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From her. When I first met you you were scared to death about that $50 bill you had. How did you get the American money. I get to move the money son. But I comes under States and he give it to my house to my house can say oh I know can you do the didn't the cow. Well I Station next minute that is you got this $50 bill from the state. Sure. How did you happen to get the $50 bill from the States. I won American boy November and then the house comes down with a car from Frankfort to do I.
Voices of Europe Milton Mayer and MIT from Gertrude Miller in Munich through a German friend who thought that Mr. Mayer perhaps could do something about from Mueller's problem from Europe's problem was an American $50 bill and it was against the occupation laws for Germans to have American money. From Mueller was born and still lives in the tiny hamlet of Ife Dorf in southern Germany near Munich. She is what the Germans call a real Dorf can't a small town girl one of six children of a pattern maker who was killed in the war. She got through grammar school worked as a housemaid and picked up a good deal of English from the American soldiers who came to my door for mediately after the war. The story of from Mueller's fifty dollar bill is itself a voice of Europe. The story of the almost incredible complexities into which so many Europeans wander when they read anything at all unusual happened to them. Besides that Mueller is a very authentic voice of Europe herself perhaps as authentic a voice of Europe as you shall
ever hear not a cosmopolitan who learned English the right way and has shall we say an international viewpoint but a plain German girl from the country who from what you will hear of her story reflects some of the genuine sentiments which were bred in the Nazi period and which still bedevil many Germans. The myths the legends the superstitions the bigotries which Hitlerism spawned are not dead. Anti-Semitism is of course a strong in Germany as it ever was and most of these interviews are with liberal and educated people among whom such phenomena as and his Semitism do not Flora or are fairly carefully suppressed. In the case of from Mueller there is something genuine. There are a great number of people interviewed who are glad to tell you all about the new order from Mueller represents perhaps the best of the old order. Here is Milton Mayer to interview from Gertrude Miller. From her.
When I first met you you were scared to death. About that $50 bill you had. How did you get the American money. I get to move the money from. Boy comes to understands. He gave it to my house spoons. My husband say oh I know I can do that in the town station. That's money that is you got this $50 bill from the state. Sure How did you happen to get the $50 bill from the state. Our American woman in the House today comes down with a car from Frankfort to do I don't have a day as my house has been the
happiest boy from his father. Something else you know what the day come from the state from that they're all right. You say yes they say OK we have something for you to give you money fifty dollars from you. So. I don't know why you think that's correct. This then was a $50 present from your husband's uncle. Sure it was. If I remember right it was a wedding present. And then the Americans left the $50 bill with you. And they went away. And then you and your husband were afraid because you knew it was not legal under the occupation laws to have for Germans to have
American money. And then this friend of mine this German friend of mine who knew you and knew about your $50 bell brought you to me and I said I would see what I could do. I spoke to an American judge in Munich explained the situation to him. It was no fault of yours. The people who had brought you the money the Americans who had brought you the money were already gone. So there was no way for them to change it into Deitch mark into German marks. And the judge said that since you are obviously innocent I should get the $50 bill from you and bring it to him and he would have the $50 bill changed in a mark for you and the next time I
saw you. You remember I asked you for the $50 bill. When I say I have the $50. Million Nick you had already given the $50 bill to a Jew in Munich. What do you mean to a Jew who is the Jew. Yes they stays on the street there. They stay on the straight and do what. What do they do. Just just talk to people if it comes down industry. Just don't you want to cut your monthly coffin something like that. Do you mean selling black market shootings. Sure cigarettes coffee and changing money and how much were you offered for the $50 bill. How many marks were you offered the first time.
Wrong say to my house from here two hundred fifty marks. Then not just my mother. Say he won. Give 284. My mother can't even give two hundred three hundred four. Then These were there were three of these people sure they pay just each size you know they talk you know they hear that you have some good money and each other want but you more. Yeah. Now the legal exchange rate for $50 is two hundred nine and a half marks. And you were offered first. Two hundred fifty marks. Then two hundred eighty March and then 300 mark. And then what did you do. Then I come come home and then my husband say
that to you to state it to him. You know they're going to give him three months. That is the ju ju. Yeah. And then he said to me Oh I think it's better. You don't give it to you that day maybe after MP cutting then maybe they say they got it from after for some people there you know. Then they should pick up the rules and the shop you know in that if you have freight for. For the American money doing that. Yeah now that your husband was afraid that if one or another of the three people who offered you money there were all Jews. Sure they would if they were caught by the military police they might say well they got the $50 bill from you.
And so what did you do then with the belt. Then I say I have a friend just a friend but she I and I to my house. Maybe the MP he knows me asked him first. We can give them money. You know the big German money don't let me. You say OK you got there I'm asking for them to give you for it you know. Then I got there and after your own he no watch there. Then don't say I said first you just show him what you know what you didn't give the money right. For me did not work even to give it to us you know we just bought two hundred marks the pre sale you made with me got to want to much for that you know that
my house been here that you give for for Mark to do something for the large you know. Yes he don't know what I'll be killed there were a German bomb. We get more bad. Then he said to me OK you give it the money to get your own fiction ask your boyfriend for to the CI II. He knows that. And c come to me. Not of the same Oh yes that American boy he wanted money he give you the money. Remarks by this American boy or the girl. Girlfriend The German girlfriend of the American soldier he was an MP a military policeman. He was willing to take the American money and give German marks to you. Sure go on he say.
Then the next day I come down there and he asked me how you did woman but he noticed me before I'd seen him too and sometimes he say oh you give to the girlfriend my girlfriend money and I would give you money. Mike how much did you got. I say I don't know why I didn't just buck 200 marks you know what make up for that. But he said I know now why. OK did she say first and then he say OK I have some. Coke own coffee here appear on that and I say no but I want Mr. Kirkland sit on. The coffee of coffee here and I know don't know what to do with that much stuff you know. I say no better. You give me German marks that were you saying to me you would give me then history
OK don't you let her break the first non-Dutch worst maybe didn't want me to learn it one day for that month. OK I say I read it in the first moments of the night. Yes. You for where you I stand there with his girlfriend and she say oh he got to work he give it to you. You don't have freedom to take that money away. And I go away you just come but no force in the mom's room. He was there when I asked that go for and see say how he was not there. You come tomorrow to maybe to not buried you come here he comes tonight. My house and I got a nod there. Parkland. Well he was there he said Oh no I didn't have money I know I can give it to you tonight now. But when you are vile
then I keep them on a very. OK I didn't think that was so it wasn't like me. OK I say OK I waited while I was at the news of that right now don't you think he would give me it. He took the fifty dollar bill and he said that he would bring you German marks every time you ever come down I goes much time here if I go down that very industry. I got then asked him for a look at the Gulf and he sais most time he was there and I asked him myself for he saying how they were time he was so not so mean but I can still you know if he wants to put you on here you know say something like that who are still me. I could thank somebody then they offer me a ride comparing me with give me the money you know and then what
happened from there. Then I go to church. Then he comes today from Munich and he comes down to Heidelberg. He left Munich. He was transferred to Heidelberg. Then I my husband write to him if a month ago. Your argument mother and mothers but I'm sure I'm briefing a registered letter when he writes him a letter saying that. Me need the money we were to go married to the money. F we not have but all that money you know the two were marked and he would give a 200 pound amount for it you know. Then my husband's just 50 marks 100 miles maybe he gave the first time you know. Then he didn't write the letter. By not being me hear from him no answer now. OK my
husband say Spare me go to the American. Girlish America the American court card tell him that don't see but they can do. Maybe they found out what. But let me can do that then. I got there on day I don't see what we can do about that. I asked him really tough to hear that story but I have made a dollar. OK maybe making me do something on it. Do you like everything on the paper. I have to take my name and then that goes to him and he will. Write the letter by to him to tell that I some I have or don't see it.
He got the money you know. He wrote back saying Did you have anybody who saw him get the money good. Yeah he wrote to the court. Yeah. I am. Just a minute from where he said that he did not get the money yet but he said to then he said I have to. But I need to have it go not see it you know. Well I witnessed Wakulla then I. Say I don't have somebody. But we give it to him. But from Miller his girlfriend saw you give it to him didn't change. Sure my girlfriend was every time it me down there on you and me I asked him for me every time so yes I want to give it to you. Well then couldn't this girlfriend who was also his girlfriend be your witness. What happened to her.
I don't know you see out there. What was he stuff and he he say I give it to him you know. And Sure. The American court can't wait a minute. His girlfriend said that you did give it to him. She said you gave him the money. Sure. He saw you given the most you're sure. See I didn't give that money to that American MP secure the guard front giving him the money I say. And then you had a witness his girlfriend and was a witness you would say. So I guess. But what happened that my girlfriend gone down there Chairman. To a chair for so I asked him for what he say. The chairman he had sounds girlfriend. He
if he have a word do something I'm not sure. She didn't work. He said I can do one here something you know you may cut that I didn't do something. You coming to chill. You have to. I'm going to say to me everybody told you that you if you try to do anything about it you might get into jail for having the American dollars. And so from here or you have not been able to get any of the money for your $50 and where is the G.I. Where is the GI eyes girlfriend. So you need to but he has got a way up here. Yeah.
And so you lost the $50 from her. You said that at first when you had this money this $50 bill there were some Jews who came to your husband in Munich where he worked he gotten them to the drain on the street you know. OK I guess that she was for maybe documents the money. Two hundred fifty two hundred eighteen hundred. You know that's no good from her. How does how did your husband know they were Jews are they all Jews here for somebody else something speaks German. And so this is the way knows there are there are any Jews in your home. In Ike's Dorf.
No no more to the many. What did the people that the people in Ike Dorf not like the Jews when they were there before. Oh Many are many are like and what do they think of the Jews. Or didn't. You mean I didn't think after two years. And what happened to the Jews who were a nice door coming times. I don't know everybody you know just to you don't have a big house. See coming. This was a family of Jews who are in the States and you know
where the others went. Door what became of the others. What happened to the others. So much people know what most of them go. But there are no more Jews left in America or now and do you do the Germans that you know. Do they like the idea of people in this black market business trading things. Is it is it just Jews who are doing this as far as you know. Sure the most up means Italians stuff right. Why did the Jews. Why are there so many Jews doing this. I know they will make some mark stop but I think I don't know
when the hard work. May be. Yeah. And people are people in a in a small town like my door. How many Jews how many people were there in the town altogether during the war or before the war about go out. Oh all a get together and I store. What would you guess a thousand are tall some. Do you want about twelve hundred or thirteen hundred. And how many Jews were there before that before the war. Maybe. About 30 40. Did they have a center guy there. Sure yeah. What happened to the Seneca people.
The family you list and so many lives have. Much. In the house I live in where they're in what used to be a center. Yeah. And how did the people in ice Dorf. What did they think of the Jews for the most part. I think they'd been happy if they come by. Most of them don't mind you. Most of them like them too. And did they. Does anybody know what happened to them. And why did why did they leave. Was there much. What should I say during the National Socialist time with so much prejudice against a Jew. Or.
Were people trying to make them leave. I think you didn't like to write so much people like Irish crime if they use causeway. It was a time time and a long time. Yeah we were just a little girl the day the people of the Jews and the people who were not Jews they were mostly just fine just. Good friends and now to go back to your $50 from Miller. What do you think you can do now about it too. Do you try to do anything more.
I don't know maybe they put me on for it for a day and do something I'm not. And so you think the $50 is lost gone. Just last year from Miller I hope you don't think that every American soldier here would steal your $50. Because you had one bad experience does this make you not trust Americans anymore. I didn't give him boy any more though a lot of the time. What you wouldn't take a chance anymore once you cheated this way. Thank you very much for Milton Mayer. American author and lecturer broadcaster and professor of social research from the University of Frankfurt has been interviewing for Gertrude Miller in Munich Germany. In this series of recorded programs voices of Europe the story of from numerous
$50 bill is itself a voice of Europe the story of the almost incredible complexities into which so many Europeans wander when they let anything at all unusual happen to them from Mueller is a plain German girl from the country adored Kant to reflect some of the genuine sentiments which were bred in the Nazi period. The myths and legends the superstitions and bigotries which Hitlerism spawned and which are not dead in Germany today. This interview is just one of those recorded voices of Europe which you will hear in this series. These are Europeans who speak directly and candidly of their own feelings and their own aspirations. To help us to understand the basic conditions of life in Europe and to help us to understand the views these people hold of their own problems. These are people who are alive and sensitive to the tragedy and dilemma of the conditions that surround them. A representative sample of the millions of voices of Europe some of which are being heard now for the first time. In earlier programs you have heard from Dr. Renate own quote a newspaper woman
in Marburg Germany Princeville area Borges the head of the movement of sociality Italiana Dr. McCormick a violent and Doctor Colligan of Norway and World Health Organization participation in the problem of overpopulation. Three educators of Europe mystery as Neill in England. Powell gave in Switzerland and Dr. Turbot seater Sandusky Shelob in Rome Renato merely director of the foreign section of the Italian Communist Party the Rev. Mr. Michael Scott prohibited inhabitant of the Union of South Africa and Gregory McClelland president of the chain of English grocery stores. The program you have just heard is made possible under a grant from the fund for adult education an independent organization established by the Ford Foundation. These programs are prepared and distributed by the National Association of educational broadcasters. This program was introduced by Norman McKee and this is the tape network.
Voices of Europe
Gertrud Muller
Producing Organization
National Association of Educational Broadcasters
Contributing Organization
University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
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Episode Description
An interview with Gertrud Muller, a young German woman from a small town, about a U.S. $50 bill that she had come into possession of, which was then against the law in Germany. Some of her opinions reflect the antisemitism that persisted in Germany after World War II.
Series Description
Interviews with noted Europeans on a variety of subjects, conducted by Milton Mayer, American author and broadcaster, lecturer and professor in the Institute of Social Research at Frankfurt University.
Broadcast Date
Global Affairs
Media type
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Interviewee: Mu_ller, Gertrud
Interviewer: Mayer, Milton, 1908-1986
Producing Organization: National Association of Educational Broadcasters
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 52-37-21 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:29:00
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Chicago: “Voices of Europe; Gertrud Muller,” 1953-01-01, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed July 20, 2024,
MLA: “Voices of Europe; Gertrud Muller.” 1953-01-01. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. July 20, 2024. <>.
APA: Voices of Europe; Gertrud Muller. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from