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The following program is produced at WG U.S. in cooperation with the national educational radio network. The down staff. Conversations on music with composer Scott Houston and Carolyn watts of the University of Cincinnati. What a fine sound that certainly contemporary and I would say still. Quite a. What he calls Well it's a dopamine flap shift and raised it. But before we get into that let's go back to what we were talking about when I last talked Carol and have a short review of the five kinds of seventh cards the first one introduced you remember had a major third and then a minor third and top that was a major triad into it we added a minor third from the root up minor seventh.
Think of all the. Elements of the Gordon resolve to do. Major. And we had a minor minor seventh chord or one with a major reforms of minor triad. Another minor seventh or a minor third on top. I know there are winners. You know what I mean is that with. The other one of the other five we mentioned was a chord that had minor thirds and a minor third. And it didn't. Use. This is the one.
Used drink like the lady. Cop because the times are you get the same sound and the guards are different. It's very useful if you want to go in harmonically. One key to another. That we're going to you know Also a flat a flat a double flat. And now you're going to you're going to get an idea I don't like people like oh how about this that. This I and I will go to what the other was a bit of theory and doesn't exist. That's only a theory you could spell it that way but doesn't make sense. Ok I'm with you on that. That's a dominie's stuff here is what we call they have to
be set as the same basis. The bottom three chords G minor. Minor diminished by announced that of adding a diminished seventh. We add a minor seventh. On top of the triad major or that one's entirely different. Can be batting third and at the same one you get. So it doesn't like the way that it is. Most ex-prime with explicit. Info re in the lobby of the French compare the great merits and that of Wagner's not favorite you know very common use and the other mentioned in connection with by. We had it at a triad which is. Maybe a third of the. Top of that.
Another minor. With the seven minute. Bottom never used as the seventh part of all of that you had to resolve it with. A minor chord. Beautiful and even yet it's very seldom used as a seventh chord it's used to kind of in passing. Now what it is I'm augmented major. To determinants are the try and the bottom three notes and then from the room to the seventh. There are several more but we did reduce them very gradually and so that our gentle teasing about the night cards will not be frustrating to you we will show now all the 9th Corps developed when we build a
major triad. I hope you're not tired of this. You're trying to. Make the third in a minor and that add that triad and other minor third from the first 7 were the one with my mana Verity history and Gershwin and yours first and then to that seventh guard at a minor third on top. One hears a chord of the mind it's very obvious one size and that's very common in the Baroque period. The top no wants to come down. And it's a very common usage to bring it down in the Baroque period. And in the classical period to bring it down still further to change the chord in the same time. In the romantic period however I just think it's there.
And they don't even does it. All the time which they've seen ravel in the impressionist school. And the German romanticist just before that. It exists as a chord. And maybe we even. Using you again. But so far all of these have been done with mine. I mean that's the basis of harmony is the third until we reach early 20th century and then people begin to make chords out of force and fifths and seconds. I'd say the most important interval so far as it is in fact you can trace the entire music history through the just that one interval whether it's constant or doesn't with it you do not know that minor ninth. Stayed for a long time and someone added the major third on top. One. Now that was a minor or any of the major chord. Look at this car.
It's much bigger. Not common until the middle of the night. Wagner it appears like this. Sort of the passing of the last so long M knows everybody is not wrong he is a metaphor. Here it is again in these festivals. It appears in the musical script like this is the same Gordon late 19th century.
Dominant and has a normal. Things. That are going to play the beginning of the story a different five and if you put them all together in one oclock to get it to be amazing when they get spaced out and one of my talks just recently it was pointed out the major tried. To play them. The same chord is used in much the same way by the modern stand again from the very
first time he started court. They don't sound like much on the piano but with brass and them with yeah and playing it like. It is common today in both series music. And yet. If you get that sound in your ears you will hear it many many times in modern arrangements.
Gerry Mulligan for instance very familiar sound they make clustered like so many plying that I gather close it like that. Let's put it all together. As far as I can and in the money register the years I don't mind. Here's the new normal. You're right isn't it. Do you know that almost all the gold. For the first time and I talked we mentioned the word scale way and the kid goes to a piano teacher and she says Well I would first thing will take up is the scale. Do you know what came last in music. The scale came last. I don't have a good teaching music and whatever by saying. When I played.
Dumb of course serves as an opening wedge for a child to get in the music. But the scale came last it was only an added judgment. The music came first. Putting scales in the mid-nineteenth century before they just didn't do them well without getting too professorial scales or put together as early as 10 40. But they were in complete scales as they were only six tongues and started here. He added The syllables and you know the same kind of a hex accord six times and C again added one more on absolute could be flat. All our crossword puzzle fans will recognize we do as high a note as
LA Live. But you tell me one thing if this was the scale that the Signore does that mean he would use only those notes. Well I really should get into it because of the principle of mutation appears it was one way whereby Palestrina even several centuries later could have to make these changes. You go so that become me in the F X a chord you see but. You are not. You very seldom see in Palestrina. Always goes. It's very strange to us a strange and wonderful simply by stacking more thirds on top of the Ninth Ward.
That kitchen. We can construct carved the 11. And the 13. But a knob thing then we add another third atop the 13th we arrive at the same pitch as the root. Right now my only savage with the same letter. But two octaves above. It. Therefore we can safely say that the chord of the 15 is useless. But here's the only quarter the 13 day we know that really is a quarter the 13th occurs in Stravinsky's but troops get to go. Don't you be back on the road. And go.
Get it. You do have to get out right. You better still sound like a Nama time. Your does. We have chatted earlier about the four kinds of triads. Going back to a more simple kind of harmony. Let's illustrate something we can do to the triads to change their color and give us some variety. Not only is spice a musical life but an absolute musical necessity and I don't think I'd be redundant for some of our listeners at least to show the major triad chart. So far I have been playing these chords in what we call a root position. That is the root. As the bottom pitch. I listen to what happens. I take the third G sharp. Out of it's present but.
It's still the same chord e.g. Sharon B. Again each are. Totally different. Very Actually I was going to give it to you on that one and I will of course in the first place. Religious Church just sort of Him that I wanted to leave it there because I don't think you I don't think we'd be happy if you just
left it on the base. It would have to finish. But I used that chord as a sort of a center. And yet when I put it in first inversion of the resolved the first inversion that was when you put your shop down a third of the core in the base again you made your position. Everybody does not know some people who are not ever in the top. But now it's still complete as a triad but incomplete a Maccie is another inversion as those of our mathematical friends are aware of already. The third Just one note like the fifth. With the fifth in the base it's even stronger to go somewhere else. So often here that I'm sure. Yes I said before they want to get everybody worked up like mad they are there now it's a totally honest man whoever plays up a storm deriving his material from the first and second team so that's a second version that they use to
prepare the way for the what happens at the end the kid and doesn't go. Again with the orchestra. Well that simply prepare. We'll. Just like going to version that that's what the second version has the base that time. Yeah. And like. Here when you do it in one. How about starting on the flight. I can hardly find that. F. Major and the purpose of the French to ask.
That's several ways a. Secure feeling. The second version. Let's go ahead and show the minor triad and its two inversions. That's what you do you do the same thing. With your top perfect position. For a. Second.
Go sing the road if. You are saying that I made a mistake. Are you going to leave it there. Yes I will. All right we have two more tries to go the third one I think arbitrarily is the augmented triads inversions. This is a funny and very beautiful theory. You're going to try and make it. He says that this morning the. Major third after a. Major third. A sharp. Augmented fifth. Perfect fifth minute. Augmented try a. Root Position. First emerged.
This sounds like you don't think that's right. Oh oh it's an extremely ambiguous chord and there for a Wagner uses it purposefully very consciously for a modulation purpose because if you go in any direction. That's right you can. Change the basis. And hear. No one telling others to go. So you get the idea that you're going to try and really isn't very common even yet. Unless it's encompassed by 10:51 and separate and very valuable for modulation because it is way bigger than just Reese bell one note and told and the diminished triad with which I.
Remember as a minor third on the bottom. Line of the. Top. And the fifth minute are the perfect asked lower and. Diminished. Position. OK. That's good. You're saying that in fact the rule books say do not double the root drive. Either way I don't have two people playing at the same time for very good acoustical reason you can hear it. You can't but at. The. Time he was like really. So I guess we have the room. First.
In the. Theoretical concept. I must fulfill it. But there is the fifth if you add the other thirty seven and that again. That many concerto adage of the doormen drawn more of the tritone. Letters the diminished. This was a very carefully thus far we have treated the triads and seventh chords in an isolated and unrelated way. All of our listeners will understand that composers must find a way logical to each composer of connecting these chords and a composer style depends not only on the chords the uses but in the way he connects them in the musical period
called the baroque from 600 to 700. Fifty cards are strung together for a large part in this way. To produce a feeling of key. Heating is produced when one card seems to be more important than all the other cards. Let's call that most important chord a key center or tonic. The suspense or expectation producing the listener wanting to hear the next chord going is the most natural expectation that that because the root of the next to last card is the next that I was. These sounds a perfect fit.
For the card with which we began the progression. By the progression again. We have proved that the a flat major chord. Since it seems to be most people to be a satisfactory resolution is the key center or tonic of a flat major. My what position I put it. It's still at the roots of the bestseller if like Linus It's like charity blanket Oh yeah you want to start there and end there. And I never thought of that. But if we start. You know first version is still not complete so I don't have the root in the bass in another key this time in B-flat major We hear this progression.
We'll do another one. Easy one. All the triads whether near or far away from the key center or tonic tend to gravitate toward the key center or tonic as water seeks its own level as a football pasties and hopefully in the arms of the receiver it's yours in the name of the letter as bears to honey chord to gravitate. The one most important chord in the key the tonic. Let's use a minor. You want to keep me.
Want to go the matter of key or tonic again but for the moment let's conclude that the root movement of Downey forth is reserved for one of the most common cadences and sacred music. Perfect for. The most common cadences and sacred music the Amen cadence and most hymns all over. Its meaning since the tonic chord is approaching the fourth above not the fifth above as. Signifies the submission of a man to the will of a divinity. Music is full of such symbolic harmonies melodic turns and instrumental colors and when understood even in the smallest way make
music come to life and have much more meaning. You've been listening to up the down staff conversations on music with composer Scott Houston and Carolyn Watts our technical director is Bob Stevenson. This program was produced in cooperation with the national educational radio network in the studios of WG U.S. on the capice of the University of Cincinnati. This is the national educational radio network.
Up the down staff
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Chords Connecting Tonality Begetting
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University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
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Chicago: “Up the down staff; 5; Chords Connecting Tonality Begetting,” 1971-00-00, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed December 4, 2023,
MLA: “Up the down staff; 5; Chords Connecting Tonality Begetting.” 1971-00-00. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. December 4, 2023. <>.
APA: Up the down staff; 5; Chords Connecting Tonality Begetting. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from