeans. Now this has two different effects. First of all as far as farming land is concerned land in the rural areas it gives the European slightly more than half of the available farming land subcommittees yet. And secondly it controls life in the towns. All the big towns in southern Rhodesia fall in the area which is European according to the land Bushman act. And that has meant in the past and still means any that Africans cannot freely move about the towns in the sense that they cannot live anywhere they want in the towns they have to live in a special area set aside by local authorities in the so-called native townships. There is now there has in the last five years developed some high cost African housing and some low cost European housing. So there's almost beginning to be an overlap at the bottom but it's still true to say that the great mass of
Africans live in very small houses if they're lucky enough to get a house from a family atoll president majority of Europeans here enjoy a fairly high standard of living. At least one. And African servants even if they're Europeans employed in the kind of jobs which in England or in Europe wouldn't be able to sustain that and living up to the African the greatest injustice in a society which is supposed to be multi racial is limited but this is expressed by Mr Schomer aria the editor of a chain of newspapers for Africans owned by a Canadian newspaper tycoon Roy Thomson. This is just on the political union like this it is the limitations on the federal. In Chinese we gave the Europeans who compose 3 percent of the total federal population and 98 percent control of the electorate. When the Africans. Oh aye 8 million and gumbos by far the majority of the population
control only 2 percent of the electorate. By insisting on truck but in financial qualifications we favor the Europeans and not the majority of the mass African workers. It has been possible in practice to remove African influence from the federal role. And this is a major problem here. Aware of this great problem the British Government appointed a commission in one thousand fifty nine to study the whole structure of the Federation under the chairmanship of Lord Monckton. One of its members was Elspeth Huxley. She discusses the commission's findings on the Federation. Its main recommendations were that it should continue because although spite of the difficulties economically it had been a success. So it was felt that it would be an economic disaster to break it up. At the same time it was possible for anybody to be there for more than five minutes without realising that it was this late
and hated and resented by the great majority of Africans in Naslund Northern Rhodesia who regarded it as a form of white domination. And this commission made recommendations for very drastic changes in the old way of loosening the political grip of the federation what it really in fact recommended was that each of those three countries should pretty well go its own way politically but have a strong form of economic. Federation link and. Well since there are very little really has happened except in the case in Iceland which was obvious from the first it is it's an African country that is a very small amount of European development there. And I as a man had in fact become but fully self-governing within the Federation. The whole thing is now waiting to see what happens in Northern Rhodesia which is in a very troubled state at the moment. We recommended should have an African majority in the government but the pen should not be entirely blanketed out of existence because of course no one
in Rhodesia has the very rich copper mines which are the great source of economic wealth for the whole Federation. Of course as you know the. On the other pins aside the great leader the prime minister of the Federation is the royal Lensky. He's undoubtedly one of the outstanding personalities of Africa and he has fought tooth and nail to preserve this federation which he believes in it passionately both as an economic thing but also as a living example of partnership between the races he thinks the races must work out some form of actual partnership. Well is it not true though that in his idea of partnership some are more equal than others certainly and we we made a great many recommendations in our report to try and remove all existing examples of racial discrimination. I think it is it is not sufficient to perhaps realise that the Southern Rhodesia has been progressively removing these it's been going in the opposite direction from the Union of South Africa for the last five or six years. But the pace has been too
slow for modern times and commission thought it was too slow and we made a lot of quite drastic recommendations that removing discrimination in all sorts of ways I mean there was still that when we went there at the hotels and so on. Most of them were open but it was still discrimination in cinemas in the public transport and questions of land. Well since we deported almost all those have been dealt with. Laws have been changed but attitudes die slow or there was a fungus in Rhodesia referring benevolently to our natives. Some of the old guard cannot get used to the idea that they must not only accept the African as a partner but as an equal. And that way of thinking is reflected by former journalist pharmacist and civic politician Charles alley an Irishman who has been in Rhodesia for 50 years. I asked him if he thought the black man was inherently inferior to the white man. I don't think that's what I did out about it he's an inferior human being joe white men don't need
any doubt about it tell me you didn't mention as I have only shooting chitchat cept among the dozen of them on the ground under a tree. Many many times and this engine that I get but they're just like children talking to one another. Just like a lot of children they haven't got a sense of obligation and that a sense of responsibility and that another got no understanding of what is a government by the end of the case is what is a municipality today in Rhodesia. Alderman Alley is in the minority. Most of the whites have accepted the inevitable. For instance the red or white head prime minister of Southern Rhodesia. I'm building a nonracial nation of all those who have homes is of one that has the greatest hope of long term success. There are also those who say that your process of racial equality is not proceeding rapidly enough. What would your comment be about that. Well in a country where things are not changing by the you have a changing by the month and
even by the week I shouldn't think it was physically possible to go very much faster than we are going. It might be a legitimate criticism that we started rather late but the current speed is quite surprising to us. In your own mind however there is no question what would that be correct to say there is no question that this policy of the partnership of the whites and the nonwhite can exist in Africa. I am quite certain that it can and I am quite certain in sudden the DEA's of the good will. It is after all the home of people of all races have the European are now some of them getting into the fifth generation in this country and know no other home and they are far more valuable with the skills that they have than having people from other countries for short time contracts where it's not their home and they don't know the local conditions. The African of course is happy I'm an enclave but then
Association and the members of the colored computer and we believe that all can be welded into one common force working for the common and all for their own country and we are seeking a decent nationalism now as opposed to black nationalism or white nationalism. Some of the Africans but apparently a small number agree some Africans have turned their backs on the black nationalists and have been answered by violence. One of them is Paul Jeanette's a member of surrenders party. I have had a very difficult life incident DDA the African nationalists think that we must all belong to one political party and the head democracy means that men should have the right of his own mind. I joined the editor but it was I found the day after nationalists and playing their cards properly. And then because of my mind to join the European led party they
started a victim izing me in my shops giving me best known threats to trumpet bumping my living house and giving Demick to my relatives who were living with me at that particular place. Don't they call you member and African members of the united federal party or chum bases in the software they use here. Well you know not only John visit we give a net change of names we are called to trumpets and sellouts Stooges puppets also for names that can come through their mind. I want to give in to us. Yes the large number of Africans stand against the United federal party and what it represents. Recently the Nationalist Party of Southern Rhodesia headed by Joshua on KOMO was banned. This is a Roy's explanation Mr incomers body was banned because
of its readiness. The result of violence terrorism and other lawlessness. I hold the belief that when Sarek got acted against the national democratic body most Africans breathed a sigh of relief and saw red white hoods action was widely supported. In Saul's great today there are still wide areas of discrimination. For instance the leading hotel Mikel's facing sessile Square still allows in Africans only as workers prejudice has been in Rhodesia a long time brought there by men like the great Empire Builder sessile Rhodes. Perhaps the only man to have two countries named after him and it is that prejudice even if now it lives slowly like a clean fog it is that prejudice that may ruin the Federation's hope for survival. This is African editor Shomer Arya and the present federation is not going to survive. I know it will break up all
of it very modified form would survive and Africans and not only the interested in them and me a socialist but an issue they want to take the controlling interest of. Government and this is the utopians and suddenly she did not take it head to geet and bind like and this is the summary of problem here. DNA resistance of the Europeans to majority tittle and the insistence of the Africans from and go to Jeddah. There are other factors too to be considered. The federation is far from a United place in many ways. On the African side there is still the haunting question of tribalism differences of cultures among the Africans even today when the news is delivered over the rotation Broadcasting System. It must be translated into eight separate languages on the European side of the road nations feel that they are being betrayed by the Colonial Office in London. They feel that people in Britain the people
outside Africa generally have not taken time to understand their dilemma. Two principals have been at play in the dissolution of the British Empire the greatest empire the world has ever known. The first is the granting of self rule to such British settled all white countries as Canada and Australia. The second is the granting of independence to colonize lands of nonwhite peoples such as India and Gunna in the Federation. Both of these principles are at odds with each other. To give independence to the blacks means in danger NG those of British stock. If the principle of a multi racial society were working this would not be a problem. As it functions today too little too late. The observer can only conclude with Lord Melbourne's words. It would be a bold man to say that you could settle this thing without a riot. The.
This is the deceptive quiet the soft sound of children singing in another country where riots and death and fear are frequent occurrences. This is the sound of African children singing in neighboring Angola where they have been told that they live in a multi-racial society a society dictated by dictators Salazar and Portugal. Angola and its sister country Mozambique across the continent divided by the Central African
Federation are amongst the poorest and least known on the continent. Yet between them you'll find the only railroad that crosses Africa. You'll find to an apparent absence of color prejudice and many paradoxes that baffled the observer. Perhaps in the last 50 years fewer than 50 foreign correspondents have visited the Portuguese territory and not long ago I was one of these. I FOUND THE WANTED TO BE A beautiful European city on the Atlantic coast built on a bay it has the most magnificent beaches on the west coast of Africa. But there are soldiers everywhere in a city conscripts from Lisbon come to keep a peace in a jungle war hundreds of miles from the deceptive quiet of Luanda the spite the fact that the Portuguese have been in Africa for nearly five hundred years. The Africans outside Luanda remain as primitive or more so than any on the continent. A high Portuguese government official Mr. Dick who happened to be
in Luanda offered an official explanation. It is still at. Well Chile has been of life and that he is in Africa. But it's also true that it was only possible for the last 50 70 yes to He'll be in F you get what you call being in Africa. I mean because first of all you gotta get you had to get off second Blakes dateable. And who would be the first duty of of of being on high using the standards of these of people you get to hate the heat of the sleeping illnesses of malaria of lepers of all those dateable tropical diseases. And I challenge any African country on many African countries if they got teeth. Of those places. Oh I call you like we did it despite the fact the Portuguese say they have no racial
bias few Africans if any born in either Angola or Mozambique have received a university education. Mr de Konya offered an official explanation for this too. But as with most Portuguese claims there are few validated statistics available. Every boy who finished high school in the state at this and wants to attend university if he has no means to attend universities the government pays their trip to Portugal where he can attend university and gives him scholarships. You know that he may be able to finish his studies. Now I can tell you that we have never found out because we have no discrimination policy as you know. How many students we have in university because if a boy comes to Lisbon and he inscribes himself to in the university we don't ask if he's black or white though he's brown or yellow. We just ask if he fulfills the condition of
admittance into the university. And finally this year we find out that we had last year 1500 students from the overseas prophesying standing in universes in Portugal which was 10 percent of the university population of Portugal. When I say f the people from the overseas provinces I cannot tell you that all of them were Africans. Many of course were Europeans. But it doesn't mean there were people that fulfilled the conditions to go into university. And it's not the method of Calabar case. If they feel feel they go if they don't feel they don't go. I understand your explanation quite well but may I say what the critics say and perhaps you can help me with the answer. And they say that the fact that you do not have the statistics to show how many of these people were of indigenous African background is almost a convenient way of not reporting the fact that there are are almost
none. That's just not quite so sad because as I told you we never thought of statistics. We never thought of the need to tell the story who was absolutely natural to us you see. If a boy to fulfil the conditions that he was he could go into the university. But now we see that the will is does not understand very well what but I see so natural. The fact is much of the world had never heard of Angola until the antes Salazar exile Captain Gallo boa seized the ship Santa Maria in a daring feat of piracy on the high seas. If you wanted to go there and the Portuguese did not encourage visitors and since that time Angola has received more attention than during its entire previous history. In Angola itself in February one thousand sixty one sections of the country entered a stage of active revolt on February 4th. Africans stormed the some pollo prison and in the northern province on March 15th the Congo tribe went into massive
revolt and at least several hundred white men women and children were killed sometimes atrociously. Since that time the Portuguese anxious to defend their convictions and their right to stay in Africa have welcomed select members of the world press but they refused to acknowledge the presence of any real local nationalist movement. If Angola nationalism is a mystery to the Portuguese It is not to some missionaries who have worked in the troubled area of Angola. The Reverend Clifford Parsons of the Baptist Missionary Society of London spent some 20 years amongst the people of northern Angola. I think the primary reason was the upsurge of African nationalism which is swept down from Ghana 1957 the French artist 58 the Khan the 960 and then because the back Kong in the building in the French gong as well as they were and were now independent the Angolan back on the LSO said well when does that
come all says there has been this backlog of ill treatment harshness of government and this all boiled up and came to a head. So I think you got the the two angles on it you got the rising African nationalism and against that you got this feeling in African hearts that they have had a raw deal and there are many many ends. What form did the treatment take. You know you were there for a good number of years and you would have a very good perspective of it. Well I think that primer away. It's what I would call the difficulty of obtaining justice. They had no rights they were subject to the control of movement and so on. They had certain privileges in law but these were often overridden by corruption. And Africans were constantly saying well we just can't get justice they were often deprived of their lands. This is a major factor I would have said in the last 10 years
when the white population of Angola grew from about 80000 to 200000 in 10 Yes that's a growth of a thousand a month mostly immigrants. And these people went north many of them and they began to develop coffee plantations and this very often meant depriving Africans their lands and of course there's contract labor system. This is Lee. The thing that has been featured mostly and is no doubt a tool that it has awakened deep resentments because Africans are denied the opportunity of working on their own holdings and are recruited for Webb on Africa on European plantations to call it contract labor is to be euphemistic because the man has no choice in the matter. It's forced labor. And an ad even Portuguese let Mitt This doesn't mean to say that the whole picture is being black and that ah good Portuguese and Africans as well as
asses would recognise this but the system is it's been evil and unfortunately the Portuguese government of today is not Shan enough resilience in the rapid and developing an African scene. In Angola today the official Portuguese line is that there is no forced labor of any kind and go away as a country the size of all of Western Europe. Its total population is about four and a half million. There has always been a labor shortage since the days of the slave traders when so many of the workers were taken off and so in the United States the official line is that the labor laws have always been written to protect the blacks. But on occasion some civil servants took advantage of the laws. Mr. to can you. You can never judge a government by their think the legatees of its civil servants. Maybe that could have been some
sporadic cases where one of two officials have been helping an employer future employee or potential employee to find the labor supply that he needs. But that doesn't mean that that is the policy of the government. And on the contrary I can give you many. Cases where the government punished severely those civil servants. I think in the last 10 years we have more or less than half of one dozen of cases and those spent of those went to the dismissal and be sent him there to the courts where they have even been subject to a criminal procedure. The Portuguese have made much of the fact that when the Africans in Angola started the rebellion they committed violent atrocities. The leader of one of the insurgent groups was holding Roberta who makes his headquarters in Leopoldville. He pointed out that it may look less atrocious to kill with clean modern weapons. But his
forces just didn't have them. And he continued to do that. I proceeded for a month I had never happened. You must remember that the population was. Would trade by the horror that we are committed against them as a human being I deplore not. They think happened in this kind of war. How about where our entire population is being victimized is not both with restraint all of the people with open with terror. For their part the Portugese say they have not committed any atrocities. This is the written answer to a question I put to a Portuguese information officer in Angola references to acts of mass killing and my reason why I made it only in the Western press December Western press is so was sensible
and forgot completely to inform Dean's measure of public opinion that in the middle of March where merited by the ten least one thousand and five Anderson white and aftermath men women and children and several thousands of negatives. To find this war is not an easy thing. Hidden paths and a map jungle covered villages and guerrilla shots out of the wild. I went to a hospital and wanted to speak to some of the men who have been involved in this remote war and the hospital ward seemed proof of the Portuguese claim that they are as they say color blind. There were casualties of mixed color black and white victims of war side by side and through an interpreter I spoke first to a white man one eye and bandages and a look of haunted agony in the other. Can he describe the events that led him to come here to the hospital.
What in a moment but if you mean that he's in the business that out of. It and you seem to think the Mets better get a lot of the heat from I think just a center and to see I don't stay in a three piece. I'm just I don't mean the rack meaning did or does it was RAH. Set the meters each side of the road when they were attacked by terrorists that 200 meters from where they came from the bush and then they attacked them. Is he a soldier is and everybody a. Civilian is a civilian. Does he have any idea why they terrorists are doing what they are doing. What is his feeling about this. Still wish this was a nice. Cake is not the same as movies pizza not that even this crank up the heart of man
with the idea to. Throw out the peons among all. But why do they feel that way does he think because since he works around the Africans or Africans here together with Europeans say but why they don't want the little peons here. They want independence and they don't want their opinion. Like anybody and Haitian and. I don't want to have PNAC go. Anywhere. Why so they kill. He doesn't know this then. The casually of this kind of war of every war is the common man seldom knowing what the battle is about and why is suddenly a part of it. Suddenly he is a victim of it. Side by side with the young Portuguese was an African victim of the insurgents. And I asked through the interpreter what happened to him he doesn't know he doesn't know what up on. The East. Because now he's you know he was attacked there. So he's you know he's put all. These Or he
doesn't know anything about these wife to him. It's impossible to know. The extension off the Democrats. Why does he think that the terrorists are doing what they're doing. Does he feel that they're getting direction from outside. Specify it as to what he's distancing that is huge but all within Fatah which there's a dish cooked up with up can see it. The. Most Because that you can still cast in the sun to ne it that it was a body and something may have but the believes. That it's people from outside. Making the campaign. Why do they keep fighting in the sense that at the same question that the you know Africans and Europeans seem to be living together here at peace at least in the hospital as we see it. Why is it that the African feels that he wants
to get rid of the Ur peon of their. Step mother has on him go into the mental but I'm sure you were fricken sump was askin a pussy to name you can guess I will call me the set. Up active in the agency up and resign things have been reduced get him a kooky gusset anti gun Internet. Stuff I just think no one can see he doesn't understand why those sinks and the ops that sinks we don't have to. Normal days as before. But the normal days as before are gone and gone forever were the African revolution has touched the Portuguese have managed to keep their empire intact over five centuries but the winds of change have not stopped at their borders.
They now are making hurried gestures to assure the Africans they really do mean to establish a true multi racial society. When afternoon I journeyed about 50 miles to the end of the paved road to where an Army captain had taken over the job of educating the children of refugees of the war under the cool protection of giant trees his men taught them to read and write he said. Right now when I was kind of hurt if ever a son was reading our betters without question I revere. And then the capstan lined up the children to sing the visitors the song The captain is trying to teach these children the feeling of nationalism nationalism of Portugal. Me. It.
The army of Salazar has decided to take over the job begun by the missionaries of educating the children now that most of the missionaries have been forced to leave. But in the education there is a great deal of propaganda. The song says and goal is a wonderful place a wonderful province of Portugal for this is the basic Portuguese argument for colonialism that Angola and Mozambique are merely overseas territories overseas provinces of Portugal. Robin Parsons feels that the Portuguese are living an illusion. You can't make another country and your loss just by calling it set. And the Africans just shrug this off they say it's ridiculous. They and the whole
point is this that Portugal came to land. Nearly 500 years ago and it's true 48 too. But her. Association was really only with the coast land. It wasn't until the middle of the last century that explorers began to penetrate. But even so right into the present century the Africans in the hinterland govern themselves. I've met old men who acted as the government because when I watch people about when they were young men said that the best by tradition and by direct African experience this is really just a specious statement to say that this is Portugal Portugal would like it to be Portugal that it isn't a fact of life but the Portuguese are reluctant to part with their empire. They were the first and they have no intention of leaving. Their answer is a standard
one here expressed by Mr. De NIRO. We'll never leave these places we will stay because one of three things will happen. I think nothing happens and we stay there something happens and then I think we act killed and you stay dead I think we leave and we we win and we still stay to light. For their part the insurgents are just as adamant they have no intention of giving up the fight for independence which has begun in such terrible bloodshed. The insurgents know Portugal is a poor country heavily dependent on her coffee plantations in Angola for revenue to continue the war. They have concentrated on destroying the crops. Hold on Roberta ho feels that we don't have what you got to not survive. We have hope that it caught up to beat up and so on because we are very aware of the danger of a long war which we will destroy public property within fell to the Iranian
economy. Up to now we have limited. I want to get plantation because Evan if we were in a row we have not rendered around for all time. We have tried to avoid to destruction of book to read because they are a construct. We'll be able to more difficult however. You can be up to it when you go off with New York change you know present policy of Britain and then we'll show how to destroy it or the company. We had to leave. It there is no change soon. We should begin and then you would want to go early. And well and have been in. He's grown and hunted. I asked an outside observer for his view of how long the Portuguese can last in their territories. This is an African expert journalist Basil Davidson I think myself that one is bound to come to the conclusion that it was about Angola and Mozambique and Portuguese Guinea which are the
three then the three that remain now in Africa. Will the Khan independent states all parts of other independent confederations in Africa the time has passed when it was possible to think of a kind of loose African confederation that might have been possible had it not been for the brutal policies of Dr. Salazar who I think by this time has so alienated Africans by his policies of repression and massacre that there's absolutely no hope of a kind of loose so African Confederation. This perhaps is the conclusion to all of Central Africa. Years of prejudice and suppression may have cost the white man his chance to become part of the so-called multi-racial society that he dominated and controlled for centuries. He came to Africa to make a life for himself by exploiting the Africans he found. Suddenly the winds of change have spun the wheel of fortune against him. He is
searching for someone to blame. Almost anyone. One afternoon I walked through the streets of Angola to the beautiful Protestant church in the heart of Luanda there sitting under the shadow of broken staying glass windows that two kindly American missionaries. They asked me as a stranger to share their lunch. They told me that when the trouble began for the Portuguese the townspeople were searching for someone to blame so decided on the foreigners. The Protestant missionaries the Portuguese broke every window in their new modern church. The missionaries deliberately have not fixed the windows so the people will remember what they did in their uncontrolled anger. The Portuguese in Angola like the British in the row dishes and they asked the land needed someone to blame because they could not blame themselves. They had not understood that the thing to blame was time and change and the
past. The forces that drive the African revolution. The Multi Racial myth program number four in the six part series on the African revolution. The series was prepared by broadcaster Harry rascal after a tour with tape recorder of 15 African countries south of the Sahara. The African revolution was produced in Toronto by BERNARD MURPHY with the technical assistance of Brian Wood.
The African revolution
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Chicago: “The African revolution; 4,” University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed December 8, 2023,
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APA: The African revolution; 4. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from