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Listen the next sound you hear could be the long wailing cries of the air raid siren. Stop and think What would you do with your heard them now going into that right now and they fit and hide when it comes along kind of like you know I've never thought of it I didn't think the dangers were that great recession up to now no one has instructed leaders that they were that great. Should I start taking precautions so as a result all I've ever thought about was wrong for the first well my husband built me a shelf here and we're going to go down there kind of underground and concrete and ahead and then another layer of concrete you go down as an air then we can see it with the three parts I don't find myself laughing If he tell me that the best place to go. Those were the voices of Americans going about their business in a local supermarket.
Here's one more. I know I thought about what I think would have riots and destruction wouldn't none of us would know what to do even if we had. So I think there would be a lot of turmoil really and I think that everyone with a lot of panic. I think that more training a lot of help. I think that's almost right. Those who can survive will have will have known how to survive. The National Association of educational broadcasters presents prepared for survival all radio sounding board for facts and opinions on civil defense. And a word with a new book.
But we fought World War One on World War Two. We've fought World War One and we've fought World War Two. But who will survive number three. That's the open question of civil defense a question which we'll discuss but not attempt to answer. But first what is civil defense for a partial answer look back to the yellowed newspapers of the revolution of the civil war of time when American cities were under attack from the Pennsylvania Evening Post of February 24th 1776. Resolved That it be recommended to the several assemblies conventions councils or committees of safety in the United Colonies to exert
themselves in devising farther ways and means of promoting and encouraging the manufacture of gunpowder and of introducing that manufacture into private families in Boston the following year there was a panic and the State Council of Massachusetts Bay drew up the following notice. Whereas the council had received intelligence that renders it highly probable that a cruel and bloodthirsty enemies have it in contemplation to make an incursion into the New England states. The brigadier is in the several counties out to hold themselves in constant readiness to march at a minute's warning to any place that may be attacked by a worse than savage enemy. The Civil War the gentlemens war was a little worse by previous standards but essentially still a pop gun versus pop gun affair. Atlanta Georgia sweated out the southern summer of 1864 in the hands of Lincoln's General Sherman. The Atlanta Daily Intelligencer reports that shell and process has been increased in intensity during the past four or five days. The enemy is
located several large seed guns which cast their 60 full and £72 missiles all over portions of the city. But thus far they have rained the terrible contents down on the suffering noncombatants. However without much fatality result. This city is very desolate. There are a few people remaining who could get away. And almost every house bears marks of the vengeance of the ruthless enemy. The streets are deserted their homes desolate and abandoned except by the casual citizens. All in all hits as sad as a ruin and deserted as an ancient city of the plain. We fought World War One over there across our protective oceans with bigger battalions and better guns. But while they fought in France and Germany in the Baltic states. How many people here at home feared another General Sherman in the form of the Kaiser. And when it was all over over there the victorious Americans most of them anyway returned to the sheltered Eden of
North America mistaking the first act in their mission for the end of the play. Twenty three years later we fought World War Two from Pearl Harbor tonight gets ackee the newspaper headlines telling us we won are still fresh in our minds. But who remembers the Japanese girl who wrote this letter. I was turning away from the windows which look out towards the center of the city. When the whole interior of our floor reflected a glow like a great street car spark. Or the falling of the sun. And yet I I wonder if I am more fortunate than those who did not live beyond the flash. As my face and body are so badly scarred that I do not wish others to see me. I.
Found you. And this brings us up to date. The world terms on apex of the hydrogen bomb. This program is not an oracle. We do not prophesied things can go either way. Americans look at one another and wonder what to do. One answer has been suggested that the answer is civil defense. And for the remainder of this program and for 12 more here after we will discuss civil defense from the multifarious viewpoints of all who were willing to record their factual discussions and personal opinions for these programs the recordings to be heard were made by civil defense directors scientific advisors congressional leaders military personnel and international citizens and
humanitarians. The tapes were begun January 26 1960 and completed that April. They were made in the offices and residences of the speakers and the function of the series is to coordinate the material not to editorialize. Each person to speak was recorded separately by our producer. The remarks have been edited with the consent of the speaker and are presented here in their original context though often cut in length. But what are we talking about. What is civil defense today. Well the federal government defines it as follows. The term civil defense means all those activities and measures designed or undertaken one to minimize the effects upon the civil population caused or which would be caused by an attack on the United States. To to deal with the immediate emergency conditions which would be created by such an attack and 3 to effectuate emergency repairs to
or the emergency restoration of vital utilities and facilities destroyed by such an attack. Basically there are four approaches to the problem of civil defense which emerge from our producer's interviews. First one may speak from the viewpoint of the existing civil defense organizations as they operate under the Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950. And a revision of this Act passed by Congress in 1958 called Public Law 8 5 6 0 6. Now the Act established the Federal Civil Defense administration and the revision divided civil defense responsibilities between the federal and the state governments. Second are the legislative attempts to change the legal status of civil defense. Third is the scientific and technical problem posed by nuclear weapons. And fourth are those people who refute the suggestion that civil defense is the way to prepare
for survival. The Honorable Leo a hoist a former governor of Iowa from 1955 to 1957 is the director of the Office of Civil and defense mobilization. Governor Hollings duties as administrator are generally prescribed by the Federal Civil Defense Act and his office is charged by law with the preparation of plans for civil defense. A delegation of civil defense responsibilities establishment of civil defense warning systems and communications and the development of protective measures including but not limited to research as to the best methods of treating the effects of an attack such as developing shelter and equipment designs. President Eisenhower appointed governor of the federal civil defense administrator on July 19 1957. Our basic point to make this time then is a clarification of the Division of Civil defense responsibilities between the federal and state governments by definition as the
director of the Office of Civil and defense mobilization or the OSI DMN as it is abbreviated. Governor Hoyt is the person most qualified to discuss the federal government's plans and policies and the present administration's interpretation of civil defense laws. Governor Hoyt was asked by our producer who conducted the interviews for the series. Why his off was the OCD am does not have the authority to enforce civil defense at the level of the state governments. Well of course this is a democracy and I grade it here up to the Constitution of the United States it's given me the freedom that I don't like. It's the document that's going to guarantee that we have freedom in this country for years and years ahead. I believe in state's rights I think that it's most important that the federal government give guidance and leadership in this field. But also we must consider that this is a partnership arrangement by a
law. It's a partnership arrangement. The federal government the state government the local governments are partners in this. Each having a part to perform for proper civil offense and defense mobilization preparation we never order a state. We say that they should do such and such in order to meet the requirements that are there and they should satisfy those requirements in our national plan for civil defense and defense mobilization. We set forth the mission that's to be accomplished step by step how that mission is to be accomplished and by whom. You see it's most important I remember when I was a governor it was I wanted at that time to get information. Telling me what is the role of the state. Well this national plan does that U.S. and its most important. What does it say about the role of the state
exam Well the states of course have the responsibility of assisting the federal government in doing its part within its jurisdiction. Is safety of educating the people informing people of the effects of these weapons and what they must do to meet these effects. Next they must have a capability within their government to be able to marshal all the government personnel of that state and all of the resources of that state for what purpose. To support the people in case one of these emergencies. We look to our governor we look to the state for assistance in case of normal disasters such as fires and things like that to augment what to augment the capability of the local government. And we expect in case of a manmade disaster that they should have that capability. But you can't do it with a small civil defense staff.
You must have a very competent staff under the governor that coordinates for the governor. All of these agencies of state government so that they properly use the personnel and use the resources within that state to support the efforts of the people. We have a support nation no yes or yes or no I'd say that in the past year and a half we have made tremendous strides forward in having this coronation of effort. Now there is one weakness and that is that we do need more fines for similarly fan staffs at the state and local level. Back in a while back in 1058 we the Congress passed a law known as Public Law 6 0 6 in which it set forth this partnership arrangement. Now I want to point out that many people have felt all civil preparedness while it's considered and it is a toad.
It is a part of the total defense of this nation most essential that there are four in the military is a national responsibility. Civil defense should be a federal and national responsibility. I don't subscribe to that. I think this partnership arrangement is an acted by the Congress is sound because as I pointed out previously governments must serve people not only in normal times but also in case of an emergency. You couldn't employ enough people in this country to protect everyone in a civil emergency. They have to all participate. Now while Congress has created this partnership. They have not as yet backed it up with the appropriations that are required under that law and we're urging again this time that Congress provide the 12 million dollars which will be used by the federal government to match
funds with the state and local governments in order to strengthen their civil defense staffs throughout the country. That's most essential because I consider the state and the local governments the very heart the very heart of the civil defense effort. They're close to people. They're the ones that have to convert these plans into action and it should be therefore our responsibility to match these funds in order to assist them. Therefore it remains that a partnership instead of a federal. Overall structure. REPRESENTATIVE JEFF hollow of the old of California has conducted a four year congressional investigation into nuclear warfare and civil defense. His then is one legislative viewpoint. As a charter member of the Joint Committee on atomic energy I have observed the steady growth and development of nuclear weapon technology with great concern for the problems such weapons will
pose for all mankind if they are ever unleashed upon the world in another capacity as chairman of the House Military Operations Subcommittee. I have participated in a careful examination of our federal civil defense program over the past four years. During this period our subcommittee has issued five reports on our hearings and investigations as a result of the studies and investigations concerning weapons effects and civil defense operations. I'm greatly disturbed over our nation's glaring lack of civil defense preparedness. If the Soviet Union were to strike our country today with weapons now in its possession the effects of such an attack would be catastrophic for the American people. Many millions of lives would be lost. Millions more would be seriously injured and left homeless. Much of our industrial capacity would be destroyed are rendered unusable for a long period of time. A good part of our agricultural surpluses as well as the crops in the field would be
destroyed are contaminated by deadly radioactive fallout. The physical damage created by such an attack would leave our survivors in a state of severe shock wholesale panic would be a distinct possibility largely because our people would not know what to do our to whom they should look for guidance and help. I wish I could report to the American people today that the federal government recognizes the importance of civil defense departments and is taking the necessary steps to build an adequate civil defense program. But such is not the case. After 15 years of nuclear weapon development and at a time when a potential enemy can strike any point in the United States with ballistic missiles the federal government still clings to the outmoded civil defense concept of World War 2. I'm convinced that we as a nation are never going to solve some of our most pressing problems in national defense including the disarmament question. Until we become serious
about civil defense preparedness we must understand that it is not simply a matter of telling the people to prepare a warning them either to dig or Ron. We must develop a complete national master plan which will provide for the construction of shelters and for federal support and direction of a comprehensive survival and recovery program. Nothing less will give us the type of civil defense preparedness required in this age of thermonuclear weapons and ballistic missiles of intercontinental range. Anything less I'm afraid will leave our country extremely vulnerable to the horrifying effects of a nuclear holocaust. Nuclear physicist Dr Ralph lap will introduce the scientific and technical problems of civil defense. What are we up against and how do we deal with it. Doctor lab was the consultant scientist for the 1946 bikini bomb tests. He was also a former scientific
advisor to the War Department general's staff and currently a consultant physicist to the nuclear science service. Dr Lapp is a regular contributor of articles to the magazine Bulletin of Atomic Scientists and has written a number of books on nuclear weapons and survival. His latest being fallout a study of super bombs Strontium 90 and survival written in conjunction with Representative Hollyfield and a number of scientific and medical specialists. All I might say that I had a discussion. Yes very recently was a number of top scientists in this country on the overall problem of civil defense. And there is no question about it. We're in a pretty sad way. This however I do not think should be interpreted as an indictment of the people who are charged with the really awesome responsibility for civil defense. I think if anyone is to be pointed out as blameworthy one may say that it is the nature of the weapon itself. It has simply
increased in power to fast. The nature of the hazards has changed too quickly to accommodate change in planning. If you started out in 1945 to plan for a defense against the A-bomb that the fence would not be adequate against the kind of weapons we had in one thousand eight hundred fifty two and by in like measure would not be adequate against the kind of weapons we would have in 1962. And it is this program in the power and nature of the weapon to blast the heat and the fall which makes the problem of descent so difficult. So how can we keep up with these changes and what could be done that is not of course I would say from the standpoint of a democracy you keep up by informing the people not trying to keep this stuff under the rug. Now if you look back I don't wish to dysentery too much ancient history about this but if you look at the Atomic Energy Commission and Defense Department's record in informing the public on the nature of hazards about nuclear weapons it is one
of. Being too late with the information. Matter of fact it's seems as though they themselves didn't seem to understand what it was all about at the time. But this is no excuse for the not sharing their ignorance with the public so that things could come out in the open. And I suppose that the people today as a result of the extensive hearings of Representative Hollyfield follow hearings specially the hearings on nuclear war which took place in the summer 1059 and published in December of 59. I suppose one can say that everything's out in the open. I would challenge that on two grounds. First of all I think there are things that are not out in the open and I would be specific here. I would be specific with respect to the nature of the heat flash that comes about by virtue of high altitude blasts. We had to blast out a Johnston Island in 1958. The technical data from those has not been made available and I have specifically asked you Congressman how will be able to get the information. It is
not released it is classified. And let's not make any bones about this this material is stamped secret and in my opinion it is valuable for civil defense. Now I but I think that the I would agree that most of the information. It's out in the open now for our information is out in the open. There's nothing we're concealing there. However I don't believe that there is a great deal that just won't be out in the open until the bomb brings it out itself and that is by virtue of the fact that many of these things are simply unknown to all of us either inside or outside of government. We do not know enough about the effects of weapons to predict just what will happen when the bomb goes off. They should not be interpreted as meaning that we don't know enough to make reasonable plans I think we do. Is civil defense the best way for Americans to prepare for survival. Mrs. Franklin D Roosevelt in 1941 and 1942 during World
War Two was the assistant director of the office of civilian defense. She compares the civil defense situation then with civil defense against nuclear attack a nuclear attack is going to kill so many people now that the little things one can do now and I'm sorry this isn't going to be very good for the civil defense of you do you. Well actually what we're doing is we're reporting on it we are not ourselves even working for this all right well let's try that. I think we lack an understanding of what an enemy attack might mean I think we lack an understanding of the fact that it might happen by accident. But I don't really think it's important because if it is an attack of any value
it seems to me that it will wipe out so many people that it doesn't have to groom a second world war did we have civil defense activities. Oh yes and there was great good sense to it because there was a great deal that you could really do. You could do what. A good deal to prevent For instance fire because if you put up the bomb the little ball of fire that was the way to save things poor Phaedra lives in London and the amount of damage over a period of time with precision bombing. You could do pretty much what we were able to do with Hiroshima in a few seconds. Still there was a good deal that could be done at any
one particular time and shelters had found. That you it's a very different picture and therefore. I. Am much more interested in trying to prevent any prior attacks and particularly in doing all we can to prevent accidents. World War 2 I think everybody was much more and standing in this country less than in other countries where the war was really on the doorstep. But in this country even people knew that they might actually have to be prepared for the falling of a bomb or a bomb attack and they were
willing to be trained and willing to be on the watch. And it was possible that they would be able to do something if they detected an attack. They could even detect things that they thought might be an attack. And so that was the weather with Rob. Now I feel very differently about it. If by civil defense is a nuclear war that. During the following programs we will try to come to terms with the problem of survival and the answers proposed by a civil defense.
Corps rather than prepare for survival is a radio sounding board for facts and opinions on civil defense written and produced by Richard chick and directed by Alan Murdock who needs civil defense will be the topic of the next program in this series. Among the participants will be Dr. Ellis Johnson director of the Johns Hopkins University Operations Research Office and journalist and publisher I.F. Stone recording editor and music by Rowena Logan prepare for survival is recorded by Wayne State University Radio in Detroit for the National Association of educational broadcasters under a grant from the National Educational Television and Radio Center.
This is the end Radio Network.
Prepare for survival
Who will survive World War Three?
Producing Organization
WDET (Radio station : Detroit, Mich.)
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University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
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Episode Description
This program, the first in the series, introduces concepts of civil defense and what Americans think about it.
Series Description
A radio sounding board for facts and opinions on civil defense.
Broadcast Date
Public Affairs
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Announcer: Logan, Dan
Director: Murdoch, Alan
Guest: Holifield, Chet, 1903-1995
Guest: Hoegh, Leo A. (Leo Arthur), 1908-
Guest: Lapp, Ralph E., 1917-2004
Performer: Rowena
Producer: Schick, Richard
Producing Organization: WDET (Radio station : Detroit, Mich.)
Writer: Schick, Richard
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 60-52-1 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:29:28
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Chicago: “Prepare for survival; Who will survive World War Three?,” 1960-01-01, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed October 1, 2023,
MLA: “Prepare for survival; Who will survive World War Three?.” 1960-01-01. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. October 1, 2023. <>.
APA: Prepare for survival; Who will survive World War Three?. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from