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The following program is produced at WG U.S. in cooperation with the national educational radio network. The down staff. Conversations on music with composer Scott Houston and Carolyn watts of the University of Cincinnati. Before we begin chatting I'd like the audience to listen to music. It's been more than a thousand years but just one element in common. The interval. It'll.
BE I think the time has come to bring ourselves into focus by reviewing some of the mysteries of music we've been chatting about for the past seven conversations. The bits and pieces of music you heard a minute ago were tremendously varied as you can get here in. And span more than a thousand years of music history no one album of the music they had in common was the interval. The difference in pitch between two tongues these won't be an order of care and we had before since I want to challenge the listener and I might play it first and then tell them what it is and sometimes I tell them not to do it and play it once as well. I try to talk melodically harmonically. I didn't. Write on.
The major seventh. Just Up next the news the miners that. I met a lot of them. Myself. Next one major six. A lot of you just heard about it
made you sick to my eyes. A lot of. Mommy mommy. I'm. The maid your third. Mulai. I won. I. Made their mind rooted in the idea that you were the major the major third. Of. My life. A lot of money. I missed any.
Of the minor. Different. I made him a lot since I held a lower tone. Becomes harmonic after a bit. Third. Third. I didn't care enough. But I'm like That's right. Next the perfect fifth one of the most common intervals both melodic and. I don't think that one is a quick explanation a capsule one just perfect I think.
Yes I do that I see major seventh minor 7 major major minor third wife perfect that a major alright conversation under never got much more. Time on a chart and here are the perfect very I've been wrong. That is perfect because it's in the major scale and also because it's in the major scale let me. Know whether it has the same connotations so it would be G and D and a key if you want to try. Yes all right let's see if we find a minor third from one up to three in a minor scale we're going to find at third in this B flat major scale.
We don't find it. How do we find the inverse. That's what Major Minor determine. Next one of the perfect octave. The minor sixth was be careful not to do the same and you want to be done before minor six. Months or six years or six years. Right. Now maybe your second question yes
you mentioned this once before but I think what does it have to do with the host up and a half that I made a second so we talk about half steps and whole steps. But you didn't mention him. Second let me rejoin madam by asking you out what is it what is a cult. The district the women's coach. How many different kinds of women's coach are there. Oh under the car you're still called colored aren't they. Well a major second is the same thing as a whole step. Oh that's. Right your second. There weren't. Any easy OK. She was the major second step. Paused. Or seconds.
And the last one on the list minus things you don't. Or she cuts into it. Because. Your minor side. Bends over the top of my key or just the universities. Yes. I forgot one. Number three is just two of those intervals. The major and minor third. And by stacking your super imposing one on top of the other we arrive at the structure of three tone the made of thirds called a triad and the first needs would take an order because of the major arrived first.
This is a major triad. As a major thorn on the bottom. Line or third or top the perfect gift for locking them in together. Then you try and make. The most common zone in all music when communicating with a minor triad is the perfect gift you know lacks. A major third on top. The minor third. Makes a characteristic sound. This way. Diminishes the next one to appear on the scene. And it's made of two minor thirds. I mean all the major I mean of a major and a minor in the minors made of a minor and a major speaking from bottom to top of course diminished. You can make of two minor thirds. That makes the diff not perfect but perfect
lesson by a half step or minor second. And it doesn't and it's got to go someplace. This is the point of rest you say. This is the point of rest. This is definite. That's going to go. For some other than a trial that can be made of two major thirds at the keyboard you played. And sharp. And your third and a sharp. Therefore the gift is not perfect but it's. What they call a moment of triumph. The simple harmonic lasted from thirteen hundred sixteen hundred men and tried to not make its appearance until fifteen seventy five. It's a very late comer.
That's strange because it would have been a perfectly natural thing to do as it fell into a series of developments among them this. Moment in the Renaissance to move the miners back to Perth. And without going along explanation that's the way they. Came up to prepare a. Long time it seems unnatural but is very logical when one studies it then and shot number five we showed how the tragedy much more unsettled by using different parts of the chord in the lower voice. Here's the augmented chorus. Remember we had revelation. In the Corps and repeated so returned he had enough peace. In the diminished triad sound. Of.
First this way. The minor is very characteristic in first inversion and really I think so. And I'm settled. Because I'm. The major occurs in the route of course. First and. Third here on the base the base that makes them give the carryall every time. That's why when my students from the base it's very static I say take out there's been an arrest Jane make a move. After we had stacked thirds to form triad we were able to form chords of the stuff by
adding another third the ninth by adding two thirds and the eleventh by three more thirds. The fifteenth by four thirds etc. etc. are a waste of time. So it took a major trying. To track a minor third on top of human dominance. One complaint. I think a minor variant of of that D flat. And we have a ninth most common and sixteen hundred. Minor seventh. Minute in the piece. First Court is a minor minor some minor third party. That's why it's so beautiful.
Starting at the bottom the top major third in the middle in the middle. And we have some characters and girl of action where life is not changing. Or. Wants to go someplace too much or. It was the only method major we've found. That in triad. The major seventh. Grade just meant. We found that exist in bar talk and as a core and in suspension. There they are some 250 and one thousand forty two hundred years apart using the same thing but in different ways. And we got into many seventh. I was in a minor.
Oh my word. And I and the have to manage them which is a characteristic one of the many triad. And I'm like yourself. The minute. You know my mind. There might have been. That's called a. Silly term it has to many think of in your own way. That picture is a cover for some amateurs I used perhaps exaggerated they cover for each of these seven chords. Then there's the major major seventh you know to make yourself. Perfect as to what their arrangement thirds is different than you are in the bottom a quarter in the top and I might come in the middle. We then began putting the triads and seventh chords and their inversions together by making the
roots of the chords move mostly down to the fifth. Next up a second and more rarely up or down a third. Like this. E minor. I want to prove that is the nick center. That is the center of a minor point. Let us hear an E minor composition the beginning of the second movement of the Brandenburg Concerto Number Four. Her. A.
Good listener will have noted that not all the chords are in the key of E minor. And you jump on that chord progression again and all the chords are not in root position. That's the dullest kind of music. Despite the beauty of the sound of the melodic lines and the harmony the best music needs tones that are not in the key in one of our jets we call them altered chords. And one of our illustrations went this way. Were why would
you be willing to explain. Just where did you get started with you. And then there was an older guard. Go over very well to. Start a function. Again. Thank you. One of the most commonly used and most important of the older cards one of the Neapolitan NC F minor problem A. Minor. Chord in the key.
You're in the normal second Yeah go flat. Call the Neapolitan and write another one another over chords and let me call my real friends and use the expression the Germans play in E-flat major. How you want this court. Does not want to be named. We restart we get smooth about this and we don't use it is that we use it is as sharp now as a tendency to go up and we go smoothly from. A flat major. To. See.
Which brings out to the matter modulation one key the other. And I went from there one of the smoothest there is. Here is an easy map of the module and even want to know when other will go from D-flat major. F minor by using a car that is common to both the. Tonic. And dominant. Tonic. To the sixth scale degree. The name. Becomes a forced minor. Now doesn't go up too. Me wiener.
My you are listening. You're going to be and the two other voices just spread. One of the simplest most beautiful methods of modulating the tonic from major to minor or vice versa. The composer gets a whole new spectrum and he does as an example we're going to hear next. Flatmate during its own spectrum by going from the major chord to the let's hear the Brahms. Nine.
You're. Here because when you cross a hoop 7:12 this flat major and all of a sudden human music would certainly be dull though.
Altered chords modulation and rhythm. You've been listening to up the down staff conversations on music with composer Scott Houston and Carl and watch our technical director is Bob Stevenson. This program was produced in cooperation with the national educational radio network in the studios of WG U.S. on the campus of the University of Cincinnati. This is the national educational radio network.
Up the down staff
Episode Number
What Have We Learned?
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University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
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Identifier: 71-17-8 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
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Chicago: “Up the down staff; 8; What Have We Learned?,” 1971-00-00, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed June 23, 2024,
MLA: “Up the down staff; 8; What Have We Learned?.” 1971-00-00. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. June 23, 2024. <>.
APA: Up the down staff; 8; What Have We Learned?. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from