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People communism. Presented by the national broadcaster and the program director.
During World War Two Dr Philip Mosley was advisor to the Department of State and expert at the Moscow conference in 1943. The Potsdam conference in 1945 and the meetings of the Council of Foreign Ministers of London and Paris in 1945 and 1946. He has spent some 2000 hours as a United States representative in face to face negotiations with the Russians on international commissions. Here is Dr. Mosley to introduce a document a drama. Pattern of world conflict. In the conflict with world communism. The people of the free world cannot afford to be indifferent or cynical or overly emotional. If we should make that mistake the leaders of world communism will take advantage of it to defend freedom. We must know the aims of the methods and the techniques of the Soviet rulers. This is the purpose of what you are about to hear. We must be objective and exact because there is no other way in which we can understand the
meaning of the conflict. And if there is no understanding. Freedom is in danger and no pattern of world conflict. In the spring of 1945 the fields of Europe were turning green as if in reading this book The End of the war. Somewhere in Czechoslovakia an American detachment far ahead of the main body moved cautiously toward a rendezvous. This is where we were a corporal and their Head of time a tenant only a minute or so a tenant what happens when we see him. I mean what are we supposed to do. Stop worrying Corporal O'Hanlon. I'm the worrying type. Especially on a blind date like this. Lax relaxed after all are only human. They waited without speaking until out of the woods. A line of soldiers in single file.
Here they come Corporal wait here. Lieutenant Norman. United States Army love. Late none of my soldiers American and Russians stood motionless and so I'm bound by the formality of the occasion until one man spoke. Oh anybody want to cigarettes. Yeah I got it all right. When the Allies would fought a war at opposite ends of a continent met for the first time and though each spoke in a language strange to the other there was no hindrance to the joyful whole hearted communication of feelings. But there was the need to say in words what cannot be entirely expressed by smiles and pounding on the back. I mean guns. Yes whatever you say buddy I'm glad it you haven't had a cigarette. I mean there was yeah you're trying to tell me something good. The Russian French.
Americans and Russians friends. This was the spring of 1945. But the season has changed in the time is now. Now at this moment draw a line on the map of Europe on the Arctic Ocean and close the Baltic countries putting Germany in half and passing through Austria to build a barrier around Czechoslovakia Poland Hungary Romania Bulgaria Albania. Behind the line is the Russian soldier. Behind the line of millions of people of many nationalities who want to live in friendship and peace with the world. But their voices are not. God. God was. I. Was. Trying to write that on. The with. These are the violent voices of
anger hate and conflict. The voices of the Communist leaders and their followers on the western side of the line. Strikes in France riots in Italy demonstrations in Germany and there have been of a song communist guerrillas in Greece in Indochina War in Korea. Overall the songs are the voices of the men who direct the conflict on every continent of the earth. So you knew you were going to eat in your drink. Yeah well I do you fancy garlic noisy. Why do you ask. This is the voice of Soviet Foreign Minister under a vicious speaking at a meeting of the United Nations in a language on known to almost all of the American people.
He is talking to the world and to us which constitutes one of the important links in the system and of military political blocs of the Western States directed against the Soviet Union and the countries of the people's democracy. If the policy of the present dangers of the United States of America and the United Kingdom as stated at the head of the Soviet government to the Stalinists is a policy of aggression and a policy of unleashing and you is the one at the present moment when the mobilization of the aggressor forces continues uninterrupted. The Soviet Union considers it a duty. Again you could raise its voice against the preparation and the inciters of a new war to raise its voice and it up and I have had enough. Funny thing John you listen to him and suddenly you realize he's talking about you about us. You feel like a warmonger a peace loving person
myself but John that man on the radio he doesn't believe it. I wonder why the Russians don't really believe the things they say to the world. Why shouldn't they they say them often enough to convince themselves we're going to talk about people's democracies Poland Hungary Romania democracy with secret police and concentration camps. What about American war mongering. Have to Korea. John we haven't had a letter from Tony in three weeks and there is no need to worry. I know but still he forgets to write he's only a kid he's 20 so it takes time for mail to come from Korea. What do you say to a movie. I'm Alright John. It isn't necessary. Course it is. There's a movie I've been waiting weeks to see. Then we'll go. I'll be ready in a minute. Fine all the same. I'd like to know what the Russians really mean.
In every language used anywhere on the earth. And in actions that have as plain a meaning one would seize the Russian leaders speak to the world. Now we're beginning to us in homes places where men and women work versus days. We're beginning to us what are they say. What do they mean. These are questions that are being studied at Columbia University's Russian Institute of which Dr. Philip B Mosley is director. Dr. Mosley Where is the starting point for finding an answer if one has had to sit day after day negotiating with the Soviet spokesman and he is bound to feel the difference in thinking a difference between our side and the Soviet side. Of course any negotiator is out to get all he can for his side. But when we are negotiating with friends say with the British or the Brazilians we always feel that one result of the
negotiation should be the strengthening of goodwill and understanding on both sides. Now the Soviet leaders just do not believe there is any such thing as goodwill within our own country as well as in dealing with friendly nations. We have tough bargaining and lots of noise. But behind all the racket is the fact that we assume that the other party to the bargain is going to go on existing that the other fellow is going to have an independent will of his own. And that it is important that there be trust and goodwill between us. The Soviet leaders are completely convinced that they or we must go under. That each bargain or settlement is not a step toward easier relations but i step towards the destruction of them or us. And that is why they fight with every kind of technique to gain even a small point. In the struggle to increase their power they have developed a wide range of
techniques. We do not like to use some of their techniques just as we prefer to assume good will rather than ill will as a basic factor in human relations. But for our own self preservation we have to know to recognize the Soviet techniques. The words and the actions are all techniques and the techniques. Add together to form a pattern a pattern of conflict that can be discerned on every continent of the earth in what you are about to hear some of the people are real and some of been invented. But the story they tell is true. Yeah. Yeah. My name is Mary and. I would tell you our story the story of what happened to me and to my husband. And our son. We survived the Nazi occupation of Czechoslovakia.
For each family for each person it was a miracle but we survived. Even in the summer of 1940 six a year after the liberation of Prague we still breathed deeply as we walked in the streets as if to fill our lungs with the new free. And you want to stop for a cup of coffee. No young. Lets just walk on noisy the streets I like it. As if to make up for the years of whispering this weather is bringing out the street artist. Let's not stop yon. No politics today. Only for a minute not here just to be in a group and not be afraid. Oh well then we must turn to the east to the Soviet Union. It's beginning again given the bitterness of the conflict. I don't want to hear any more. They leave us alone because we live in peace.
But we couldn't live in peace. At first the feeling of freedom summer. But underneath I'm. Fed by the speeches and the arguments in the streets in the shops and offices in the universities were on time was this even in our home and people who were our friends. Why do we have to choose between the east and the West. What an innocent sounding question. Who told you to ask you what are you talking about it's a plain question. Why can't we be friends with both. Yeah a friend is someone who helps you when you need help. Stop preaching sermons and say what you mean. All right I'll be specific. When I was a cotton mills were standing idle and the workers were starving. It was the Soviet Union that came to our aid. I know you mean the cotton but yes yes the cotton that the US s gave us as a gift as a gift without asking for payment. I remember it was a generous thing to do but the American asked the Americans what did they do for
us. It was the Red Army that liberated Prague. It was the Soviet cotton freely given the started on Mills turning again. Yun never forget this. Our only friend is the Soviet Union. Again and again we heard it from the Communists and those who followed them in their newspapers on the radio. Czechoslovakia turned factories needed supplies. It was the Soviet Union that gave it up. We couldn't deny it and yet it didn't seem like the whole story. We were silent because we didn't know the whole story. But there were some who knew the Czech communist leaders knew the whole story but they wouldn't tell us. Maybe some of the cotton mill workers knew but they couldn't tell it. They could only do what they were ordered to take that paint and help
me address the crates. What's the destination. No no that must be a mistake. What do you mean a mistake. The foreman gave me the orders. They can't be this is cotton cloth isn't it. Naturally that's what you manufacture in a cotton mill. It's coffee made from the Soviet raw cotton. What of it. But that cutting was a gift to the people of Czechoslovakia or from the USSR X-raying. What's so complicated about it. The cop was if now we're giving it the raw cotton sent by the USSR was returned to the USSR as manufactured cotton cloth. Czechoslovakia was paying in labor and transport. Three times the world rate for Iraq that the Soviet government claimed was a gift. But in 1946 an ordinary citizen of Prague could not know this every day he heard the statement the false and misleading statement on street corners
over the radio in parliament in unions and social clubs. The same questions the same false answers endlessly repeated. The greater the lie the more loudly it is said. This is the technique of Soviet propaganda. The first technique in the pattern of conflict. This is how it was in Czechoslovakia in 1906 the pattern is the same today in all parts of the world. March eight thousand nine hundred fifty two. A statement by the Chinese Communist foreign minister Joanne lie. The United States Air Force in Korea has dropped bombs containing disease bearing insects. We call upon the civilized world to condemn the barbarous use of bacteriological wealthy and to impose upon the press in the next few weeks at every meeting of the United Nations Disarmament Commission the Soviet delegate spoke on the same theme the use of bacteriological warfare by
the United States and Korea is a crime against humanity. Mr. Chairman as United States delegate I repeat the United Nations forces have not used bacteriological weapons. Every civilized person must be revolted by such barbaric tactics the United States and 59 other nations have recommended an impartial investigation by the International Committee of the Red Cross. The peace loving people of the world who have been shocked by this example of Western inhumanity the Soviet delegate agreed to such an investigation. The people of Europe of Asia of the Near East will know how to judge a nation that uses such weapons. The people of the world are entitled to a direct answer. Will the Soviet government agree to an investigation. Yes or no. No. The Red Cross is a tool of Wall Street. We hung Gary on the scientists have been profoundly shocked to learn that the United States forces have used bacteriological weapons to exterminate the peaceful we the delegates to the World Peace Council denounce the criminal use of bacteriological weapons.
We the representatives of the first international conference for the Defense of Children are horrified that at present many children are being killed by bacteriological warfare in Korea and China as a lie endlessly repeated become ridiculous or overpowering. How can it be believed. Doctor Mosely What do the communists hope to accomplish by this kind of propaganda. Through their massive propaganda campaign accusing us of inflicting germ warfare. On the North Koreans and the Chinese the Soviet propaganda machine wanted to rally its own people and its subject peoples and to weaken and divide those nations who oppose Soviet expansion. Ever since the end of the war and especially since Stalin's election speech of February 1946 the Soviet machine has tried in every way to identify America with Hitler and fascism. The Soviet propagandists do not
worry about evidence they have learned that by constantly drubbing in their own story they will lead more and more people to believe it. They know that the peoples whom they control have very little independent knowledge by which to judge Soviet claims and accusations and they try wherever they can to control every channel of information. It is true the Soviet rulers do not punish people for listening to the Voice of America. So far as we can tell. But they punish them severely if they repeat to their neighbors some information which they have heard on The Voice. In this way by suppressing access to contrary evidence by magnifying the volume of their own propaganda. The Soviet rulers believe that over a period of time they can bring people to think and believe in the way they want. This is the technique of propaganda and the pattern of conflict.
In Prague in all of Czechoslovakia an easiness grew the propaganda never stopped and it seemed as if we lived with the sound of loud and angry voices always you know we tried to shock the mountain sometimes for a little while we succeeded. But the calmness did not stop. But there were things that could not be shattered. As on that day in 1947 when my husband was called into the office of the factory manager. Thank you said you wanted to talk to me. Perhaps you know that we reorganizing the staff of office workers. I didn't know so if you want my suggestions as a senior member of the staff I'm not asking for your advice. I'm sorry it's just that the former manager used to ask me often you don't understand. I'm trying to tell you that as of tomorrow you will work and craft a fear I don't understand. You don't have to understand. I've worked here since before the war.
I am quite a created senior by more than five years. Cracker clearly has other qualifications than seniority. Now I understand Cutler is a Communist Party member. Draw whatever conclusion you like who have no right to do this. Don't lecture me. Save your energy for your job. There were hundreds thousands of factions in the civil service and police skipped over in promotions to teach a lesson. It was a lesson that was learned by many. Even in the university where our son. Was a student. DON'T LOOK AT ME LIKE THAT I'M tone. A person has the right to do what is best for himself. You expect me to admire you because you ran like a scared sheep to join the Communist Party. I wasn't the only one. At least if you believed in communist one. I'm a medical student. I want to get an internship in a hospital that doesn't depend on your
political beliefs. Maybe today it doesn't. Not yet but by the end of the year when I graduate away angry and try to understand it's you who don't understand the Nazis tried to make the students join their groups don't you remember this is different they couldn't make the students given. The only thing they could do was close the universe. This is different I tell you. That was almost 10 years ago this is now and now you're a student. I'm torn because I joined the party. Doesn't mean I'm with them. You're only fooling yourself. You are committed and they will see that you'll stick to it. Here in the university you will be lonely. You'll see the students will not be intimidated. But many were intimidated. Workers students civil servants. This was the second technique. First the technique of propaganda and then together with a technique of intimidation.
This too was a universal technique applied at every level from the life of ordinary people to the functioning of the Czech and Slovak government. Even at the level of cabinet meetings. That is only one item on the agenda of today's cabinet meeting plan. Today we must decide whether Czechoslovakia will participate in the Paris conference to organize the plan. We communists ministers consider that this proposal is an American imperialist plan to gain the control of Europe. We know only that America is offering dollars and goods to help rebuild Europe. What do we have to lose. The Polish cabinet has decided. The invitation when the pope is going to Paris to discuss arrangements for the conference. We have our independence follows I take it then the Communist ministers will vote to refuse the invitation and I didn't say that we need the money and machines. Good that is agreed the Czechoslovakia
will participate in the Marshall Plan discussions. You have heard the news gentlemen. The Soviet Union has changed their position. The US s has withdrawn from the Paris conference. Naturally the Soviet Union does not have to go begging to the imperialists happy in hand and what is likely to be Moscow's feeling about Iowa participation. I think the Soviet Union recognizes our special problems and needs. Then I suggest her an urgent message. Just on the withdrawal of Poland from the Paris conference has just been announced by the Moscow Radio. Now you mean the Polish made you know it was the Radio Moscow in that case I moved to Czechoslovakia withdraw
acceptance of the invitation to participate in the Paris conference do not jump until the mess puts up the Who cast Czechoslovakia is a sovereign state free to make our own decisions. Nevertheless I think we must move cautiously. Prime Minister Goh told and foreign minister must Rick are leaving for Moscow tomorrow on another mission. They will raise the question of our participation in the awful plan. Foreign Minister M. ik whose devotion to the principles of democracy was no less than that of his father the founder of the Czech and Slovak Republic sent a telegram from Moscow that cabinet must revoke decision to take part in Marshal Plan. Do not delay twice during the day while the cabinet was in session. Masaryk telephoned to repeat his message when he returned from Moscow several days later. He brought a stenographic record of the conferences with Stalin and Molotov.
These are the words of stopping the government of the USSR does not consider the Paris plan is genuine and it has come to the conclusion that in reality it is solely a device for the isolation of the USSR. There was no consideration for Czechoslovakia as special problems and needs. We look upon this as a question of principle on which our friendship with Czechoslovakia depends. If you go to Paris you will prove that you wish to participate in an action designed to isolate the Soviet Union. Perhaps the warning was not clear enough. It was repeated by Stalin. If you take part in the conference you will prove by that act that you allow yourselves to be used as a tool against the Soviet Union. Neither the people nor the government of the USSR. What tolerate that now. It was clear. Take a vote in the cabinet. Czechoslovakia has no choice.
The patient of course got back up in the conference and could be interpreted as a vote of the foreign relations existing between her and the Soviet Union. The government decided not to take in the conference. You have just heard the announcement. Now there are two days to remember. Nick. I thought the streets were empty it was so quiet. But there are people out. Many people. What is there for any of us to say I'm not here when the first Nazi soldiers marched into Prague. It was eight years ago wasn't it. The streets were crowded and so still we bought flowers then. Everyone bought flowers to put on the grave of the Unknown Soldier. Yeah and is it going to happen again. Only this time with the rush you mustn't talk like that Maria. We are still a free and
independent nation within limits. You know the window when you close it please. You're cool. Yes. No you're not. I'm afraid. Our program continues following a 10 second pause for station identification.
Listening to people transcribe documented evidence and expert knowledge about the power and intentions of the Soviet Union. We continue now with conflict. Propaganda. Reluctantly but helplessly Czechoslovakia Poland Romania Hungary gave in to the Soviet threats and declined the invitation to take part in the Marshall Plan. France and Italy accepted and then these countries from 1947 on the strong communist minorities carried on a campaign against the plan using the same techniques propaganda and intimidation.
Series
People under communism
Episode
Pattern of world conflict, part 1 of 2
Producing Organization
National Association of Educational Broadcasters
Contributing Organization
University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
AAPB ID
cpb-aacip/500-dz03336b
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Description
This episode discusses how relations between former allies in World War 2 deteriorated and led to the Cold War.
A series of documentaries, interviews and talks based upon documented evidence and expert knowledge about the power and intentions of the Soviet Union.
Broadcast
1952-12-21
Topics
Politics and Government
Subjects
Soldiers
Media type
Sound
Duration
00:31:29
Embed Code
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Credits
Advisor: Hoover Institute and Library on War, Revolution, and Peace
Advisor: Columbia University. Russian Institute
Advisor: Harvard University. Russian Research Center
Funder: Fund for Adult Education (U.S.)
Producing Organization: National Association of Educational Broadcasters
Speaker: Mosely, Philip E. (Philip Edward), 1905-1972
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 52-38-6 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:31:15
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Citations
Chicago: “People under communism; Pattern of world conflict, part 1 of 2,” 1952-12-21, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed September 26, 2021, http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-dz03336b.
MLA: “People under communism; Pattern of world conflict, part 1 of 2.” 1952-12-21. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. September 26, 2021. <http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-dz03336b>.
APA: People under communism; Pattern of world conflict, part 1 of 2. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-dz03336b