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But in this resolution of the conflict the key point must be the realistic consideration by the individual himself of whether a symptom is potentially serious. If it is not one way if it is the other way. But there will be times when he cannot be certain how to evaluate his own symptom and to cover this situation. He could have an understanding in advance with his position that when he or the patient is not sure of how seriously to take a symptom he will ask is he will not ask his doctor for an appointment for an examination but instead would perform to give a brief description of the symptom. Then the two of them would decide if an appointment is necessary. Such a plan would have to be tailored to suit individual variations. Such a plan would be an addition to the regular checkups and so I stress this it really basically ceding the simple but I wanted to stress it because even though it's simple it's something which is not faced directly they with enough
wins and it's a paradigm for others that are a bit more complicated. Not to return again to our description of the third type of thinking we can emphasize the way in which it's dynamic rather than stack the word dynamics refers to forces at work. The term thermodynamics refers to the forces of heat hydrodynamics to the forces of water and second dynamics to the forces of the motion of inner conflict. Now to clarify further the concept of dynamics I give an example from a fourth Feo the dynamics of the body when the functioning the working of the fluids of the body is to be studied. The starting point is to know that a body fluid can be acid or Arlen. But this is not enough. Taken on it might be merely the either or approach that are optimal for the study to be adequate and productive the starting point must include the fact that there are forces working in both directions some to make the body fluids more acid and others
to make the fluids more alkaline. The real focus then is on the power the strength of those forces and on their reaching an equilibrium an assett basic whatever at a point which permits good functioning of the organs of the body. Next one must know that is part of various Jonas's for example a child's body fluids may shift to the acid side a condition called acidosis which may become dangerous when that shift occurred just toward the acid side there occurs. Also one of the most extraordinary events in this our world automatic today there are body responses to the acidosis the body responses produce a swing in the opulent direction to restore the wear brim to bring back again the steady state of homeostasis. If the swing goes too far toward the looses automatic body responses produce a
swing in the ass and direction. Now this process provides one reason for saying that most of the time one can trust one's body to take care of itself. It is an enormously important fact that in many ways and not just state a potentially dangerous state of an organism will automatically call out responses defenses that bring back when you stay says a steady state a healthy state but severe illness exists and at times one must not trust the body to take care of itself. At times the defensive or equilibrated process feels to work well enough and you don't assert herders and externally help is needed. A process similar to body homeostasis occurs at the level of human behavior and feeding at the level of emotional conflict. An adolescent boy of 17 or 18 may have the dynamic emotional drive to show he is a man a very strong man. The strongest man and to
prove it by sexual conquests and by fighting. The same adolescent may have the dynamic emotional drive to prove he is just a little boy. These forces often are in contact a swing in either direction may produce anxiety in the adolescent and be followed by a swing in the other direction. Finally the two forces may come to an uneasy equilibrium. A temporary steady state which however is vulnerable to the stress of the internal pressures of desires and Goneril to the stress object Journal stimulation of temptation. The accent question of one force either the super masculine bribe or the pseudo weak little boy bribe made lead to an increase in the force acting in the opposite direction. In a moment I'll amplify this point you carry the understanding of psychodynamics a step further by a discussion of two other human patterns the wish to be independent to be one's own boss and the wish to be
dependent protected and cared for. But first I want to add that the third kind of think gaining the recognition of emotional forces and their effect can replace the use of a static stereotype and the use of good guy bad guy support a lot of mays and may provide a way to provide a way of understanding the rich and creative foreignness of human life. Also the third type of thinking can be realistic and pluralistic. It can be multi dimensional and flexible and be the approach that brings in combinations and an awareness of reactions and interaction. Further I want to add that this way of looking at life is more than the symbolic Gailey in the formula which often is diagrammed as a triangle or a pyramid of thesis antithesis. NS and synthesis thesis and antithesis of the two angles at the base of the triangle of the pyramid and corresponds somewhat to our description of the either
or the synthesis is diagrammed as the top of the triangle or pyramid represents the attempt to go beyond to bring together the thesis and the antithesis. So the formulation I'm using tonight does begin with A he began again kind of. But it becomes much more dynamic. The differences highlighted the fact that the dynamic approach is much better symbolized by a turning. We are for the four Serco turn of the hands of the clock than by a stationary triangle or pyramid. And if I have time now to talk about the turn of the we are out of human psychodynamic. Yes I know I want to turn to a discussion of the problem of independence and dependence it goes this way. We decided earlier in this discussion that life is simple approach of putting Tom Smith an independent guy is not enough. In a bipolar statement carried things at least a good step forward of recognizing Tom Smith's periods of deep confidence as well as his
independence and the inconsistency of his behavior which are the result. But now we must say this dichotomy also is not enough and we must think in terms of third alternatives of interactions of a process similar to that of homeostasis. Now as we do so many times we can start with a biologic fact the human animal is the only species in which the young are dependent for a number of years and the older members of the group for help for food for protection for security. This period includes the first 5 years or so in which many a child would die if no adults were there to help them stay alive. The period of dependence also includes many more years of childhood in which the individual is not yet ready to be on his own to live independent of parents or other adults. Now this
biologic species pattern provides an extraordinary opportunity for the transmission of a cultural heritage. No other animal has such a long period of dependence nor such a rich inheritance to receive after it is born. And apparently this early period of dependence leaves a profound impression in many ways. One is that the protracted experience of dependence is associated with many positive feelings of being cared for and protected. And in this long period the child's independence strivings inevitably are frustrated or blocked in various degrees by a smaller size by his immaturity or by the adults around him he has fewer of the satisfactions of independence and many more. Deep down he's being cared for in the long period of relative dependence apparently provides an
experience of peace and comfort of safety and security of nirvana which often is I do you know dies and then I search the fascination throughout the individual's life. Added to this is the fact that the period of dependence is the most vulnerable time for a child that some destructive events can occur to which the child may respond in excessive ways. But each day destructive experiences and his own responses may increase his need to be safe and secure to be protected to be fed to be loved to be cared for. The end result is that many human beings have a carry over. I hang up in later life of a strong and lasting drive for dependency hell. But for many individuals especially as they grow older in childhood and after a strong dependent drive is felt as if it were not shoes for many human beings the urge
to be dependent is shameful. Many a man would have his pride hurt deeply if you were to show or even to recognize his wishes to be cared for and protected and would think of them as inferior and stigmatizing him as a little boy. You know other men the dependent wishes arouse anxiety rather than shame with the feeling that it's dangerous to be dependent on others. But this is a weak position. And that in such a position one could be a time for damage and so out of shame or out of fear. Many a man denies totally that he has dependent wishes he may become a rabidly independent and self-sufficient as a way of showing himself around the world that he is not a dependent little boy. But then independence in turn may be thought of as not shoes in the eyes of many men the attitude of great independence is dangerous. They may feel that independence means too much dangerous competition that it
means giving up the chance of being helped or that it means being too much on one's own or of sticking out one's neck perhaps with hurting others or of being a herd independent strivings then may lead to a flight in a direction away from independence to an emphasis on dependence again. And this may be felt for a while a safe and secure. But again often leads to shame. And so again to independence. Now such upward and downward spiral are circular responses are the themes the symphony of human life and perhaps in the absence the blackboard I asked simply indicate a little bit more of what this we are turning business would be. Suppose one does have a big store all this way on this side would be independence on the side that didn't pan out. Say you start here with the deep end and some wheels going to time this way start this way with the deep end and the dependence
leads to anxiety or fear which would mark at the top the anxiety or fear connected with being dependent would lead the individual then to an independent stance. The independent stance made lead to a different sort of anxiety the anxiety about being strong of being in competition of hurting others or being heard that would be at the bottom of the anxiety about that then is defended against by deep down. I hope that turn to the way early is more clear in your vision right now than it is in mine. Deborah perhaps now we have focused enough on the third type of thinking on the dynamics psychiatric understanding of life. And that is one of its products to keep you with me to hold your attention not only on this blast of water to keep you with me to hold your attention I will make an abrupt
change in our focus. But this time no joke. No jingo no reminiscence. Rather I try to stir you by making some unexpected comments which can start us productively creatively in a new direction. My new focus the focus I start now is to compare these two like the first one of the series last Wednesday's lecture with a lecture tonight so far the content of the two lectures provides us with a dramatic contrast and that contrast can give us several important leads for an understanding of that day. From the contrast I think I see a new way of defining one of the essential differences between man and the other animals. Now in the first lecture the essence wraps the climax was the discussion of the patterns of survival in animals other than
man. The emphasis was on the survival value of competition of the struggle with other animals and with the conditions of the environment. But then I emphasized also the survival value of cooperation and group organization within the species. Further in the fights between members of a species the winner responds to the special signal from the loser does not kill him but permits the fight to be over. That's been the species both survive finally and certain species there are instances in which an animal responds to serious external danger in a way which adds to the danger to itself when in so doing it increases the chance of survival to the others of its group. This is the bad been the mother bird. That material was presented last Wednesday in terms of its relation to ethics in man. But tonight I referred to it again to call your attention to the fact that in animals other than man all of the action seems to take place in the relation of
one animal to other animals and to the external world one animal competes with another fights with him lets him go where one animal kills another kind of animal for food or one animal helps another is help where animals get food from the world or in danger from the world. In each item the common denominator is the relation of an animal with the world outside to himself. The world of other animals and the conditions of his environment. In contrast in the second lecture so far which is concentrated on the human element itself the essence of the discussion was not on events outside but on events inside the human being. In one instance it was the conflict in one man between his dependence and his own independence and the second it was the contrast in Mr. Smith between his own generosity and his own stingy news. In the third it was the adolescent boys conflict between his pseudo masculinity and his suited a boy striving in the
firemen it was the conflict within himself between his ethical principle of being brave and uncomplaining and his ethical principle of wanting to prevent damage to himself and to remain alive and healthy for his own sake and that of his family. In both the instances in man and in the other animals the reverse of what I just summarized can or must be true. Also in addition to the end for human animals primary relation to the world outside I suppose there must be some conflict of some sort of forces within the animal as well. But that process is difficult to demonstrate and so biologists concentrate on the relation of an inn for a human animal with the forces outside of him. Then in man I think that's not just an artifact. I think it's an essential truth. Then in man in addition to the fundamental process of the relation of the conflict between the forces inside that man there exist also the higher the important patterns of the relation and of the conflict between a human
being and the forces outside him. The opposite of one might say there are other individuals alone and in various groups already outside each man and interacting strongly with him. There are the patterns of his culture and the various forces of his environment with which he interacts. But even so it's true that the primary emphasis upon the human animal is considered is on the forces inside him. Whereas the primary emphasis on the other animals are considered is on their interaction with the forces outside down or condensed. Now still further Man is the only animal known with certainty to have major conflicts of high importance between his own internal forces. Not all of man's internal forces are in conflict of ours. Some co-exist in
relative peace and harmony. But man's potential for conflict between the forces within himself may be one of the most important of all facts about man and the resolution of such internal conflicts may be man's most important task and still further the resolution of man's internal conflicts may in a way we hope to discuss later help to resolve man's conflicts with the other man. We come now using this to a brief discussion of man as a specific type of animal and to keep your interest high. I can say that the definition of man has changed in the past two or three years. Change by the word largely of Jane Goodall who has visited our Department of Psychiatry several times. Man no longer can be defined as the only tool making adult. Until recently you were spot that no other animal could make tools even
though many animals can use as tools some of the objects they find around them. For example there is one species of vulture which uses a stone it picks up to break an egg it cannot break with its beak. But Jane Goodall has shown that the chimpanzee not only uses as a tool some object which can be used unchanged but also makes or prepares certain tools one of which will be discussed in the later nectar. And it is taught to use that to make and to use that tool by the older ones its over process. Therefore man not now can be defined as the animal which to him very much greater degree than any other animal can make and used to all those. The difference is one of degree not of kind. And so in this way also a man is off the perch of his uniqueness. Now at this point I could get a discussion of man's differences from all of the other animals including the
greater capacity to fast see the capacity to use symbols the capacity to communicate with others of its own species to a much greater greater degree that is through language rather than the simple kind of communication in the other animals. The development of the cortex the development of the posture which frees the upper extremities especially the hands for jobs other than body support or locomotion and the opposable thumb which permits more effective grasping and holding and working in addition out of higher. There are no not yet in addition but of highest importance is the development of patterns of culture in man and the transmission of that culture not by the genes the chromosomes but after the birth of the next generation through the impact of order animals on the younger. But now I suggest that we can add to these points that arise out of the contrast that I made in these two like terriers that man in contrast to the other to the other animals are much worse.
More so than we can detect in other animals is characterized by having within himself many internal. Let him try individual forces in trust psychic processes which often are contradictory and at times are in serious Con. So for this evening two facts stand out over all other facts. One is the great value of using the third way of thinking about the problem the way that can be called dynamic or pluralistic and realistic. The second fact that stands out is that one characteristic of the human animal is the extraordinary importance the conflict between the forces within in the individual. Now my next step is to apply these two ideas in a way that will help us understand a new concept which may be valuable. The concept of defend SEO but I think it
goes this way. Almost every human being as far as we know early in his life develops wishes or drives or impulses which you broke strong hunger drives in him. He has impulses to hurt to dominate to control or to get rid of others and to win. If these impulses are directed toward towards one he loves or likes or on whom he wants to depend on. He feels guilty often then he develops counter impulses to avoid hurting and to be tender or gentle or helpful or to feel weak or submissive the opposite of the aggressive and dominant. Now these are defenses and they may or may not be accurate. Oh that's not the point to consider there. Now for there almost every boy seems to have strong impulses to compete with his father. Almost every girl seems to have similar impulses to compete with their mother. But such drives toward competition
can produce guilt and can evoke strong counter forces such as the wish to avoid competition and the urges to obey implicitly or completely to take a passive role arc to feel second Bester said messy. These attitudes there may produce feelings of shame and feelings of inferiority. Now there are many other examples of important forces and counter forces within one person and the force of the counter force of wish an opposing wish. Usually they are engaged in an ongoing struggle with the balance changing and shifting. But if the ongoing struggle becomes fairly intense the individual often feels concerned in going he going to shame these feelings in turn lead to anxiety and worry with repeated swings or turns of the we all of his anxiety and tension may mount in this process of conflict between parts of himself and in his state of
tension and anxiety. Each human being yearns for some alleviation some resolution of the conflict within himself and almost everyone automatically or spontaneously develop some solutions for each of these conflicts. The solutions give him some feeling of relief of tension and permit him to move ahead in his life. But the solutions vary in their quantity and effectiveness. In the later lectures I would give additional material about defensive ethics to be sure that this concept is clear and then use it as a springboard for the discussion of creative out there. Yes but there is something more important to say in this transition to the following not as I think back as I thought back in the writing over the material of the first lecture. The patterns of other animals in relation to and in conflict with the outside world. I could see that some of you might respond with the
feeling that the processes and forces confronting each animal are overwhelming or irresistible. And now as I think back over this second lecture the patterns of man his conflicts with forces outside him and the conflicts between the forces inside him. I can see again that you might respond with some feeling but the processes and forces are overwhelming or irresistible. It was that same feeling that led Freud to use the word. If I get capital I did it for one group of forces within man for what seemed to be the impersonal forces by which we are living such as drives toward exhibitionism toward hostility toward hurting others etc.. And so I want to emphasize now to have this second lecture and with something that is well enough balanced that Freud recognized the other
sets of forces and name them. One is the super ego the set of forces which includes the functions the inner controls like modesty the opponents of some of the forces of the air. And then there is a third group of forces which Freud called the ego. This is the executive the coordinating the gap year of the integrating the compromising set of forces in the personality which works for the resolution of conflicts between the IRDA and the super ego and for the resolution of conflicts between the individual and the external world. The functions of the ego are all important in providing a working base for the person's self development for the process of growth and of therapy and for us and a discussion of the ego will provide an opportunity for us to consider the question of whether psychiatric experience has anything to contribute to a discussion of such issues
as the freedom of the well and of psychological determinism. And to startle you perhaps and to stir your involvement in thinking along with me I can say that we will consider the question of whether the concept of freedom of freewill and the concept of determinism are bipolar are either or are concepts like some of the contrasts that we mention in the first part of this hour. And so we will explore the possibility that the third type of thinking dynamic going to realistic suggest not a final answer of course. That would be presumptuous to a degree that I would not want to do even if the intellect are dynamic and realistic. I'd suggest some third alternative has some workable and practical alternative to the polarized concepts of freedom of the way all in and of determinacy. You have just heard Dr. Murray Slovene professor and director of the Department of
Psychiatry at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine. Speaking on defense of ethics one of a series of lectures on psychiatry and ethics these lectures were given at the Frank L. Weil Institute at the Hebrew Union College Jewish Institute of Religion in Cincinnati. The topic of Dr. Levine's next lecture is the therapeutic alliance. These programs were produced at the University of Cincinnati station WGA U.S. and are distributed by the national educational radio network. A.
Frank Weil lectures
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#2 (Reel 2)
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