thumbnail of Ways of mankind II; Fighting cock refrain
Hide -
If this transcript has significant errors that should be corrected, let us know, so we can add it to FIX IT+
The fighting cock refrain. A program in the series ways of mankind presented under the supervision of water Goldschmidt anthropologist of the University of California Los Angeles by the National Association of educational broadcasters a series designed to show how human beings live together in different times and places. The fucking cockroach brain is one of three programmes prepared to offer you the experience of living as the people of Bali live within the framework of their traditional culture. First Doctor Goldsmith Bali is the land of music indeed of all the arts sculpture and architecture and dance and drama. Poetry and story flourish on this tropical island itself a place of intense native beauty. Even cooking and walking in the ordinary social intercourse seem to be developed into arts among these handsome Indonesian people. But no people live alone not even in Bali. There is a workaday world of farming the terraced rice paddies a family life and compounds of marketing life for the
peasant has lived largely within his village. His village is governed by a council of all married men who apply the traditional regulations to preserve order and maintain the cooperation necessary for irrigating and working their rice fields. Very nearly every village too has its orchestra class. The pride and focus of its social life to the Balinese the love of music is the love of playing it. And night after night they will practice out of sheer pleasure. To without notation they can create and reproduce intricate symphonic masterpieces. Let us try to understand Balinese culture through their village activities and the meaning that music in these orchestras have for them. I will run out of paint. No there's still a little left. Then use it on him use it put some white crosses all over his face. Streak his arms with it from show to tourists. It's not enough just to smear his chest and back let it be easily seen Sky
own people stealing from him. Go ahead and smear him. Where's that big caterpillar hangs about his neck lift your head. Good now people will know he was anything the calls are we ready now let's pray him through the marketplace for a goal to parade him through all of he deserve it but we voted only 2 hours of public humiliation so there wouldn't be time. All right men around the marketplace then up and down every street in the village and after that we'll decide where and on your way because papers papers one then look up on his shape. He's lower than the beasts in chi you'll need his name as a first line and all come to look upon his shade. He's lower than the beast they call and Coyote is his name. The happiest man in the valley.
How can I face my family after this. I've killed myself the moment this is over I'll kill myself. Chi Chi How did you ever get into such a mess. What dreadful thing could I have done in an earlier existence to merit such ill fortune. All right so witches cursed me the gods must be very angry but only a short while back they blessed me with a fine harvest. And at the Council meeting the plan I suggested was highly praised. I was in June then. Now I'm like a gong with a hole in it. How did this all start. The night I spoke so well at the council meeting. I was at home feeding my fighting cocks I remember when I heard the signal for the monthly meeting of the council. I found a fresh wrong about my waist and put on my very best headband crease into my sash and hurried off to the center of our village
where the meeting is held. Pausing before the clubhouses for a moment to listen to the rehearsal of a Children's Orchestra the head man of our village council was just opening the meeting as I squatted in my place has become a great grandfather and therefore retires from our village. His place is now taken by who as we all know was married last week. It is his duty. It was a long meeting but the important part. The place where I came into the discussion. That was right at the very end. That's a message from God. There will be a great music competition at the coming festival in the Plaza before the palace five orchestras of guns and drums have been invited from different villages has been included named as head of the orchestra. What do you have to say this is an unexpected honor it is a fine chance to match
our skill against the others. You may be interested to hear that the orchestra from a bong on neighbors across the valley will also appear. That is really too much. For years we have been friends that come to our rehearsals while we have taught their dancers. They have copied our best music music that he has composed for us and we've said nothing. He's right but lately they've been growing hard to bear. It's true they play well thanks to us and they are very much in demand on their side of the river. But ever since they had the luck to be engaged in Denpasar to play at the hotel for tourists there they talk as though they were the best club in Albany. We must not let them beat us at the contest again. We must meet nightly to rehearse not just twice a week. We must have handsome new costumes for identifiers our gangs must be put into the whole orchestra needs a fresh coat of lacquer and shine again. Is the club agreed. You're coming on. Is there enough money in the club's Treasury for all this.
Yes even though we spend far too much at our last. Still there is enough for that. Let me finish. New costumes and new paint alone are not enough. So I suggest this. Let us get difficult. Brand new brilliant piece of music one that is ours alone and rehearse it in private. Then at the contest we can spring it on them. They'll be completely stunned. And what do you have in mind for this new piece of music. Oh I wasn't thinking that I would compose the music. I just rather called Bob from singer Raja. Everyone knows he's about the best in Bali for composing something really new. But he will last too high a price. He's in demand everywhere. Leave it to me we're old friends. Anyway I met him at a cockfight last week and I've been on where he's teaching right now. He won a nice little bag of silver betting on my best bird. He was so pleased. I'm sure I could get him to come for not too much money but he must agree absolutely agree not to teach the music we pay for to any other orchestra anywhere else. How long would we
need to have him here. Perhaps a month to invent something new and teach it to us. We could then rehearse alone for another month and then calling back to put on the finishing touches. Let's do it but we must be sure to keep this affair secret so our friends across the valley won't get wind of it. Not even to let them know that he is here you can go to tavern and tomorrow and talk with taking a present of a young pig in two hands. The club did I displease the goddess presuming to affect the world's affairs rather than leave them entirely in their hands. But how was I to know none of the others found that I had done any wrong. Everyone approved and after the meeting I went out with some of the members of the want home wine club. It was merely a cock's crow when I reached the gateway to our compound and found some sleep. It was hard to wake and next morning wife. Somebody. Some water please. A fine husband I had all the other men
have long since gone to the fields to plant. No no I do know planting today. Today I go to Taba not on village business. I don't think that's wise. According to the calendar you worked the fields today as the calendar say it's bad luck to travel you says nothing on that point but it does say you work in the field. Well I'll risk the trip I'll go take care of my fighting cocks wife. I'll be back by nightfall. Can't you put the going you know. This one I have offended the gods. Perhaps I should have paid attention to the calendar but I really can't be blamed. I was so full of my great scheme for winning the contest that I felt my liver was going to burst. I put a fine young pig in a basket and two hens in another and made my way out of the village. I walked along the narrow busy road to talk to find my friend the musician. I thought of the careless manner of playing of that Orchestra Club about buying across the valley of their old fashioned style and their old pieces music
like sea of honey and snapping crocodile that is known to every village on Bali. But music would silence the big words and the empty pride of the people of about. These were my thoughts when I happened to see a man resting near a little waterfall beside the road. He was a stranger but in the crook of his arm he held off fighting cock. A real beauty. I went over to him. Greetings greetings. Where does Gerald come from from the north. High on gotten really when General comes from way from the south. Carol sits where a common Rangel common eye likewise and where are you going to mock it. Oh then you pass through my village. Let me see that bird you have there to sell it and then because I
fear it's a bit too tough to make a good dinner. Good dick. We need a new cock at my compound. How much will you take for him. You want to but I am thinking about it. How much would you take for it. Three pieces of silver give you one two and a half one and a half and no more. Now I want to have well right now I've taken you can't very well take it with me but you're going to my village. That's a compound that's made and when you find it tell my uncle that he's to give you one and a half pieces for the bird. I agree. Good well I'll be on my way. I was pleased with my bargain. It was all I could do to keep from crawling
like a fighting cock myself. Should it have crossed my mind then that the gods were already displeased with me. I quickened my Step one just now to reach heaven and quickly and conclude my business so that I could hurry home to my new fighting bird. Was in the clubhouse listening to a rehearsal of the tab in an orchestra. I presented him with the little pig and the chickens then I explained my business pleases me to know that the thoughts of your village comes from doing to me what you expect to have this content at the New Year's festival in the present before the palace that would be about three months from now. Music Club learned quickly. Oh they do yes yes they do and how good are your dancers. Very good indeed. Caviar dancer especially so you will indeed be pleased to see him dancing to music of your own composition. I've come to your village. You know a day or two and stay with you through my new composition has entered into
your orchestra and you will permit nobody to learn a single note of it. My solemn oath. To people mocking me and shaming me. How differently they behaved when I returned with the news that I would help and that my plan was working. They approved me then perhaps I felt too proud that offended the gods. What could have been my pride in my new fighting bird. My uncle who knows more about it than anyone in Bali agreed with me it was the best fighting cock ever hatched. He must be a descendant of the divine rooster himself. I counted the rings on his middle drawer 21 rings and the skinny has the sign of a conqueror. Did you examine his feathers. The recent one that isn't all black or all white and he has muscles like a blacksmith. You win a fortune gambling with this title. What you must give him a grain diet. Not this champion. Only chopped dried follow especially legs and
claws. Have we already won. We can't afford a chicken diet for ourselves so we pay no attention to her uncle Women never understand. Go on. You must not conditioning him and train him at once. A bath and a swim every day. I hear him. He knows just what we're saying. We began to learn the new composition as soon as carb arrived a few days later. Busy I was every night after a hasty meal. I hurried to our clubhouse and undercovers direction rehearsed his composition with the other musicians and on top of that it was almost planting time and I work from sunrise to sunset with the others in our irrigation club getting our fields ready and whenever I could snatch a moment I helped Uncle train my king of fighting birds. And one day as I entered my compound for my new met me at the gate. Guy you and I have heard that this afternoon and in the beginning the three day
cockfight the finest birds on the island will compete and the richest gamblers. I can't go I have to work in the fields but I studied the calendar in my books of cockfight blog and it's a certainty that if you met your butt against a speckled bird you cannot know. I have to work but you can be excused from work without even paying a fine. If you go to then pass it on business. Well the orchestra business. What business don't you have to buy cloth for new costumes and lack for the instruments. What better place to buy them than in Denpasar. I understand we do it on cars we attend the cock fights and the night was great but not even money on the midline.
We're already underway. My heart was pounding with excitement and my bird almost burst out of his way through the crowd to the ring. Don't waste your strength my champion. Do you see anyone with you. Oh yes of course I was going to do that through the press of people. And as I started to go back to the ring I met the leader
of the orchestra was calling to me. I was just thinking. Suppose we let our birds fight each other. Mine is certain to be worth carrying home is mine. Oh right of course it won't be much of a coward he'll he'll die hard for you. Shall we make a bed just to keep ourselves interested. I know your village is much poorer than mine so suppose we make a dome. How about ten silver. Can you afford it. Some people are better off than some people think. Make it twenty silver pieces.
You know you don't have that much. Fifty fifty pieces. I hurried back to the ring my champion was already to rouse him and when I took him in my hands I felt his little heart beating furiously with lust for battle. Did you make an offering. Yes and also a match with a bang. I bet fifty pieces of silver. Fifty. You don't own fifty. I know but I have the orchestra's money right here in my sash not yours to gamble. Suppose you lose. I want those. Birds speckled remember. The crowd fell silent as one moody and I took our birds into the middle of the ring. Now the speckled fighter was a giant for size and strength but mine was no less a champion. They strained to get at each other as we held them.
Then we let them go. And lowered their heads and watched each other circling suddenly both jumped into the air and attacked. There was a flash of spears. And my king of birds fell back on the ground with a trickle of bread on his breast. You talk to top my hand someone might get. You. I felt as though a coconut had fallen on my head. I left the cockpit's and then wandered out into the marketplace. There was not understanding how I could have lost.
Perhaps the stranger who sold me the car was not really a farmer as he said but I demon who plotted to do me evil. Judging from the way it turned out that's what he must have been. What could be more evil than to have gambled away money that belonged to the orchestra. How could I make up the loss. What did I own that I could sell my home my rice. These are not really ours to sell but belong to the village and the gods. Besides what would my wife say. What to do where to get the money for the costumes and the paint. Take that money you know. Here you are. Yeah yeah. Perhaps your Orchestra will perform better than your bird in next month's contest. Perhaps you will be surprised. And we recently been engaged to play at the hotel and then resign. Yes that I know but you don't have a new composition by cabal and you have a new composition a composition by what
doth thing really is nothing unusual but hardly worth learning. Piece by. Can you listen to me. How would you like to have these 50 pieces of silver returned to you. What's that. I'll give you back the 50 pieces of silver if you'll teach my orchestra the music about teaching. I couldn't do it with deep peace. And this fine bird of mine too. Wow. I agreed then and there and with the 50 pieces immediately bought the paint and the cloth and hurried home that I should have so betrayed my village. And if I was busy before now I was killing myself with the work the planting and on top of that rehearsing with my orchestra and on top of that almost every night sneaking away to a bang to teach their orchestra all of taught us. I
taught them right down to the last note. Between all this scurrying about in the dread of having my crime discovered I was almost dead by the time the day of the New Year's. How alone and sad I felt as the festival began. Before the palace in Denpasar in the midst of the great crowd assembled. Sitting with our orchestra waiting for the contest to begin. Sun was shining the banners waving. And everyone was excited and happy. How alone and sad I felt knowing in advance what was going to happen. But it was a good contest. The five orchestras were there and each had new costumes and the instruments were rich with new lacquer and gold leaf. Ours looked the best of all and we were to play last. All were pleased with this all but me.
First there was the sweet toned gown and from. All over. The brilliant gamelan orchestra from some not. The orchestra with the great gongs from tabun and. The orchestra from the baron. I could see nine moody smiling and the thought of what was about to happen made me feel sleepy as I closed my eyes.
The abang orchestra began with monkey looks at himself in the mirror. That was the name that had given the PC composed. Will I ever forget the look of dismay on the faces of my fellow music club members as they realized that the orchestra from a bang had begun to play monkey looks at himself. Their hearts went out of their bodies and even though they rallied and played well all things considered joining the rest of the day and all that night. The judge's decision was a foregone conclusion. The abang orchestra was the winner. There was a meeting of the village council as soon as the festival attended that meeting. There is a traitor among us. One of us looks at him so well that one raised his voice and confess
that I must question each of you individually before I begin the priest will administer an oath I swear to tell the truth and if I lie may I and my children and my grandchildren and my great grandchildren be struck by lightning. May Tigers attack us may rock split open our scones may falling trees crush us may poisonous spite us may buffaloes Gore us of sickness and die and natural deaths may never again be man on this earth may we be reincarnated as maggots clams and serpents. May you know. It was I who betrayed you Coyote. It is a terrible thing you have done. When our orchestra performs well our gods are pleased and in return they send our village good living. Think
how they must now feel. Fellow council members how shall he be punished. Let us declare him dead and banish him from my village. No that's too hard. I think we ought to have him put in jail. What good would putting him in jail do he would get free food and lodging in jail resides with strangers in jail and their faces would not reproach him for what he has done. No I think he ought to be humiliated publicly humiliated and shamed any further suggestions. All right we'll put it to a neighbor's neighbors one and all come look at the shape of the beast at all and I own it. They went there this humiliation look what have I to live for. Well I would like to imagine the bird knowing the deed gave me just one thing I have a feeling it's unbeatable is just too much to bear. THROW MYSELF OFF A CLIFF as soon as they released me. How can they have the heart to
shout like that and laugh at you and treat those sticks together like that a lot of the rhythm and rhythm of the sticks keeps going through my head. Rhythm track rhythms like it could make a whole composition around that rhythm. Here's some brand new compositions and I could teach it to Iraq history and then we could challenge the abang orchestra again and this time we would really have a composition all our own. Yes I shall call it the fighting cock the. In the serious ways of mankind presented under the supervision of Dr. Walter Goldschmidt associate professor of anthropology and sociology at the University of California Los Angeles. You have heard the fighting cock refrain one of three programs designed
to offer you the experience of living as the people of BALLI live within the framework of their traditional culture. Colin McPhee selected and advised on the recorded music from the island of Bali and was consulting for the script. The script was written by Walter Newman and was produced by Andrew Allen in the studios of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Toronto. These programmes are presented by the National Association of educational broadcasters and are made possible under a grant from the fund for adult education an independent organization established by the Ford Foundation. This program was distributed by the national educational radio network.
Ways of mankind II
Fighting cock refrain
Producing Organization
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
National Association of Educational Broadcasters
Contributing Organization
University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
If you have more information about this item than what is given here, or if you have concerns about this record, we want to know! Contact us, indicating the AAPB ID (cpb-aacip/500-bn9x4g92).
Episode Description
This program, "The Fighting Cock Refrain," is the third in a series on the Balinese culture.
Series Description
This series is an exploration into the origin and development of cultures, customs and folkways in various parts of the world. The second series of Ways Of Mankind is concerned with a specific subject area and with two specific cultures.
Broadcast Date
Bali (Indonesia : Province)--Description and travel.
Media type
Embed Code
Copy and paste this HTML to include AAPB content on your blog or webpage.
Funder: Fund for Adult Education (U.S.)
Music Coordinator: McPhee, Colin, 1900-1964
Producer: Allan, Andrew, 1907-1974
Producing Organization: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
Producing Organization: National Association of Educational Broadcasters
Speaker: Sarrel, Philip M., 1937-
Writer: Newman, Walter
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 53-36-13 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:29:13
If you have a copy of this asset and would like us to add it to our catalog, please contact us.
Chicago: “Ways of mankind II; Fighting cock refrain,” 1964-06-04, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed September 25, 2023,
MLA: “Ways of mankind II; Fighting cock refrain.” 1964-06-04. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. September 25, 2023. <>.
APA: Ways of mankind II; Fighting cock refrain. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from