Revolution: 20th century phenomenon; #13 (Reel 2)
No the offical revolution who should have constituted on removing human misery. I just think find it imperative to concentrate on the removal of leaders who promise democracy but are practicing tyrannies. This confuses the casual observer and so you ask questions like and these are the people of Africa dispersal of tropical Africa feel to me the challenges of political independence. If the who are good movement of continental liberation not ending fiasco must Africa now be written off as a broken back continent made into the conditions of lucky America since years ago. Africa is inherently incapable of governing themselves not applaud these statements. Should not and I'm not in the kitchens of despair. In fact what you see happening in Africa is part of the process of selecting a society on his course the sexting of democratic institutions in our own country. The revolution took place
100 years ago in me this year the chairman of the National Liberation Council the government made what began e as end of the world. Momentous statement vindicated in the assertion that in gun the revolution was intended to help set up liberal and democratic institutions. Gemma said I am happy to inform the nation of the council decision on the programme for the country's return to civilian rule. The national liberation Council has decided that there will be two separate elections need into the Tennessee Williams one to a constituent assembly and the other to the National Assembly constituent assembly will discuss and they'd be under the text of a constitution for gun using as a basis. The draft constitution approved the paired by the constitutional committee. After the constant Assembly has concluded its work the new governor constitution will be promulgated by the National Liberation Council the country with them
ready to embark on the second stage of its progress to Australia rule the lifting of the ban on political activity. This will enable political parties to be formed to perfect elections in national assembly. The success of these election will depend mainly on the speed and thought honesty with which the electoral commission who is organizing the elections will carry out his assignment. One of the most essential prerequisites is a compile ation of fresh electoral registers without which no one can ensure fair elections the national liberation Council believe that even Electoral Commission has allowed sufficient time to publish the regulations for the conduct of the elections and for the registration of voters. The compile ation of frankly look try to register. It took about four months. It is contemplated that all of these processes will be completed in time for elections to be to the constitution assembly to be conducted at
the end of May 1969 national liberation council hopes for the Coens joint assembly will be able to conclude its work within three months thus making it possible for a civilian government to be installed and done what needed them there to support him back in 1969. How does that or this. It must be emphasized that the main thrust of the Afrikaner would like to know is to conquer the enemies of war. Of of one to literacy and disease the quotation from the memorandum to Vice President Humphrey gives an idea of the magnitude of the target for us. Some states believe that the best course of action is to set up a socialist state where the means of production are owned by the state. Some call it a socialism. African socialism presumably because they are more committed to a welfare state rather than to support a public
ownership of industry or not. All on our credit direction. A private enterprise. This is once again advocated to prevent unscrupulous persons taking advantage of their privileged position to explore the rest of society. This form of direct governmental control of all industry has turned out to be unhealthy for some developing countries because there has been the great temptation of appointing incompetent men in too many give up positions in industry merely because they are good but in many of these industries fill in the poor taxpayer and have to settle for bad debts. It must also be added that since none of our governments have either the capital of managerial ability to run all the enterprises necessary to give the country the Mrs. Gillett of growth private enterprise both domestic and foreign it's necessary for Africa
Development. Africa cannot develop as fast as she desired by tending her back on private enterprise. The lessons of the past few years have shown those countries would accept a private enterprise have achieved a higher rate of growth than those who directed it. In my view a mixed economy where both government and private and depressed cooperate to build the nation is the one most suited to African development and history. Now how can what is Africa do for development. Unfortunately for Africa many of these countries depend excessively on one crop for their main export and for example in 19 countries depend on coffee for over a quarter of the total export earnings were only obtained 77 percent of export earnings from coffee. Uganda to seven percent run the food to 6 percent Ethiopia two to six percent and we're now 49 percent and as
I recall 40 percent cocoa use Ghana 60 percent of her put export revenue 40 percent for the common room and 55 percent for total. The sad fact is that the prices in these commodities which are always subject to sharp fluctuations have been declining steadily over the past decade though oppressed abilities if an agreement had been reached for coffee. It has not been possible to arrive at a similar agreement for Cocoa. Furthermore the demand for some of these products is threatened by the increasing use of them that it was sampled in Rabaa wood fibers and in some minerals other crops find your way into the markets of the developed world with increasing difficulty because the rich nations some of them produce a similar crop protect the home crops with high tariffs and this goes on with respect to beach sugar cotton Faxon edible oil we use therefore see the
elimination of tariffs in quota restrictions on our products. We seek a fairer share of the markets of the developed world for our products and we seek better stable and predictable prizes for our primary production. May I lust or the need for community agreement with a pit of coke with my country's interested. To us in Ghana the need for a commodity agreement for extremely important prices for example dropped from the past all high levels of about 1600 dollars but time until the market averaged about three hundred and eighty dollars per tonne in 1965. The absolute in the guaranteed minimum prices for cocoa creates problems in budgetary forecast and developing development planning for guns. Nothing can be done with any degree of certainty when the present fluctuates too dangerous for the last year. It seemed the press had
gone up. Nobody can say how long this president would maintain a sudden drop of the world presence would force Garner to reappraise head development programs and to consider the budget implications of such a situation. If on the other hand Garner was assured of a minimum present within the next five or 10 years he would be in a position to make a fairly accurate assessment of his future development programme. It cannot be argued that the proposals for the developing world are smitten with his but they would head the consumer or undermine the business of the poor who manufacture in the developed world. In fact even though today quicker prices are around 25 to 29 cents a pound they have not in any way either had the consumer or the business man. Therefore we propose that prizes should not be allowed to fall below 20 cents a pound not be reasonable. I may add that Google is produced in my
country and in many of the others not by wealthy plantation owners. Cocoa is produced by a large number of peasant farmers. When Talley owned your small farms or who had a fair equity in what ever is produced on the farm. Google revenues therefore reached the farmer directly and the benefit of predictable prices are not withheld from him. This can be proved by the fate of the cocoa farmers in Ghana. When world prices very very low many of them abundant their farms because it was an economical to do the cooking. It drifted into the pound and increased the problems of the cities which were already overburdened with other problems. We cannot therefore claim to be concerned with the fate of the developing countries and at the same time deny them the means of survival. Furthermore we must not allow but an economic Sirius or the free play of the market
to blind us from the need to accept proposals intended to meet the problems of the 21st century where rich nations are committed to helping poorer ones. The mutual advantage of all parties in the world of assistance to get to Solomon. It is difficult to argue the case for the free play of supply and demand when fluctuations in volume and price have an overwhelming impact on the economy and indeed the social and political structure of the developing countries. The coffee agreement or whatever may be his drawbacks assuring the desirability of reaching agreements in premier products which are subject to wide and unpredictable from tuition for Africa. The coffee agreement has meant an increase of from three hundred and sixty million dollars in 1962 the year before the agreement to almost 700 million dollars in 1966. We believe the same benefits
can accrue from a sound mutually beneficial agreement. I do not speak with ingratitude when I ask that United States aid in Africa should be substantially increased for fiscal 1969. The government is asking for about a hundred and eighty million in New York I.D. money for Africa in the last year. It was expected that about a hundred and forty million would be spent in 1967. It totals around a hundred and eighty four million. All other categories of economic assistance together export import bank credit for peace etc. the total aid to Africa has been in the region of three hundred and fifty to four hundred million dollars a year. About 30 percent of the West in West Africa. And yet it has been estimated that a meaningful infusion of capital into Africa should be at the root of between three and four
billion dollars a year. It did for this reason that I think it's section of the Economic Commission for Africa. I co-sponsored a resolution requesting the developed world to set up a special fund for African development a sort of Marshall Plan for Africa. It was set up under the auspices of the Economic Commission for Africa. Let me see right away that we are not afraid that we will be peddling and we are in the planning. By participating in such a scheme we have our own traditions our own values and I want aspiration and the words of dawn Kennedy American assistance from time to time can help us preserve our independence and our growth. But it cannot remake us to make an image. We don't expect it to and we do not expect you to either but we mistrust on the establishment of this fund because domestic servants alone and even investment cannot prove more of the desirable rate of growth we
see incomes are too low. There were some increases can be achieved by the west Africa policy. Improved tax collection methods intact the control of capital flow. This last measure is self-defeating as we have one gun. But if we turn back to the Marshall Plan for the three year period of the Marshall Plan the United States transferred nearly 14 billion dollars to rebuild Europe 80 percent of the some in outright grants. The Gross National Product the United States then it was about it said what it is today. Even European countries who have benefited from your Marshall Plan to join up with you. We are convinced that together you would be able to make available the resources for the special fund for Africa. We don't plan to use this aid in three basics for use in improving the continent's infrastructure without which no development is possible in the expansion of our
agriculture through diversification and increase food production and in the development of our human resources which is one of our greatest drawbacks. These are prosperous the world should be spending money. Use our projects and we do work who has plenty of money that while the rich worked on for us about 10 billion to the poor world yearly It is spending over a hundred and fifty billion every year just to kill me. Other human being on the production of weapons with the same intentions. We often distrust other disputes and often the hostility around foreign aid. Now that the bulk of it is going to the developing world I like the Marshall Plan. Forty My percent of our present day US aid is granted in the form of loans. Wouldn't a PCP in countries pay back a greater percentage if not all the laws granted by this country. If you have to buy U.S. equipment or services that's creating income and employment for U.S. citizens.
The developing world. When your incomes increase will be able to buy more goods from this country. Still creating further jobs for U.S. citizens and it should be borne in mind that even today the develop you were imports about 9 billion dollars of goods from this country. There's no doubt that as the economies improve your African countries will be able to buy more goods from this country. It is therefore the United States interest to promote the further growth of these African countries. As has been emphasized often moves of the productive as source of the United States. I in private hands and it is appropriate for me to tend to the business community and indicate how Africa is inviting them to vest in Africa in a partnership for progress there was a time when it was said that it was not easy to find someone to work on soup projects in the African world worth financing. There was a time
when many people mistakenly felt that private investment were unwelcome in Africa. There was a time when people front as accusers for not wanting to invest in Africa. I say that there were too many noncommercial risks. There was a time when people felt that the African economic entities were too small to make investment in most of them attractive given the conditions of present economic nationalism. And then I people would refer to political instability in Africa as an excuse for inaction. But now other years conditions have changed or the fears have been proved and duly executive. Africa has shown in several ways what incentives it is ready to give and not act like private enterprise Africa. Recently many African countries paid for a special supplement of the New York Times to tell the world what investment opportunities exist in Africa what Africa is prepared to do. Truck driving west Africa wishes to extend a hand of friendship to
all. But it is not in despair. We in Africa are not in despair because we have great potential work. Africa is worth and is great in gym and industrial Gaiman Cobalt gold and the money magnet chromite would rock up as best as a teen I own all books I own. Africa possesses some of the worst Britains nor reserves of you're in your own part is no less important. Africa had the greatest What up power potential in the world. The Congo has twenty one point six percent of the West total. Even though only 1 percent of it has been harnessed gun has in the world a river power plant for generators producing 500 and 12000 kilowatts of electricity sufficient to supply Garner who and the home Africa school reserves are estimated at 4 and 5 billion tons in the oil fields of Libya Nigeria Nigeria these are the real continents when you
know what we are asking the well to do it to help us explore this world we need a little push show that we can ourselves drive down the road. We do not intend to unload our problems on the world. If the developed world does not feel inclined or declined to accept our invitation to develop this work for our mutual advantage then one of them must use the usual Go program. I don't believe in the manger policy when others accept an invitation and must not grumble if it finds that in the next decade you do not count at all in Africa. But Africa herself while recognizing the important place of external assistance in her development won't learn sure that she burst up the political and economic units which will make more of the industrialisation possible and efficient as well as you do see a dependence on the outside world. One feature of Africa a few years ago was a diversion. It's an impressive purchasing
power. The Russians could lead to international strife and instability and unimpressive purchasing power and he would probably win the group. Therefore the leaders of Africa have sort of always a means to a couple of threats of international strife and instability and lack of adequate purchasing power. You mean 1963 in Addis Ababa Ethiopia. Yeah African heads of state said of the Organization of African Unity as an instrument to foster and promote brotherly feelings among African states and that's and economic integration among states very necessary for their survival. Then preamble I put out a graph five of the only who checked the African heads of state indicated that they were inspired by a common determination to promote understanding among people and cooperation among the states. In response to the aspirations of the peoples for brotherhood and solidarity and in larger unity
transcending ethnic and national differences. This organization practice I have to do three things to promote the unity and sort of back to African States to coordinate and intensify cooperation or freeze of activity to achieve a better life for the peoples of Africa and to ensure that all Africa will either remain free or will be freed from the New York Logan is issue a set of five commissions to look into the problems of Africa's material progress its greatest success has been of the most vital field of promoting unity and understanding among African states. It does have to continue a number of border disputes very unwelcome border disputes. Ethiopia Somalia border dispute and it has helped to feed a lot of masonry and through on one of its members the Sudan Chad border dispute has been settled. But above all the organisation has made the African conscious of the common heritage
and had brought them to think and work together. Is greater disappointment has been in the field of equalization where it has been unable either to have the fight in nationalist massively or have them to accompany internal fuse or mount the missiles to military activity itself. Again the colonial powers in Angola was in big and particular set and reduced it house. It has how to achieve some measure of success in asset in South Africa as an international meeting. As long as that country continues to practice a pathway by itself it has not achieved much in the Will promoting economic integration among African states. But there is another. Another organization's Economic Commission for Africa which I do working seriously in the field of African economic integration and what you really takes over the work of promoting economic integration in Africa. Then you the Economic Commission for Africa a United Nations body has more
resources has more staff and experience than the OAU and has been in the business of promoting economic integration in Africa since 1959. The economic commission's first order of business was to establish a general inventor of resources only governments could build methodical development plans to build as effectively it established institutes of statistics in red backed and Premier centers in Tanzania and Ghana Ethiopian to come out on the commission led to establish industrialization program Africa's Dimba Raba cotton cocoa coffee. I own aluminum and cement the commission is becoming a major source of information. What do NOT countries ask for the African Government themselves to how this is meant I said What do you develop economies on a piecemeal basis. What about or we vote because we want to tell
the world that we are at war with our own culture determined and ready to make a contribution to worsen the lazies For centuries we had been encouraged to look down on things African. We now see that we have been deceived and led the poor dumb must you know ask the world to give me back my black boss to please the simpler games of my instinct to rest in the shadow of the loss to the cover my courage my boldness to feel myself my self a new self for the one I was yesterday. Yesterday with all these complications when the uprooting came we love Africa and we are determined to uphold a name that is why we vote we vote. I know a world and wonderful world no other land not in the East not in the West attacks me so this is called Africa.
Thank you thank you. Following the presentation by is excellent see Evan easer Moses Depor Professor Minos generalise director of the Institute opened the Institute on world affairs to questions from the floor government of Kenya and Tanzania. Impose and control and private enterprise type of control that you feel would be necessary in your country so as to make sure that private enterprises operate successfully in the interests of you know we have we have some guidelines too. We believe that investment up to setting a limit about five hundred thousand dollars was a really good example of indigenous people who see we are living in the world where there was a time when somebody was you must know someone who was a 7 and whether its many kids 10 12 15 years ago and then put it within
the living memory of the minimal people therefore that is just sitting. Cautiousness about opening the flood gates was when the interest of the country and you thought of the man who is coming to invest as much and his money the country for we have setting limitations. No we are not encouraging non-gun going to retail business because this is something we order people can do and there must also be and have to depend upon themselves and there we are also asking those who. Want to invest in the country beyond this figure to go into partnership with the local people because this is also very good. You know I knew that in this country there is considerable European investment all considerable American investment in Europe. This is to have all of us to identify ourselves with the country and also to have bridge down some of these things which had been created on as a result of the process.
And then we also Reserve setting fields for the government because he's had with his death all the time for example in most of the content is all utilities are owned by the government. My country what kind of just a telephone and live as one of your own by the government. These ones will not be open to private enterprise because even on the city but as an inspector of these there's considerable room for private enterprise and within the last few weeks I've been working about five or six American companies who are good to go and you find a condition to do what you said a company who welcomes a partnership but it now is a partnership and which we don't want to pick up the whole company because this is made public in reaction to it may not even be good for you. If you've been part of your capital we want to find part of the capital and together work for the good of us all. To conclude the question and answer session Mr. Devereaux was asked
as Gunn experienced a mass migration to the cities and if so what is being done to solve the problems that are created by such circumstances. This is something we goof who all history. I used to study the history of Judea Comicon and one of us I guess we used then where the good the pound. And they need to be killed. LB some prefer that I do that in the sense that they're not the kind of became full stop. But these would not be who and why do people love these down and went to other towns. So and this is the problem of all human beings. There's a host Don drift through the town and we have we don't just in to where the government is facing this is trusting an industrial I thought you said we could set up outside the metropolitan area that in big city areas not get second tax concessions. This is destined to go back. And also we are setting up schools and hospitals all the facilities and industries
and rural industries back in the villages who are tempted drift of people into the town. But this process always continued to go with goods on all over the world and you have to take positive images to stop it it is not a gun problem it seems like the USA problem is excellent see Ebeneezer Moses Deborah speaking at the 26 annual Institute on world affairs is topic in keeping with his institute central theme of revolution was the African why he is in revolt. This program was produced by the Department of Telecommunications and film at San Diego State College in California. This is the national educational radio network.
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- #13 (Reel 2)
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- APA: Revolution: 20th century phenomenon; #13 (Reel 2). Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-9w09182n