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So yeah this great valley has a rich land rich but who has it all. Absentee landlords representing the worst in the system during the terrible terrible winter of 1949 50 when the peasants were starving. Why do absentee landlords don't hold on to their grain for the highest price. That's speculating in life and death. Absolutely. Our population around here is 5000 and hundreds died. The people must own the land they work they do in your country of course. Mostly most incentive the will to produce comes from owning your own land. True true reform in the Middle East must begin with the land given given. OK the only political antidote to communism you must be a program of social justice that is reflected in the lives of the people. We want a revolution in Asia but not the kind the communists want for us. Unless we can't help ourselves any other way.
One of the basic objectives of this revolution call it in Asia political independence Asia. We look for a decently rising standard of living social equality access to knowledge international security and self-respect. I I happen to know the dangers of communism but few Asians do. In fact they consider communism is a way to gain some sort of equality in the world and lift the burden of poverty and ignorance in Asia. What can America do. Give us the advantage of your intellectual products as well as your factory product teaches ductus help us to our own democracy. Just don't talk about yours. Please never mind the taller buildings your automobiles and the highest standard of living in the universe. You started at grassroots. Allow us the privilege and the pride of starting at Rice roots. But help us out. If you're modeling tractors here
with the modern tractors the as you know we will produce impressive amounts of rust no pleas to people has directly caused them to say cause you do not suddenly give a tract at a great cost to get taxpayers and the harm you give them science. A great agrarian advance for them and not so punishing to the giver. True true. We want help yes but not Tara to help us to help ourselves. And such help includes moral support patience understanding in the help we wish to meet. These are priceless ingredients. These are the carbon in the manganese that make the steel puff hot. Thursday would you like a nice cool and drink. You sip of her drink. There are ice cubes and enlightenment in Persia and there are others like most stuff I carry who knows the need in the answer to the need.
For example the young person who turned over the royal estates to be cut up and sold to the peasants doing what they can to help themselves. While asking us for help. Contributing in fact to the Near East foundation. And American enterprise that is giving our grass roots to the villages. They mean it when they say help us to help ourselves. And to understand. Above all to understand them. Or out of understanding stems the best benevolence. Useless and vain for us to boast of our spy spirit. The people harbor and in your heart. Useful. And to our own great interest to show them how to God they help save their cattle increase their crops. Otherwise. Hopelessly convinced only of the differences between us and them. They will listen to false doctrines turn elsewhere for help. And understanding truth.
Evening again. The resident stands tall against the blue and gold twilight sky of. The people brave. It was a high from. One eighth of all humanity as a prayer. Prayers and hopes and dreams. They are not so unlike us. They are men. And God made man in his own image. In the image of God made he him. And quantities equal to equal quantities equal to each other. And these equal quantities this same flesh these kindred beings want humbly. Only what our founders wanted 200 years ago. A place to stand on and call their own. Again the chairman of the Hoover Institute in library Dr. Harold H Fisher
just two decades ago China stood where Persia and other Middle Eastern countries stand today. We did not learn fast enough and we did not begin soon enough in China to use what we knew. China has taken that communist detour that short cut to Felicity through catastrophe. Our failure has made it worse for China worse for us and worse for all the world. But this need not mean that all of Asia must follow China's path or that China will never turn from her path. The question is have we learned anything. Some more tea Wang please.
So thank you. So you're right. Thank you. And a light. Thank you. You have received advance introduction of a young sensitive Chinese smoking quietly in your room. The traffic of car loon is beneath your window. I know him and his family well your mutual friend has told you he was a schoolteacher in an agricultural high school in one province. I think the fact is he saw them are not generally known. And so you wait for Wang to speak. You may ask me anything anything. It's All Over Now I ask. Perhaps you'd better just tell it. How should I start. Tell me about your village. My village. Very poor.
They ancient. Loving peace together. For centuries its people suffered war question missile crushing Texas corruption famine poverty. These last 10 years especially the burden had pressed down so coolly that not even the oldest villages could recall the like the Civil War. Yes our village changed hands many times. The Nationalists were greedy and loud but the commies were quiet and disciplined and polite when they come in as Quatermass as bought our ice they asked how much the Nationalists had taken. The Nationalists had taken a hundred because the communists would take only fifty. Surely you saw through that tactic. We didn't then pursued different policies with different people in different stages of the struggle.
Of course our Mr Lincoln put it dryly. You can't fool all of the people all of the time. They fold us. One night in March the Communists marched back into town in yellow cotton suits and carrying American ime to punish grenades and rifles. They want such force this time that we knew they were there to stay and we were glad. The evening of the first day of the patient and your man in ordinary present clothes spoke to us comrades. All forces have taken over here in their progress to victory. We declared the grain in the government grant yours. It is your grain paid for with your bitter toil. Our liberating troops must eat. However they will take 80 percent of the grain. The rest is your soul. Wait one moment. Wait. There will be another meeting here tomorrow.
All attend important. Now take your grain. Comrades the yoke of common tongue oppression is lifted from your shoulders. Henceforth you all free men. You must expose any spies in your midst. If you know where the guns are hidden tell your elders. Failure to supply this information is a serious crime against the people. One thing more. We want to know your problems your sorrows your complaints. Has anyone oppressed or stolen from you any offense no matter how small. Our party is dedicated to abolish
all injustice for ever. You will help by revealing even the smallest crimes of the unjust criticize us criticize O Red Army. You almost be our teachers who did not sign a pledge of compliance were fully replaced within the first week more than half of the elders who hesitated against informing against their own villages. Even the unjust were replaced by younger men. The young men you see had boundless enthusiasm for the new regime. Most of like what they saw or heard what the people did not notice was that soon the leader asked questions and gave his own answers as well who had shown the way to freedom. Sonia who had betrayed him. Check who supported young Americans and British.
Why. Because they were capitalist countries and wanted China as a source of cheap labor and as a dumping ground for their surplus goods and so forth. Hatred was the theme the young hotheads began to agitate for revenge redress scapegoats. But that he would listen to no talk of violence there will be no violence. We have other problems. For example I warn you you will have banditry here because arms remain hidden in your homes. All right you stood with us. I want you as a friend. But many cars had been revealed. People were constantly reporting small offenses of no consequence. Their leader asked it what harm in it. And everybody wanted to be cooperative. A new village elder had been selected. At one meeting a younger man can indoctrinate the young Then the
young men from 16 to 30 were interviewed. I confess I was won by the leader's charm and interest. How old are you one. Twenty three. Pharma teacher. Teacher we that build. I farmed with my father first. Your father must have been a big man. Yes he was. Thank you. You have eaten somewhat better too. It's been better. Not enough better. We should like it to be very much better. We must walk and fight. Thank you Long Next please. Four days of those mysterious interviews on the fifth day the mystery was cleared up. Comrades we are now ready to organize the poor peasants league. This league is the vanguard of the revolution. It will be the cream of the you all the machinery must go all you young other new leaders to you will go the
fruits of victory. Still heads did not go so far. The peasants were little better off than before. They had a little more rice and a loud voice in the village meetings but so far that was all. Everything was sold gradually sole reason so moderate we couldn't tell what was really happening. But in his office the leader was always at work and what we learned later it was the Doomsday Book. There came a closed meeting of the poor peasants league. The party leaders order the members nominated the three villages least liked by the community. I don't see of all the complaints filed against them by the townspeople was prepared at the next meeting they were named. It was the first time since the liberation. Six months before that anyone had been attacked individually
by name they were liquidated. No the leader himself said that Bob's deal was enough for these criminals. The people were satisfied. People believed that they themselves and not their new government was taking the initiative in ferreting out and punishing the enemies are surely you're beginning to see through the tactic to isolate the enemy if you would at times starting with the most unpopular elements in the community. I did not see through it until the next purge to give it its real name. Next on the leaders list conservative influential man wise and reasonable loved and respected in the community. He was simply assigned and swear scouted for duty among seven other provinces. Quite simply done. Divide and conquer. We learned later that they were then picked up in their new communities. I spies and saboteurs enemies of the people.
Being strangers they were easy to condemn before the people you see down through echelon and echelon of victims. You see how one can influence so many. You think of Azerbaijan with less than 1000 communists among three million. The proportion is there for the shape of things to come. Now came the blood triumphs when every farmer was urged to recall any grievance fancied or real against anybody and how they showed no mercy. More than half of the village families were ruined or did by blood and so. Did the Accu. Do your knowledge ever mistreat solvent. You do not know. I was never in his house to see. I said dog of the accused. Ever been to no village or leader even a poor man's dog sometimes but I did a dog of the accused. Ever bike a village and so I believe
the killers will stand up. Page by page the Doomsday Book had been written with the unsuspecting help of villagers who thought what they were reporting was trivial warranting trifling rebuke to the guilty. It was not the penalty was death. In our village. 20 men were beaten to death. Was there nobody to protest. Voice of Reason and protest had been sent away to the provinces. Younger men men their younger men believed in the Society for the purchase. Did you not now becomes too late. So suddenly now all the way various ones were liquidated quietly in advance. Those who had helped to destroy them were mocked men for ever caught for ever trumped your lie mocked man.
If the national wastes ever catch you you would want to save your lives your families your property your only hope is to support the new democracy. The mere fact that you are alive condemns you to the nationalists and that if they take you. Remember that we have a saying in our village now. If you eat communist Rice you live only half a year. Where you're going along who knows but doesn't your village need you. IVillage. Nothing said age as with it from the lake. Yes.
As with it from the eye. And saying. How did we fail in China was our failure one of omission or of inadequate accommodation did we do nothing or did we do too little too late. Did we learn anything from failure in China. That is turn again to duck the highroad h Fisher of the Hoover library. In my opinion we did too little too late. But we also learned very much in China. We had an idea in China and we put it to work on the good old fashioned better late than never principle. And it wasn't wasted because it was a good idea. The idea was the J C R R. The Joint Commission on rural reconstruction. It was headed by three Chinese and two Americans. Three of a kind and a pair
against the communist hand and one of the pair was commissioner Dr. Raymond Timor who looks like one of his Norman Rockwell's grass roots characters with a doctorate. The commission had a problem in China. We were supposed to provide an answer to China's complex and almost overwhelming agrarian problem in the face of runaway inflation and the mounting civil war. On April 3 1948 Congress appropriated two hundred seventy five million dollars for Chinese economic aid. Up to 10 percent of this could be used to finance a route reconstruction program or twenty seven million five hundred thousand dollars. But time was running out. They knew they'd probably not finish what they started in China before the Communists overwhelmed them. But a start had to be made. Les made it they were on the clock at the eleventh hour and with one eye on the Reds and the other on the clock they went to work.
It was even later than they knew. It was rice fruit All right. Informal human collaboration with the peasants on the peasants own level and on the principle that best saves human self-respect self help they got down on the soil with the peasants and did their own hair and broke their own fingernails broke the soil and broke the ice between east and west. Dr. Moyer tell them how it worked. In cooperation with the government land tenure reforms were put into effect to give up to 25 million farm people. If fairer share in the crops they raised 25 minute irrigation projects increased the rice production one hundred sixty four thousand tonnes. A lot of extra eating for a little tiny boys and girls. Nearly 500 County Health bureaus each received 500 pounds of drugs and medical supplies 64000 water buffalo.
The vital farm workers of China were protected from Rinder passed by modern vaccination a system for the increase and improvement of crops from the improved seed was begun to increase the yield of basic food crops to 10 to 30 percent. While I on the talk one eye on the red tide in a period of five months the JCR wrote substantial benefits and land reform to 45 million Chinese families. The cost to American taxpayers 10 cents per family per American family. Oh no for a Chinese family it comes to almost nothing per American family. Figure it out keep one eye on the clock. Five million Chinese families at 10 cents a family 50 million pennies or a third of a cent per person cost to Americans. It comes to that. And what a chance at life it gave those Chinese and what a truer picture of America than just
skyscrapers and bubble baths. But 11 powers have no special pleading with the solar system. They run out as swiftly as a say $3 a red tide and golfed China. LAURA. LAURA. LAURA. Thank you. The JCR was a program that reached out to the people. The words of Polje Hofmann's. It is worth noting that the only two provinces in China where the civilians put up any real resistance to the communist advance. Where those two provinces in which the jointer rural reconstruction program had been operating I if this program had been put into practice without. China today might be lined up with the other for you Nations and the chances are that we would not have had the Korean War
and investment of one billion dollars would have saved perhaps 50 billion dollars what we call foreign aid is not foreign and it is not aid. It is not alien to us. It is a vital part of our basic program. It is not aid at all which denotes charity it is insurance and enterprise premium on peace insurance. One third of a cent per American. His man with the hoe emerges from the silence of the centuries. There are voices in the wind. He makes his Horrow across the paths of power and conquest. And here's a crooning. This is Radio Moscow bowed with the weight of centuries. He hears we will make you a straight man. There is a monstrous challenge in that when you have nothing but your chain.
From democracy from the west. The chair recognizes Dr. Charles Malik distinguished minister from the Republic of Lebanon. Just because it is morning. If the West lost please.
This is pressure again. You've heard the testimony of eyewitnesses of great events in Asia a revolution is going on in Asia today. The Communists are trying to capture it and lead it away from the goals of liberty equality and fraternity and turn it through class wars and fear into what totalitarian dictatorship. We can save this revolution from the communists by being prepared to defend it by military and economic means. But we cannot save the Asians from slavery by economic or military aid alone no matter how generous nor by a rousing their fears. No matter how real Americans can contribute to peace progress and goodwill among the millions of Asia by giving them our respect our friendship and understanding. And with a reaffirmation of the freedoms and responsibilities that are the foundation of our way of life.
You have just heard the music and the drink. One in a transcribed series of follow up programs. People under communism based on documented evidence and expert knowledge about the power and intentions of the Soviet Union. Materials for this broadcast were supplied by Dr. Harold Fisher. Chairman of the Hoover Institute and library at Stanford University. This series as a whole was prepared in consultation with scholars from the Russian Research Center at Harvard University. The Russian Institute at Columbia University and the Hoover Institute and library at Stanford University. Special permission was granted for use of excerpts from the following. Strange lands and friendly people by William O Douglass published by Harper and brothers. When the communists came. The story of a typical Chinese village under the new democracy. By Author good friend published by the United States Information Service. And the man with the hole by Edwin Markham. The
Series
People under communism
Episode
Music and the dream, part two
Producing Organization
National Association of Educational Broadcasters
Contributing Organization
University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
AAPB ID
cpb-aacip/500-fj29dt3r
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Description
Episode Description
This program, the second of two parts, dramatizes the struggle between the U.S. and Soviet Union over controlling Asia's emerging revolutionary path.
Series Description
A series of documentaries, interviews and talks based upon documented evidence and expert knowledge about the power and intentions of the Soviet Union.
Broadcast Date
1952-12-21
Topics
Politics and Government
Subjects
Soviet Union--Relations--United States.
Media type
Sound
Duration
00:29:36
Embed Code
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Credits
Advisor: Hoover Institute and Library on War, Revolution, and Peace
Advisor: Columbia University. Russian Institute
Advisor: Harvard University. Russian Research Center
Composer: Solinski, Vladimir
Director: Papp, Frank, 1909-1996
Funder: Fund for Adult Education (U.S.)
Narrator: Moss, Arnold, 1910-1989
Producing Organization: National Association of Educational Broadcasters
Speaker: Fisher, Harold H. (Harold Henry), 1890-1975
Writer: Geiger, Milton
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 52-38-7 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:29:27
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Citations
Chicago: “People under communism; Music and the dream, part two,” 1952-12-21, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed February 7, 2023, http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-fj29dt3r.
MLA: “People under communism; Music and the dream, part two.” 1952-12-21. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. February 7, 2023. <http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-fj29dt3r>.
APA: People under communism; Music and the dream, part two. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-fj29dt3r