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Schools from the Dead Sea. I shall praise the Lord I shall praise the name among those who figure of eight with songs of thanksgiving and prayer lying prostrate and making supplication at the outgoing of night and the coming in of day continually in all the generations of Tire. This is an excerpt from the Thanksgiving scroll. Which was found recently in a cave near the Dead Sea. We don't know who put this another parchment documents in the case. But it's probable that one day in the fateful spring of 68. As the Roman
legions wept down on the road. The documents were placed in an earthenware jars. And hidden in the caves which gave them refuge for almost 2000 years. These are all found recently 20th century scholarships most fascinating and momentous find. I shall praise the Lord. Program seven of scrolls from the Dead Sea. A radio exploration of the most significant archaeological find of our time. These programs are produced by radio station WAGA of the University of Wisconsin under a grant from the Educational Television and Radio Center in cooperation with the National Association of educational broadcasters. Since the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in one thousand forty seven scholars from many fields have been hard at work besides those working directly with the scrolls
themselves. Many other specialists in paleography archaeology and Semitic languages have been working on these documents. One of these scholars is Professor Menachem Mansoor chairman of the department of Hebrew and Semitic Studies at the University of Wisconsin recently a professor Mansoor traveled in Europe Israel and America collecting documentary materials for these programs. He recorded by tape interviews with over 25 leading scholars and theologians. Now back at the University of Wisconsin professor Mansoor has planned and written this series of programs exploring the meaning and content of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Professor Mansoor. Today we continue to discuss the content and significance of some of the seven original scrolls found in Cave 1. We have already noted that in addition to the seven orignal scrolls over 40000 fragments of various sizes have also been found we have also discussed the controversial issue of the age of these documents pointing out that almost
all scholars with one exception perhaps accept the pre-Christian dating of most of the scrolls. Last week we discussed the Genesis apocrypha today which I'll talk about more fascinating scrolls hitherto unknown in Hebrew or in any other literature. They are the War Scroll whose full title is The battle between the sons of light and the sons of darkness and the scroll of Thanksgiving. The first describes a war between the sons of light. The members of the sect and the sons of darkness the enemies such as the MA by its Philistines and other hosts of B. Some believe that the war refers to a real struggle the sons of darkness also called being the hostile Roman forces. Others think that this like other scrolls of the sect refers to a far distant future. Perhaps these days. This remarkable scroll has a particular
fascination. It's the only first hand record we have of the organization of ancient Hebrew military forces. The only detailed account of their tactics and strategy and the only meticulous description of the Hebrew weapons that were actually used in battle. The scribe who wrote the battle between the sons of light and the Sons of Darkness did so in the conviction that the time was near when his people would gain their final victory over their enemies and achieve their permanent freedom. There will be seven battles according to this call three times the sons of light will be victorious and three times the sons of darkness will win. But the seventh time with the help of the great hand of God the Sons of Light will prevail and the sons of darkness will vanish. And so they are thorough in order to prepare his people for the coming conflict undertakes to forecast and describe the conduct of the battle. In doing
so he draws upon his knowledge of Hebrew military custom of his own day according to a doctor of the Hebrew University who has carried out extensive research on the subject and has published a voluminous book on the scroll. The author has given us the oldest record of Hebrew military craft that we have extant clearer and more precise than anything on the subject by the best classical historians. It describes in detail the organization of the army their weapons then used swords spears lances javelins and shields are all clearly portrayed. Now this War Scroll refers to the enemies of the sect as they get him. The identity of the kit which are also mentioned in other scrolls and in several biblical books has aroused a great deal of controversy and discussion. It is generally agreed now that refers to the Romans. Let us hear an expert
opinion on this matter. DR his work on the war scroll has been described as the most significant single contribution to the study of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Here is Dr opinion as I recorded it in Jerusalem. Let's start with the coming of havoc as we remember the country of Hama on the one hand to the wicked priest and a preacher all right and on the other hand very fair to the poor and. Why they come from a destroyed Congress. By the commentary of how to cook a very important description when he said that the key to their battle that information already led who were the Fed who suggested to identify the key to the Romans. This identification
although was very ingenious in the beginning still lacked a final proof. But now unfortunately with the publication of some fragments of the EP another commentary or commentary on the home I think we have a definite clue to the identification of the good team because in this scroll he says a sentence like that from the days of the NT and goes on to the office I don't know how you pronounce it in English. The King of Greece. During the days when the rulers of the key theme will come. Now this makes clear differentiation between the title King King of Greece for the Greeks and the rulers of the queue for the Romans. So the question I would say is separate that the Romans. Here in the battle of the Sons of Light and the sons of darkness we have not only the actual organization of military forces but also their enjoyment
of heavy and light units. The priests themselves since the war will be a holy one will control the course of battle by means of trumpet calls. These calls indicate that basic tactics were not different from those of today. There are different trumpet calls for the advance. The charge of the pursued the retreat and the ambush. The author also lists the tactical formations and the tactical maneuvers such as what we now call envelopment or pincer movement in this scroll. We even possess descriptions of Hebrew weapons so minute and complete that we can reconstruct them. A sword exactly in material and proportion. And just as the enchant warrior used it as a shield including the finest line of decoration. We even know the specification of the sword belt. This War Scroll gives us an idea about the conditions of admission into the Army of this
sect. A person so full of prescribed conditions when admitted to the camp of the flight. These conditions refer to age physical or mental have to rich. If you read the following details for instance are said down concerning the age of the combat and the governors of the camps to be 50 to 60 years old. The officers and the overseers to be 40 to 50 years old the cavalry men to be 30 to 45 years old the despoiler is of the slain. The plunderers of booty the cleansers of the land the keepers of objects and the controller of provision to be 25 to 30 years old. Having reached the required age the combatants who by the way must be volunteers must also be all pledged to war. Perfect in spirit and in body and prepared for the doing of vengeance.
It is of interest to learn which categories of persons are excluded from the camp of flight. No man who is lame or blind or infirm in a permanent manner nor any man affected by a bodily imperative on the day of combat shall go down with them for the holy angels shall be with their armies. Women and children are also forbidden entry into the camp. No young boy and no woman shall go into their camps. From the time of their leaving Jerusalem and their going into battle until their return from the battlefield. The oath or even gives us the prayer that the high priest must recite in the presence of the troops before they put themselves and the enemy to task. He tells us of the slogans to be carried on the standards of the sons of flight. Each unit must have its own slogan reflects the beliefs of the Warriors gods War Gods justice God's
truth God's vengeance and many others. He declares that these slogans must be change in accordance with the phases of the action some to be carried on the march others during the still others upon returning the children of flight were led into battle by the High Priest and his attendants and the orders were given by trumpets the following excerpt will give you a fair idea of the enchanted Jewish battle formations. Listen to the exact description as the columns of troops mounted and on foot approach the enemy in these formations. The trumpets will sound to direct the sling men until they have thrown seven times and then the priests will sound the trumpets of retreat for them and they will come to their first line to take up their position. Now the priests will blow the summoning trumpets and three intermedia troops will come out of the gates and will take their stand between the battle lines with the mounted men at their
side to right and to the left. Then the priests will blow on the trumpets and insistent note for battle order and the columns will spread out to their formations. Every man to his place and when they are standing in three formations the priests will blow a second blast. A soft continuous one for the march until they approach to the enemy line as they lift their hands with their weapons of war. The priests will sound on the six trumpets of the onslaught. It is a sharp repeated note to direct the battle and the Levites and all the blowers of rams horns will sound one note a mighty battle cry to melt and confound the heart of the enemy and with the battle cry the javelins of war will fly to strike them down into corpses. The sound of the show far will then cease. And on the trumpets the priests will blow a sharp repeated note to direct the battle
until javelins have been thrown seven times into the ranks of the enemy. And then the priests will sound on the trumpets of retreat. Soft insistent know this. The priests will blow to the three companies. Sometimes the high priest encourage the Jewish soldiers with with sermons often quoting from the Bible and in many cases these sermons sound like battle songs. Here is one of them. Arise a warrior laid by captivity captive all manner of might and seized by spoiled $0 of valiant deeds set by hands upon the neck of the enemy and die for it upon the rump of the fall and crush the nations line enemies and by sword to show eat the flesh of sin filled our land with riches and die country with blessing a multitude of cattle in thy pastures silver and gold and jewels in thy palace.
O Zion rejoice greatly come out in songs of joy Jerusalem and rejoice all the cities of Juda. Daughters of my people shout with the voice of joy be joy yourselves with jewels of glory and victory. Dr. Dean is doubtless the leading expert on this particular scrawl. I have asked him to tell us a few hours about this exciting scroll and its importance. We don't know actually who wrote it because we never mentioned his name in the first place. It was written by a member of the sect who believed it was very near the end of the members of the sect will have actually to fight against their enemies sons of darkness. This battle
between the light and darkness. That actually the light and God himself will come to the help of the Sons of Light and actually will fight for them. Nevertheless florist some reason they believe that they will have to actually to fight against their enemies with their own hands. So the peppers of the author of that scrawl is actually to write a menu or rather of regulations how to conduct future war between the sons of light and some of the Vikings. Now this document is many fold. This is only describing military tactics and weapons in Hebrew. Coming from that period it is very technical terms of which many of them are completely new to us. It is a very difficult road to understand especially the technical part of it. Nevertheless I believe that the description he gave and the measures one to make a fair
reconstruction of both the tactics and the organization of the son might look strange in the first instant that such a sect living in a monastery so to say that it will dedicate a complete book which will contain so many technical terms. But we must understand it within the context of the belief that this coming war is going to be an actual war and therefore they have to prepare for it. So much for the war scroll. Let us now turn our attention to this scroll of Thanksgiving hymn. You will soon see for yourselves that these hymns do not differ in style from the Biblical Psalms. These songs are of ancient composition probably written in the first century B.C. by the leader of the sect usually referred to as the Teacher of Righteousness. The author speaks of his own persecution and of the persecution of his people. And then in more than 20 pages
gives thanks and praise in majestic language to the Almighty for his deliverance from his enemies. The Psalms are deeply moving. Each beginning with the words I shall praise the Lord. The following are some excerpts translated from this beautiful work. I shall praise Thee O Lord that thou hast held my soul in the bundle of life and thou hast sheltered me from all the snares of the pit for tyrannous men have threatened my life for they a gang of deceit a company of Billy Oh no not that through the eye help I stand and that in die mercy thou deliverance to my soul for my steps are guided by the and thou has caused them to stir up strife against me so that they almost manifest die self in glory through the condemnation on the wicked. When thou shouldest die might in my favor be for the sons of man for the mercy is
with me. Then said I mighty men have encamped against me surrounding me with all their weapons of war. Their arrows dart and do not cease the flash of their spear is like fire consuming wood and like many waters roaring is the clamor of their voices a bursting torrent to destroy many. And I when my heart melted like water my saw gathered strength and persevered in thy covenant. And as for them the very net spread for me has caught their own foot and into the snares which they laid for my soul. They themselves have fallen there. But my foot standard in the righteous path and in the assemblies shall I blessed by name O Lord. And here is another exciting hymn. I shall praise thee my God for thou hast wrought marvels with dust
and with a creature of clay. Thou hast acted mightily praise the praise day for what am I that thou hast made known to me thy true counsel and enlighten me through the eye wondrous deeds and RAO has put songs of praise in my mouth and on my tongue a supplication shaped my lips unto a place for rejoicing so that I may sing the praises of thy loving kindness. And indeed I might I may muse all the day continually I shall bless thy name and I shall declare that I glory among the sons of men and in the abundance of thy goodness shall my saw delight. And I know that truth is in thy mouth and in thy hand righteousness and in thy thought is all knowledge and in thy power is all might and all glory is with be
in the Iraqi are all judgments of affliction but in thy goodness there is abundant forgiveness and I mercies are on all thy favored son for thou hast made known to them died through counsel and through the marvelous secrets thou hast enlightened them and for the sake of thy glory thou hast cleansed the man from transgression so that he may consecrate himself for the DOL has cleansed him from all impure abominations and guilt of evil doing to be united with Die true sons and with the destiny of the holy people to lift the worm of men from dust unto eternal counsels and from a perverted Spirit unto the understanding of God and to stand in array before they with the eternal host and the true spirits to be renewed with all creation and with
those who know to rejoice in the community. Dr. Jacobs of the Hebrew University and coeditor of the Hebrew Bible encyclopedia is one of the few experts on the Thanksgiving scrolls. He's due to publish an important work on the scroll. It is that of interest that we hear what he has to say on the doctrines contained in these beautiful him. Here are Dr Lechter views tape recorded by me in his office in Jerusalem. Dr. lect. Well since you ask especially for some Thanksgiving scroll I would like to point out that this is a particular kind of poetry because it's centered on RAAM feeling it's the feeling of giving thanks to God. The man who wrote this. So if you are so very deeply
about the divine kindness to him and he wants to thank God for the several graces which have been allotted to him such as understanding the mysteries of the universe. Goodness ability to praise the lot and the feeling of being near to the lot and somehow by his righteous living a man similar to the injury card. Yes this idea of course has its place in the theory and the whole religious doctrine. The rituals are also this storm's subscribes. This is the doctrine of the Dead Sea sect. And we know it also from others because
these people believe that the world is divided into two warring camps. That's the camp of the good and the camp of the wicked. And the author of these things scream songs seems directed to belong among the group. And thanks to God for this election. Now this would be more or less the central idea which is celebrated in more than pieces of poetry some of them pretty exalted work through pretty nice as you have just heard from Dr licked this collection of things giving him is very important for the Study of the religious ideas of the Dead Sea Scrolls sect which preserve them.
The poems seem to be the product of a single author whose experiences and feelings they vividly reflect one more science giving him which I regard as most beautiful and inspiring. I'm sure you will agree with me when you have listened to it. It's all the more beautiful in the original Hebrew tongue. I shall praise the lord for thou has enlightened me through the eye truth and the marvelous secrets thou hast made known to me. And I loving kindness thou has made known to a wicked man and I abundant mercies to those of distorted understanding who is like unto thee among the mighty O Lord. And who is like unto thy truth. Who shall be righteous in thy sight when he is judged for no spirit can answer the chastisement neither can anyone stand against Di wrath. But all thy true children thou shalt bring before thee and forgiveness to cleanse them from their transgression.
In the abundance of thy goodness and the overflowing of thy compassion to make them stand before thee to eternity for verily art an everlasting God and all thy ways shall be established for ever and ever. There is none else beside. And who is he man of emptiness and vanity to consider that I wonder whose deeds in the assemblies I shall bless thy name. I've tried to give you a glimpse of the literary and religious value of these texts. Certainly these new discoveries would have a great effect on biblical studies and on the development of religious history. Next week we shall discuss the importance of the scrolls to biblical studies and their bearing on Judaism.
Scrolls from the Dead Sea. Program seven in a series of documentary explorations of the greatest archaeological discovery of the century. These programs are produced by radio station WAGA at the University of Wisconsin under a grant from the Educational Television and Radio Center. The planning writing and narration by Dr. Menachem Mansoor chairman of the department of Hebrew and Semitic Studies at the University of Wisconsin production by Carl Schmidt. Music by Don vaguely. Scholars heard by tape recording on the program where doctors Dean and Jacob leaked the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. These programs are distributed by the National Association of educational broadcasters. This is the network.
Scrolls from the Dead Sea
I shall praise thee, o Lord'
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University of Wisconsin
WHA (Radio station : Madison, Wis.)
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University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
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Books on the Scrolls.
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The story of the Dead Sea Scrolls, featuring interviews with 30 leading scholars, scientists, archeologists and theologians.
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Composer: Voegeli, Don
Producing Organization: University of Wisconsin
Producing Organization: WHA (Radio station : Madison, Wis.)
Production Manager: Schmidt, Karl
Speaker: Stribling, Don
Speaker: Yadin, Yigael, 1917-1984
Speaker: Licht, Jacob
Writer: Mansoor, Menahem
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University of Maryland
Identifier: 57-21-7 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
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Duration: 00:29:46
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Chicago: “Scrolls from the Dead Sea; I shall praise thee, o Lord',” 1957-01-01, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed February 29, 2024,
MLA: “Scrolls from the Dead Sea; I shall praise thee, o Lord'.” 1957-01-01. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. February 29, 2024. <>.
APA: Scrolls from the Dead Sea; I shall praise thee, o Lord'. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from