The African revolution; 6
Why were the African revolution program number six. Independence and innocence. In Africa 15 minute ferry ride across the wide weed filled Congo River linked to great European powers France and Belgium. And when freedom came the sound was still the same it was a primitive drubbing of the call of day.
But the river Congo was a watery border between two worlds. When independence came and came quickly on the print side with the debate and a compromise on the Belgian side it erupted with such brutal suddenness that the world was shocked and forcibly involve the rush of events that caught the eye the ear the imagination of every man. The mixture of independence and innocence were part of one of the great forces of our times. The African revolution. The African revolution a sound odyssey of inquiry related to a continent in turmoil a six part study of Africa south of the Sahara based on a 15 country tour with tape recorder by broadcaster Harry russkie.
This sixth and last programme in the series titled independence and innocence journeys through French West Africa and the former Belgian Congo. It caught us all by surprise. What little we knew about Africa that dark and unknown massive continent we knew of the countries where English had become the universal tongue. But of the parched desert waste and the human jungle areas commanded by the French and a vast area of the continent known as the Belgian Congo we were ignorant. At the beginning of 958 there was a block of territory holding forty five million different people controlled by and holding allegiance to Paris. Suddenly there were 12 new states balkanize separated once again by European mapmakers. All these gained a kind of Demi freedom owing allegiance now to bright young black Paris educated leaders and a creation known as the French community Commonwealth of the Republic with the spectacular exception of Guinea which decided to go it
alone no matter what the consequences. Yet this sudden shower of new countries arrived with what seemed almost no more than a gentleman's debate Bronzeville the capital of the former French equitorial Africa is directly across from Leopoldville 15 minutes away by boat. The Belgians left the Congo and their area of 900000 square miles and a sparse 13 and a half million people. Crops of cotton and palm oil and wealth of copper and gold and diamonds and a country nearly as big as India. They left the country unprepared and the chaos and bloodshed that followed became every day news. And the future of this mass this mess of colonial cynicism remains even now in doubt. The crumbling African empires of France and Belgium are the focus of the survey. Why did a river's width make such a difference. Edward Collins of radio Brownsville who has lived in the former French Congo for nine years and has
watched the change on the side of the Congo the African population was given an apprenticeship. In democracy. From 1942 when President de Gaulle General de Gaulle the leader of the Free French came here. He if you like drew up the plans of a new deal for the then colonies. Which would lead them to eventual independence. You know that General de Gaulle was out of power for a number of years but once he returned to this new deal for Africans was gradually implemented. First of all with that was before the girl that was with the guest under fair and afterwards it was with the new creation of the Franco African community the Franco African community gave to all the African states French speaking African States the former French colonies gave them total autonomy to run their countries as
they wanted to run them. And after that after the creation of the Franco African community each country was at perfect liberty to withdraw not necessarily from the community but to demand total and absolute independence to create their own countries a sovereign independent state. All of them to use to do that. Coming to Brownsville as I did from the English speaking world below on the African continent from Solsbury or even further down from South Africa the lack of racial tensions is striking and it's a pleasant contrast. I asked Mr Collins if the French had planned a lack of racial prejudice over the years. Of course the French of never knew of it and they don't know what it means a kind of a cult about never existed even when even when this country was a colony it was no kind of. The only bout it was the only distinction that was between one person and it was whether this person could afford to belong to this or that club whether the person this person could afford to eat in this or that restaurant the truth of the statement is quite obvious to the
observer and the lack of discrimination has been part of French policy in her colonies over the years. The French base their policies on assimilation of creating not nationalist Africans but French Africans. Every African before independence in a French colony was considered a citizen of France. The French believe that they could not possibly be any greater honor than a man considering himself a Frenchman. Perhaps the greatest shortcoming to the French policy is that France has produced a new breed of aristocrats a black African ruling class and the mass of the people are offered bread and circuses. I happen to have landed in Brownsville by chance on the occasion of the anniversary of that Congo's independence. It was an instructive experience.
Celebration of birth your everything go for trousers.
I saw parts of extreme western. Now we have something altogether different and then gathered around a like like in the red yellow and red. They circle around the beach. They have a little shake hands with the seat or something inside because they may be restless and I am everywhere in Africa and the deep seated one for that very simple step of getting really excited by it. If you don't like it your hours are like an argument for hours I'm going to go on out for a free day. In one section the poorer which is the mass of the people and in all other the
leaders African leaders are great party goers not long ago there was little movement from country to country but since the first breeze indicated the winds of change that were to follow across the continent they have been avid travelers from country to country they hop a boat with an entourage each in an attempt to outdo the next country and staging a festival a party a celebration especially one that means independence. I was told that this was the second one in a year and draws a bill and everything is closed for half a week each time. One glass of free beer or one for each man woman or child for the leaders dress suits by Parisian tailors and champagne from the best been yours in France. The official part of the celebration spared no expense. I recorded my observations standing in the huge gardens of the town's best hotel and gathered around our dignitaries from all parts of Africa especially from the French Commonwealth nations. This is the formal part of the
proceedings. You heard the rather lustily Grammy for folks you might say very neatly The clicking glasses behind the leading hotel overlooking the Congo River and overlooking the city of Leopold ELLIS Well the festivities are about to begin and we'll listen to those as honored guests make their arrival very formal circumstances. I am told that this march which were. Hello March 10 former French colony. Very time. Thank you very much.
After the splendid garden party a splendid rather royal ball. Once again it was champagne and every variety of liquor. The president of the republic is a non-practicing priest the Abbaye full bare Ulu a small African whose starched white frocks make him look like an ebony Chessman. The bishop on an African chessboard the night of the ball all rose when he arrived offering his the goal like salutations to the crowd. Any answer has been started by the president the other publishers think one of their charming the dead right over there. This is a hit with the little guy with a it relates to him who is here with a lighter it's ready mix everybody together the old thing over unity.
While the swells dance the poor outside watched a night of splendor for the tiny republic perhaps not much different than a crowd outside a ball and Radio Hall in the White House in Washington where the masses outside of Buckingham Palace the African leaders learn the ways of the Europeans with ease and enjoy the extravagance of their ways even if they do not have the budgets to match those of their former masters. The bulk of the revenue still comes from France this year alone France will pump two hundred thirteen million dollars into Africa in economic aid as a grand finale to days of celebration the small number of select townspeople were allowed into the sports arena to see a lavish spectacle put on by the Congolese schoolchildren and by civic groups under a full equitorial moon. I recorded the sounds of the night and my observation.
In the week in the. US we have about African school yellow. Hair and tropical wave green banners yellow orange color
Republic. And of exhibition saying as a boy and a fighter in the Congo. Yeah. Again we hear the national public never hear the voice of the abbe himself. The small man who as I say would look very winning on a chess board wearing
like powder blue Kozak a very dashing figure and a bit talking of love a day run for him then was. The head of state in the former French Congo as a priest. And there are signs of Catholicism brought by the French everywhere in French speaking Africa people along the streets where crucifixes and there are shrines to the Virgin the public places. Nonetheless the majority of people are still pagan although the Moslems are an increasing force. On a Sunday morning I stopped by a church to listen to mass being sung in less. Than
the one week. The game eat was a simple place this church building constructed a plain white cement a corrugated metal roof a few low flat benches for dim white lights. Most of the 200 people at the service wore no shoes. Children strapped to their mothers backs surprisingly quiet the heat was about 100. I stopped to have lunch with the kindly Canadian priest who ran the church and spoke to Father John of the blessid sacrament followers of Montreal who had been in Africa about six months. We talked about his problems and the problems of his congregation. It's difficult I tried it too. Understand that population because most of them don't
make a diff between best decision and are you able to tell them about the Christian marriage customs or is that a great difficulty here. Situation space situation for marriage here. Most are many and that's not easy to explain. The. Last day could just one woman. A lot of the country is backward there is a surprising degree of literacy. The French placed a great importance on education and columns of radio Bronzeville estimates that the country probably has the highest rate of literacy in Africa at the return to school.
You know the schools started early at the beginning of October. The schools that was the beginning of the school year the population of this country is. Something like 700 50000 people. The schools when the schools resumed over 100000 children were registered in the schools. But the countryside is wrong and undeveloped. It's crops of cotton tin and coffee have to be explored. Roads are almost nonexistent. One afternoon the kindly priest offered to take me to see the first mission founded in the French part of Africa. We did not get beyond 25 miles outside the city. The road was a mass of mud. The jungle bordered like cliffs of concrete here and there and villages along the way. African children stopped our Landrover to wave. Seeing him beat out a chant of welcome.
If I am. One of the great problems in all of the former French equitorial belt of Africa has been disease. This is of course why so few Frenchmen came to settle and why the subtler problems of Algeria were not repeated in black Africa. I asked the spokesman for the World Health Organization at his brows a bill headquarters about some of the general problems the United Nations is having in eliminating disease in this area they've a major task of the World Health Organization in Africa as in other regions is to assist and cottage National Health ministrations in the work they are doing to develop the fight against disease in their own countries. Now that is taking one of the most important health problems in Africa which is malaria which is in fact has eyes palpitate on the program of tabulate show
how it is obvious that in one country an attempt is made to eradicate malaria. And if in the countries of next dog no such attempt is made that is a very grave risk of infection for that reason. One of the major talks of the World Health Organization in Africa is to coordinate the Helms-Burton also. If he tells us about the health and welfare of the French community of nations in Africa is still in the hands of the French. In fact one thing the observer notices most vividly is the number of French advisors at all levels in what is supposed to be an independent country. It seems that the former French colonial officer has merely moved next door still running the shop with a black African as a front man. The African cabinet ministers seem to do the hand shaking and the elbow bending. But the French civil servant does the work. Officials in the French countries deny that the French government really still is in
command. This is the attitude of Edward columns. That of course is ridiculous because the French speaking African states the members of the community like the members who have withdrawn from the community they don't hesitate on any occasion when they think that they're in the right to vote against and not with with the French delegate in the United Nations. They have absolutely complete and absolute control over their political running of the countries. Perhaps the French government is not active in the running of the Congolese government but Frenchmen as individuals are. When I watch the parades at the anniversary celebrations the military officers standing next to the president was not African. He was French. The commanders of each military group were white not black and the president didn't seem to mind a bit. I asked Mr Collins about the president and the style of politics. There is. A. He is a Catholic priest.
He has become a politician and I think a very astute politician. He's running this country very firmly. You know that there was considerable tribal difficulties in this country. In fact there was at one time a tribal war between the two main tribal groups. Well eventually the people there Ulu emerged as the first prime minister of the Congo Republic one of the first things he did was to promise free elections. These three elections were held and the result was an even greater majority for every full day you Lou. And this majority has never been lost. Of course in the beginning there was considerable trouble with the opposition. There was the image the movement socialist African the African Socialist Movement opposition led by Jack o Pongo Jagger Pongo is an old and astute African politician who was the former prime minister
under the system of the law. Jagger Pongo resisted the movement of the air before the Ulu for several years. Eventually there was a complete reconciliation between the two movements and Jagger Bongo is now vice president. All the leaders of the former oppositions have been incorporated into the vehicle they use government. And now there is a government of national union and no friction at all. This seems to be a common trend in Africa to have what amounts to one political party. Is it a democratic state in fact or does it just have the trappings of democracy and that is that. That's extremely difficult to say whether it has the trappings of democracy or whether it is a Democratic state. Elections are held regularly in the elections usually give the results which have been for a day
and switch and then before and. But they are held if you like the elections take more or less the form of referendums. This is a common story throughout Africa and especially through the French speaking countries although the world points the finger at a nearby gun and charges him with being a dictator or autocrat. He is little different from the dozen French speaking statesman that received scant attention in the English speaking press outside Africa. The French African leaders have developed as benevolent autocrats. The French speaking equivalent of an chroma the man who speaks in dreams and Pan African terms is the president of the Ivory Coast where he is an adaptable and remarkable leader. He founded the biggest French African party the Democratic Opry Kim and he served in several French cabinets including that of president to go on. And when De Gaulle came to power in 1058 one of his first gestures was to tour what was then
equitorial in French Africa in the company of who in his capital of ABA John he has a huge and lavish new palace. But the music is still traditional in. Every African country is a paradox of centuries. A walk can span most of human history from a downtown area with its modern elevator buildings to mud huts with chairs and beds are unknown on the city's outskirts. This is the sound of the Ivory Coast. Strange pagan percussion instruments.
I am. John is as modern a city as you'll find anywhere on the continent. Yet only 70 years ago savage Kings crucified their slaves upside down and then cut off their heads the better to draw off the blood. These were ceremonies accompanied by frantic drumming the blowing of ivory horns and primitive dancing. In the city of Abidjan my phone call a pari on my French correspondent who helped answer
some questions about the Ivory Coast and other French speaking countries in Africa. In her opinion I wanted to know did she consider the Ivory Coast really independent. Well I think that politically would can say that the Ivory Coast is independent but economically it always depends on France. Does France in fact pay more or less to keep this country going now that it is independent. As you know from the French colonists at the Ivory Coast Cote certainly much more than it used to before it was independent I should say at least 50 per cent more. And of course this is because there was a great deal of technical assistance for instance the new universe if that which is now being built in Abidjan is Ghost thinks that at least 1 billion francs. What is the form of. Government in the Ivory Coast.
Well as you certainly know we have a president the president and we have a government which consists of 14 and seven. It is an opposition party here. There is only one party here. We can translate the Democratic Party of the Ivory Coast. There's a country where we counted 75 tribes. The most important tribe tribe and tribe. It sort of is the president heard so much about the other countries
along the West African coast. The president is in fact the of the about when he was 5 years old. Eventually when he returned and he was against it it was a trade union. In 1945 he has been elected to the French Assembly until 1959. On the 7th of August 1960 the Ivory Coast became independent and the twenty seven seats in November the same year it was elected the president of the Republic of the Ivory Coast. The relationship between the president here and Secretary considering the secretary has to leave the French community and get along well.
The fact that he could do and two that they have the same party in both countries is unifying force. The one unifying force of course is the French language among the educated class of Africans. The area of former French equitorial and West Africa is almost as large as the continental United States and the French continue to send economic aid and advisors providing the countries will still recognize Paris as their spiritual headquarters. But one country Guinea chose the path of outright independence and the price it paid for its rebel cause has been a large one all economic assistance was completely eliminated. In contrast on the African scene to what he the gradualist the pragmatist the second touré the marxist the rebel the man who believes Africa is where black Africans only. I went to his country to Guinea to check on stories I had
heard about as I traveled the West Coast of the continent. I found Conakry the capital a city unweighting a city at a standstill. Thousands of townspeople seem to line the roads from the airport waiting for work waiting for their African revolution to have meaning. When second tour aide told to go he no longer wanted to be associated with Frans de Gaulle cut off all aid to Guinea. Second Tory brashly turned to the Russians for help and their help was everywhere to be seen. Hundreds of giant gray so week trucks gathering dust of decay on the docks were two snowplows waiting for a snow that would never come. I saw thousands of bathroom fixtures but a few houses with running water. I was told a million screwdrivers had arrived from East Germany but no one had ordered screws. You shouldn't Jet says I'm gonna sat on a runway going nowhere. I saw Soviet housing development for Soviet technicians but met a few Russians who spoke either English or French and while I was there to raise the handsome independent
asked the Soviet ambassador to leave his country accused him of stirring up a revolt the Russians first breakthrough into Africa had been a bust and the first African country to try to go it alone without any help from the former colonial power had been for the time being at least for lorn failure. For a time it looked as if Secretary of Guinea and President crim of Ghana were going to manage a real union. But in the emerging nations of Africa the personalities of the leaders frequently make unity a fragile thing. The possibilities of any real pan-African movement should be greatest in West Africa which has the oldest history of pre European civilization and a recent past of Independence. But here it seems remote. Edward Collins has a theory about this. Africa is not yet ready for any total form of pan-Africanism But Africa is ready for clues very close collaboration between independent sovereign states.
No African state is ready at the moment to give up even one inch of its presence up and the new generation those who are reaching maturity under independent black leaders may make a choice and change in the future. These young people have a new sophistication and a feeling of being very proudly African. One Saturday night I went to a dance with teenagers in Drosophila. This is one of the songs of the Khan. It is Saturday Night Live. We're visiting Tommy Thompson body to see which has him letters on the bar and that site can kill me. Now you know what is interesting about this
place but all the men are wearing western mystique whereas the women starring role made a cautious and very fiery designer appears of the orange song but if you are expecting the sounds of the company or whatever drums are here in the Congo you won't find it here in the city of Los Angeles. One young girl she was about 17 talked to me through an interpreter about some of her attitudes how had independence affected her life particularly deep enough for you. But I I must say that in the penances not added much to us walking along the streets here and browse of L.. The observer is impressed with the amount of work that women do and the lack of work that the men do amongst the Africans. What does she feel about the situation.
It's just the sheer number of Plessy keep a schoolie sometimes a few school days. It is absolutely normal for Africans because women work more than men. But is she not troubled by this which she did not like to see it changed. She is an African who is receiving an education a name and a place on the in the nation. I feel that we should add that some people do help around the house and so on. Now it is very common amongst Africans to have more than one wife. Would she like to be one of several wives of some Africans someday or will she ask for something different. Did you see it is not bad to be too because it helps the work.
But is that romantic. That is the question. Interfere with romance. You don't really need that. Imagine a company I did for you to be produce. And when you are whiny doesn't your husband doesn't do much if you want to. He does much more this is a feeling of competition. Very interesting. What is your feeling about the Europeans the French are still here and the French have been here for years. How do you feel about them. You simply have to shift and we are very glad to have the French because although we haven't the penance we don't know how to do everything. We still have to learn. Do you feel that the French and all Europeans and the Africans can live at peace together here.
Over a long period of time independence you know can we make a distinction. Stephanie long Yes surely they can because since independence we have been living in peace and peace together. This African girl like many in Brazzaville and in other friends speaking countries in Africa has relatives on the other side. Since the trouble began there's been little mixing of the two. The Congo tribe spans the river but the Belgians managed to give them a different culture. I went to Leopoldville to the chaos of the Congo. I passed through customs and immigration and a pleasant French speaking African wished me well. The Perrys had just begun running again after a lapse of several months. That is taking us across the river level. I'm like Leo Larry and the Kerry people across Toronto harbor that
smaller much faster much a somewhat different. Women are kind of like a whole bunch to stay red and green mixed together. One lady kind of carrying a bundle of bread a long stick. French bread bananas sticky little back. She's wearing a. Blue and red top 10 right. Alligator after the first thing that greeted me on what was supposed to be dangerous ground was a Coca-Cola son welcome to Leo the common nickname for the Congo capital for the next days and for some time after I tried to piece together the puzzling story of what happened in the Congo one of the great and dangerous mysteries of our time. The known facts about the Congo are these. Until one thousand eight it was the exclusive property of one man King Leopold the second of Belgium. By far the
largest and most lavish private estate ever known. The Congo covers an area of some nine hundred thousand square miles. Some seventy seven times the size of Belgium larger than all of Western Europe. Its population is only 13 and a half million of whom know more than 60000 were every European. It is a country of varied and spectacular beauty. Most of it is a low plateau and more than half of it is forest and jungle. Its mineral resources include uranium and copper and it produces 70 percent of the industrial diamonds of the world. Its principal export was palm oil and it's estimated that it has one of the greatest undeveloped water power potentials of any country in the world. Its people are a mixture of 200 different tribes. They're going from the legendary pygmies to the giant stately what Tutsi and including the artistic and magnificent beluga. Yet with all its wealth and variety its present state is
explosive and its future is and out well. Why is this so. The African sometimes was treated by the Belgians cruelly as a cog in a giant wheel for profit or Belgian profit. One old African Hamed a retired British manager of a palm oil plantations told me what life was like in the early days for the Africans under King Leopold of Belgium. When they did not pay their taxes when they didn't pay their taxes they had put round their necks bras collars. And also an anklet of a fairly heavy weight. I brought back one of those Nick Collison. Which weigh about 20 pounds made of brown. And about three inches thick. Need to hammer it on to the new neck with a new hammock together until he paid
his taxes. You know it's kind of remained the Belgians always the practical business men had a plan for the Congo remarkable in Africa or anywhere. No one had the right to vote white or black. No racial barriers as such existed. The whole point of the Congo was to make money and that it did. It said that could tank a province is so fabulous the rich that the union men your company made tests drillings over the problems to find where there was a piece of land poor enough in minerals to build a town so as not to obstruct the mining of the minerals below the Africans were fairly well off materially. They were sent to the castell schools and encouraged to develop skills and they could advance well up the economic ladder. But if they showed any sign of political interest or agitation they were swiftly removed to Belgium because all control was held in Brussels. One writer aptly described the Belgian policy as one of full bellies
and close mines. The Belgian system seemed to work and was even admired by white leaders of some other emerging African states then suddenly after 51 years and little warning the Belgians decided to leave. The real reason behind Belgium was quick exodus may never be known. Coupled with the possible expectation of returning and the reality of the forces of Independence across the river was the cold economic fact that in one thousand fifty seven international copper prices spell investment shrank unemployment increased and so did empty Belgian feeling when they left the Belgians left the disgrace of their years of exploitation in the civil service. There had been 10000 Europeans only six hundred forty Africans all in junior positions in the army. There was not one single African officer and only a handful of Congolese had ever been to university. The first university graduate from the Congo and a former
ambassador to the United Nations is Tom comes on a magnificently handsome 28 year old Mike found in Leopoldville and one of the very few who speak English. The men problem was that the Belgian was not prepared to face those problems. We are connected to the independent countries and not a problem. The Belgians are kind of the best in the standing between the different factions of Congolese. And after independence I think played by the Belgians West not broken willies and you know of course to cut down my suspicion that this meant problem. Instead at crises help the Congolese to know that they need more unity between themselves they have to solve their problems the kind of the prior precious if they want peace and happiness
for their country. Would you say that the Belgians brought any advantages during the time they were here that colonialism might have some advantages for African people generally. No I must admit that the Belgians did much about the social economy. If an education but if we talk about politics. Division is the debate that accompanies the change that but it's got told them it is an international problem that the West that that lesson on getting edge and going musician the Belgians did not train the Congolese and indeed did not really know themselves how powerful were the winds of change that crossed the continent in the early days in the forbidden days of Congolese nationalism. The chairman of a social studies group known as the union for Congolese social
affairs was the Governor-General's chief clerk Joseph Kassab. He had been educated in Roman Catholic schools the son of a Chinese labor and a woman of the Congo tribe. He became a Congo patriot. In one thousand fifty eight constable who could not go to an all African peoples conference in Accra instead a young postal clerk while the nationalistic and the leader of the new M and C the movement national Congo Elise attended his name later was to echo round the world. Patrice Lumumba Casa Bubu stood for a federation similar to Nigeria for a unitary state such as gunna the Belgians anxious to make their exit forced an impossible compromise as president of the new awkward and innocent independent republic they installed. And as Prime Minister Lumumba the comedy and the chaos that followed were tragic cause of who fired Lumumba and then fired.
Then a colonel Mbutu rose from nowhere and said he had everything under control by firing them both. Cause then join Mbutu and the UN seem to approve this team. But the Russians accepted. Meantime in the copper rich province of Katanga Why should Chumby a local leader declared his province which controls 60 percent of the income of the entire Congo independent member was captured by the troops of Colonel Mbutu and cruelly beaten and turned over to the troops of Chumbley. Never to be seen again. And when the murder case became public knowledge the very walls of the United Nations shook as the Congo became big power politics for it was reasoned. Whoever controlled the heart of the Dark Continent controlled the future of all of Africa. What kind of man Lumumba was is debated even today. Tom Collins who knew him well as his ambassador has strong views considers him a visionary
I think just a little misunderstood. It's just anybody and it guys. When Mr. Newman became prime minister he made his first trip to the United State for to be very well understood but a good deal of propaganda against saying that the community saying that he's against whites. You know Mr. Hu made to Americans to discuss them to lead it. He's point of view understood by Americans. I think Mr. Moss a great nationalist and all Congolese are very sorry because what Mr. Mumbai suggests about cutting a problem about Al Gore's edition was refused when he was alive but now everybody accept his point of view and you see it is too early to say we have to wait some months some years before speaking again about Mr..
The death of Mamba and the continuing desire of jumbo to break away and keep the wealth of could tank in his own problems led the way to the United Nations sending in troops to keep the peace. They ironically found themselves in the position of insisting on the policies of the dead Lumumba to unite the Congo for without good tango it could not survive the UN's mandate to brink a tank in the line found a U.N. special force in the position of waging a war. Some observers say they were shocked with the behavior of U.N. soldiers. Two Africans jumble a is a word that means quisling to white Rhodesians and South Africans Chumby is a hero a man who runs a business like nation and the UN is an aggressor. Mr. Soros a Rhodesian businessman was in Elizabeth build the capital of Katanning a problems at the time the UN was attempting to convince Chumbley to give up his secessionist philosophy. His charges reflect the passionate feeling of Chumby supporters.
What I thought at the time and I'm still convinced that the attack by the United Nations was unprovoked aggression. I believe that the behavior of the United Nations forces was disgraceful that any single nation behaved as they did with M to bit Gration was inexcusable and for an international body like the United Nations which would have additional amount of strength behind it was completely discreditable and the rape of Elizabeth bill which took place during those days was something which I personally am having spent five years in the war soldier had never previously witnessed. The army the UN founded so fighting was led by well trained well paid mercenaries backed by the powerful mining cartels of Europe. Giambi was in a position to have a well-equipped force. The presence of the English speaking
officers of the contending army led to some terrible brutality. Sometimes the victims were innocent U.N. soldiers mistaken in the confusion for mercenaries and can do it talian soldiers serving with the U.N. were savagely murdered. Tom comes and explains the reason for Congo Lee's fury I think the reaction us was I was so just can be understood as the reactions of the Congolese fighting against the method he says and it is very sad of course but you see what's going on just got done. How did destinies I behaving dare we Headley has to face many times these kind of reactions coming from the companies against the best that he says. The database that he says will leave this out just that and that and they'd say. The presence of foreign troops including some Canadians has led to a great deal of confusion.
The largely illiterate tribesmen have sometimes mistaken the UN troops for Belgians Colonel Stethem of the Canadian army is in command of two hundred eighty communications men from Canada and feels Canadians have stayed out of much of the trouble in the Congo. Many of the incidents have been caused by rumors that people were Belgian paratroopers or some other similar element which the Congolese feared. And this mistake goes on but after a time when you've been in a place for a while they get to know you and recognize you. And in general we've been able to establish pretty good relations with the dimensions of the U.N. problem in the Congo is rarely understood. The U.N. found itself in the position of virtually policing and governing a country the size of all of the countries of Europe combined and then it operated with severely limited power and U.N. headquarters in Leopoldville I found Mr. Ticknor
he had been the chief U.N. Representative first insanely villain Orientale province and then in lieu of Bergen cosigned province. You have. Ask a Russian whatsoever you can only work through persuasion. And from time to time people seem to think that perhaps you could be more forceful. But the Congolese authorities the government of the country and the UN is only advising assisting and therefore the UN representative is first and foremost an advisor. Doing everything he can to assist the Congolese to run their own country. With the chaos and the terror that seems to rise from time to time in this unfinished country I asked Mr. Ticknor who was about to leave the Congo if he felt optimistic or pessimistic about the future of the Congo.
I've never been optimistic in the Godhead but I've always been hopeful that what it was seemed to be a science that if you held on a little longer things will improve. But we kept hanging on and I suppose my success in history says I will go on having on all is well but I've never said that I was optimistic. There have been surprisingly few deaths in the Congo war but it has taken an important dog commercial flying on a mission of peace found himself its indirect victim. And before the problems of this immense block of land are resolved the costs in men and money will be great. Educated Congolese and there are not many thanks to years of Belgian policy realize now more than ever that the Congolese can't do it alone. But they want the white people the Europeans who jam their pockets for years on African riches to realize the day when they were the bosses is gone it is a
lesson the Europeans must recognize if they are to stay in Africa at all. They are still needed but on new terms. Tom cons I ask why do they do black men asked to go back to black men and white bread if and just. But what we need. This is what we need is just coming is that going to behave the way they behaved in their country. If we try to go to tool up we don't like being there. I can see that we behave like living in foreign countries and technicians. We need help coming from outside. But we shall be
very very I can see we have to be very prudent. We can define ideas to be against us. This is the plea of the African That must be heard. What he is saying in Africa all over Africa is you have not treated us like human beings. Treat us now that way as equals. Come and help us to help ourselves and perhaps we can forget the past. It was not so long ago that Leopoldo was a jungle and I could not help noticing as I walked across the main street of the modern city of Leopoldville today that here and there tufts of grass had broken through the concrete with the administration of the country in a state of neglect. Garbage was beginning to pile up. Malaria was on the increase. Supplies of food and medicine were low. The surging Congo River was overflowing. Roads were washed out the vegetation was crumbling some of the
sidewalks. It is not so long ago just a few generations that the explorers and missionaries the Stanleys and Livingston's came to Africa. It is not so distant in the past that the businessmen men like sessile Rhodes came to develop the resources. Mistakes were made. Now Africa is on the ledge. Independent but innocent there may not be another chance on the streets of Leopoldville. The grass has begun to grow. The African revolution continues but the jungle does not wait. Us. Independence and innocence sixth and final program in the African revolution. The series was prepared by broadcaster Harry rescued
- The African revolution
- Episode Number
- Contributing Organization
- University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
- AAPB ID
- No description available
- Social Issues
- Media type
- AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 62-ex1-6 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
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- Chicago: “The African revolution; 6,” University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed August 19, 2022, http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-f766809x.
- MLA: “The African revolution; 6.” University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. August 19, 2022. <http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-f766809x>.
- APA: The African revolution; 6. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-f766809x