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They fought alone. We have a night like. This. Yes what is it. I have a message for you from the holy office in Rome. Why don't. You. Father before we become my daughter. Yeah. Yes really. You know my. Professor of Mathematics. You are here to appeal for examination and.
Charges of. Charges. Is there anything more my child. If you fail to comply immediately. By order of the examiner general I must go to Rome but you get sick I must my doctor there is no other way. No one can refuse a summons from the. The National Association of educational broadcasters and the University of Michigan
present alone stories of men who fought for our freedom in the year 64 were born was the writer Shakespeare the other whose story we tell for centuries ago he endured suffering and hardship to make known his discoveries the universe is the story of Galileo for the group. Have they come for me so soon. But you had no time to get ready. We must let them and my doctor answer the door. I must be your choice I recognize you. We have a visitor. An unexpected one. Let me name.
Him but I know that voice. Can this be Castelli. BENEDETTA talk to staff. So you remember me after all these years. What the professor forgot his best visit on a night like this planet. We thought you have just come from Rome with news of greatest urgency. Professor you were to be brought before the Inquisition. Your neurosis late late. A messenger from the Holy Office has already been mediately will be thrown into irons and be taken by food is the messenger here now. He left but I presume he will return when you have time. Time to escape. No one escapes the Inquisition. One place in Italy is safe even from the Inquisition. You will be safe there at the University professor. But the Inquisition reaches everywhere not the grand one man in Italy brave enough to defy them. I was happy. That was freedom that to seek and I to my courage is outside professor got away and we must leave immediately. I'll go to covering to protect you from the storm. Wait my daughter. Yes.
Why am I stifling. What wrong have I done. If you will permit me Professor this matter can be discussed on our way. But if we delay longer no it will be too late. You cannot run away Benedetta until I thought this matter through. What does my crime. I have written a book that raises some questions about the on of us. I have challenged the engine died Dia's and false concepts. That is all I have done. You are accused of dealing with ideas that are forbidden by the church. Nothing I have written concerns that chach. I have questioned no religious dogmas. But my telescope has revealed the strength of my belief in the greatness of God. It is your own real universe whose glory and majesty we have never known before. Father remember dear Donald Bruno. I remember him well. But that was 30 years ago. They don't burn men at the stake anymore. Times of change and we depend on that Professor now that those you have offended are in power and I have offended too many.
But when I come face to face with stupidity I have difficulty restraining myself. Your life's in danger father. You must escape to Padua. No no no. What is that stake is my right to say what is true. That is of greater moment in life or comfort. I will go to Rome and you can do nothing in Rome no I cannot believe that the Inquisition will deny me the right to speak the truth I beg of you reconsider Trey's father. My mind is made. With you but I doubt it. Because you have come here you may be in some danger perhaps no professor. If you are going to Rome I shall go with you. You wish to see me Your Eminence. Say it is this Galileo matter.
We have held him now for three months. He is an old man and half blind. We must bring him to trial or release him that he be brought to trial. We brought him here on charges of heresy. I do not see how those charges can be supported. But he has written a book that argues that the earth revolves around the sun. Go Layo presents it only as a hypothesis not as a proven fact. Furthermore that book was passed by the censor and printed under the church authority. This Galileo's a crafty scheming fellow but he is NOT call of heresy. He prates continually about freedom of thought and the right to object. Yes but he transgress is no dogma. He dares to question principles that have been accepted since the time of the start of. If you can cite me a single instance wherein he has opposed the teaching of the church I can I can name you two good.
It was many years ago I happened to be visiting Galileo in his laboratory just after the invention of his infernal telescope. I had just written a book. It's not long before Galileo in his usual insulting way was questioning what I had written. I can remember is it. Yes. I have read your book with great interest your Excellency. On the whole I find it commendable but there are a few points on which I might question I should expect out of you. For example you state here that the Babylonians cooked eggs by whirling them through the air in a sling known since ancient times have you ever world any explanation no time for foolishness. But it occurred to me that you might have tested your statement before putting it in a book is not necessary to test the truth. Now unlike you I did and and I discovered that
rather than creating heat whirling through the air or made a cool egg even cooler pasta I hasten to add your Excellency that I am not a Babylonian but we must conclude that if an egg did indeed cook one world it was not the whirling that accomplish that result. But the fact that the world was a Babylon you are talking jibberish perhaps. And since Babylonians no longer exist we cannot establish the final proof. But there is another statement in your book to which we can put a test most immediate and complete. What is that you maintain with many others that the moon is a smooth and polished fear. Have you ever looked at the moon many times. Ah but the eye on a to do is to weaken organ to investigate the sky. I have devised an instrument that brings the heavens nearer heard of your telescope that is now focused on the moon. I suggest that you gaze into that telescope and decide for yourself whether the surface of the moon is as smooth and polished as you think I will not look. See that the moon is as full of mountains and valleys as this earth on which we live.
See for yourself your text. Never. But why I refuse to endanger my faith by deliberately seeing something in whose existence I can not believe you will not measure the truth of your statement by a simple observation under no circumstance. Then I suggest your excellence see that your energies are being misplaced. What do you mean. You might do better to restrict yourself to your true function teaching us how to go to heaven rather than trying to tell us how the heaven goes. Thus did Galileo ridicule me and smiling. You're not the first to have suffered from Galileo's caustic. That is unimportant what matters is that he questions ancient doctrines. This book he has written continues his assault on Christian truth. He has been full of error. But we cannot support a charge of
heresy. That is your final decision unless you can offer further evidence than your eminence. I must bring up a problem I had hoped to avoid. What is that. Galileo has not been content with ridiculing me. He has even dared to ridicule the Holy Father himself. How is that grassy you are familiar with the theory of His Holiness regarding the nature of the tide. Of course Galileo has included that theory in his book but that is in Galileo's favor not against it it might seem so. But see how sly and vicious he has been. What do you mean he has put the theory into the mouth of a character name Simplicio. What then. Throughout the book Simplicio is a character of scorn and reproach and it is he who utters the holy father's teaching yes interpreted freely the name supposed can mean only one thing. What is that it means simpleton Your Eminence. Yes of course. So now you see what Galileo has done.
He has labelled the Holy Father a simpleton but so indirectly that it would be difficult to prove. Nevertheless nevertheless others have noted it. Are you certain. Yes your eminence. This is serious. I feel that if we fail to act on this knowledge we ourselves might be in danger. But what can we do. Silence Galileo. We cannot charge him with ridiculing the Holy Father why not. That would proclaim this ridicule to the whole world. Then I have another plan your eminence. What is it in the U.S. 16 16 Galileo signed an agreement that he would need to hold or defend the Copernican that the earth revolves around the sun. His book has not defended that theory. He has merely explained it. That is where we can trap him. I have the agreement he signed right here. Note that the words are widely spaced. I see that we can insert the word
teach between the words hold and defend what will that accomplish. Galileo will have appeared to sign an agreement forbidding him to teach the Copernican theory. He teaches that merely by writing about it he has clearly violated his agreement violates it only because you have to raise up this man free he may commit other acts that will put us all in power. I do not like this method of dealing with him. Still I see no other way to proceed. Yes you may proceed to draw up the indictment and bring Galileo to trial. Bring in the prison.
Professor you have been tried and found guilty but it's not permitted. Well you know them the charge for which I condemn the charges that you knowingly and willfully did violate your agreement of 16 16 to hold teach or defend the Copernican. No no that is not true. What is not true Professor. The document I signed referred only by you have always been one to argue for testing facts by the evidence of one's eyes. Here is the document. Do you deny this is your signature. Yeah. Yes that's my signature and here is the ruling in it for all bidden you to hold teach or defend the Copernican theory. Do you deny its existence. I have no memory of the word teach. I'm pointing to the wood. Do you deny it is that it is there.
And you did violate the agreement. If that was the restriction I did then you confess your crime. I pronounced the sentence and have done it. There is yet another matter. What is it in your book Dialogues on the two principal systems of the word. You have explained the theory of Copernicus that the earth revolves around the sun. I advanced that theory as a hypothesis only not just if I have it unless it has been believed. Before sentences pronounced you must disavow that totally false and Warley contrary to the sacred and divine scripture that you must. Heretical doctrine must be utterly rooted out and destroyed. Your book is now prohibited to all Christians but those who have already been exposed to its evil influence must know that you have about it. This is not a matter that concerns morals it is a question for
scientists to do so I have evidence John with your quite Billings and denounce this false doctrine. God gave me eyes to see and I mind Tori's nice to deny that evidence would be to betray myself for all of their persuasions and say my twist. Even the right cannot force me to deny reason you will be given to reconsider. Perhaps you will think better. Take him away.
Father How are you. I thought you were home. Yes father. Yes it is great. He is a prisoner a prisoner like me. It is not. Tell me my child are you free to come and go as you wish. It is of no moment. I have a prisoner. I am
comfortable. Well father if I had only fled to you if you want me to who we are to go free. Is that what Cross they told you to say. He promised us freedom if you haven't before. If only you would confess your error. My daughter. I came to Rome to stand and speak the truth. Now Grassley wants me to kneel and I faltered. I cannot do it. You must not refuse. If I were to speak in defiance of my reason I would have no dignity or honor. Well weep not my child. My life is almost done and I cannot for the sake of life lose my reasons for living. You are not disavow you theory. I cannot my daughter. Still loves her and it is your grass hay. He was trying. I hope he had better news. You were clever but not even Maria can persuade me to deny my life so we shall see.
Gods take the professor's daughter to the next room. What are you going to do with discover that in a moment no. Oh take me and that would be useless professor. You told us yesterday you did not fear the rock. No no you cannot let me be with but I don't see too difficult for you professor. We must be gentle with and stop not only one man has the power to prevent what is about to happen. Who do you mean you professor. I can but you can so simply merely denounce your theories as false. I will not do it. Stop that. Stop where you denounce your theory yes yes and you know where. You have been foolish. But now your being there why to morrow you are all in public.
Bring in the prison. You are ready to confess your sins to Neil and Neil. I have printed your confession of error in letters large enough for you to read. Read it and I do here by force. I rise. It is the creed that henceforth you shall never set pen to paper or write in any way whatsoever. Thus in the future you will be prevented from committing heretical transgression before the grave. You have committed
already. You are now sentenced to perpetual imprisonment. For my confession I thought I might not meet that trance question such as yours should go unpunished. But we are not without charity because you have recanted. Your imprisonment shall be served in your own home. For the rest of your days. Professor Galileo you have a visitor that is most unusual. Who is it. He says his name is Benedict ocus telling Stephanie.
After all he's yes sent to me. You may come in. It is good to see man and yet ah thank God they've released you at last. How long were you in that dungeon of years Professor. Five years of your life. But the brave way you stood out I was proud of what a contrast to my miserable perform. You had no other choice but to deny that the earth moved out of the sun. When I had spoken that denial I wanted to leap to my feet and shout for all the world to yeah. But nonetheless it moves right now not my daughter. How is your daughter. She is dead and that the ordeal or drive home was too much for most grieved to hear this news. I am alone. But I've kept this at your experiments. At least I was not denied that
privilege. They knew that it was useless to try to keep Professor Galileo from experimenting. As it is to keep the earth from revolving around the sun. The Inquisition would not enjoy your joke going to detonate one of your experiments have you made new discoveries. I have come to some conclusions about motion and cohesion and the speed of falling objects. Are you writing your results down. Are you leaving a record of your discoveries. You know that I was forbidden to set pen to paper. I thought only that you might report your experiment. No no don't say that I am going to hold my hand and I've suffered a lot of that. I will not write again. There was a curse on the heavens before me and was forced to deny what do you know to be true. I have to say
somewhere somehow the truth will be not if ever is taught to the young. What you meet in the universities are teaching falsehoods again. They are indoctrinating students with the mistaken theories of the ancients. How do you know this. I did not come here straight from prison. So you visited the university. Yes they were informed of my degradation. What are they saying about Galileo. Little rather they are waiting for Galileo to speak to speak of one of the world of the heaven. But they know that they need some sign some way of knowing that what you said in Rome was forced from you. They must realize that the methods of the Inquisition while knowing it is known only that Galileo denounced the theory that the earth revolves around the sun. But that's the only use true who can be sure a student sees the sun move across the heavens from dawn to dusk seeing that is
it so difficult for him to believe that the sun revolves around a fixed earth. Especially when his professors tell him that the great Galileo has sworn his support to this. Oh no that is a false and disproved hypothesis it must not be talk it is being taught today an ADAT. Why did you come to see me. I'm sorry Professor I have devoted my life to seeking truth and teaching. Now I stand by while that through this perverted because I am afraid to act. You have shown me what I am the miserable coward I wasn't oh you were never that professor that I was and I still am. What have I to lose now. Only my life my daughter is dead they cannot get at me through her no one can blame you for what happened. But now you have no excuse. Do you see
Benedetta that is nothing to stop me no nothing. Yes yes I will write again you will professor. I must. This teaching of fall short of the universities it must cease you will write of your discoveries Yast of my discoveries. No I cannot write what is a professor cannot it is impossible. I have decided to be brave too. I don't understand. Didn't you notice when you came to notice what my eyes they saw a little before but now they seem nothing. I have blind that I will be your eyes professor and your pen. If you were actually caught helping me to write what I do not fear the Inquisition idea of going to test your strength builds a weak old man what you were willing to risk your life for a book
that's not even your own. When can we begin. I've had this book in my mind for a long time even though I was afraid to put it on paper. I have waited too long already. I just began now but that's it. As a professor Claude Egerton Throop associate professor of history at the University of Michigan concludes the story of Galileo Galileo believed that scientific principles should be established by the application of reason to objective observation. He was an apostle of the scientific method in that he insisted that quantitative measurement of observed phenomena must compel agreement. He therefore rejected the power of authority to settle questions of material fact among his scientific contributions was his book The Dialogue Concerning the two principle systems of the world that convince most scholars of the
truth of the Copernican hypothesis and his book The dialogue concerning Two New Sciences that founded the study of motion. He developed the telescope and made many other contributions in the field of astronomy and dynamics despite being persecuted for writing the first of his dialogues. He was willing to risk further persecution to bring his discoveries to the world. This has been the story of Galileo but her for the truth. The University of Michigan the series they've done alone. Today's program featured Todd Jones as Galileo and dead hospital as grassy others in the castle where Sherry Aronson Stephen Nelson and Dick Dino music was arranged and played by an evil boss. Today's script was written by Edgar Well us and directed by Edward stash of editorial supervision by Professor Glaude and egrets and William Butler Jr.. Your
They fought alone
Producing Organization
University of Michigan
Contributing Organization
University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
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Episode Description
Galileo fights for the freedom to announce new scientific theories.
Other Description
Drama series on pioneering individuals produced at University of Michigan
Broadcast Date
Galilei, Galileo, 1564-1642--Adversaries.
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Actor: Heisel, Ted
Actor: Jones, Todd
Performer: Barton, Robert
Producing Organization: University of Michigan
Speaker: Eggertsen, Claude A. (Claude Andrew), 1909-
Speaker: Throop, Homer
Writer: Willis, Edgar E.
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 54-3-9 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:29:37
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Chicago: “They fought alone; Galileo,” 1954-01-01, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed August 9, 2022,
MLA: “They fought alone; Galileo.” 1954-01-01. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. August 9, 2022. <>.
APA: They fought alone; Galileo. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from